atgd TGD and p-Adic Numbers

I am grateful for comments, criticism and suggestions. The following list gives table of contents for "TGD: Physics as Infinite-Dimensional Geometry". If You want, say chapter "Configuration Space Spinor Structure", as a .pdf file, just click on "Configuration Space Spinor Structure" in the table of contents. To help the reader to get overview I have included also a list of links to the chapters in the table of contents as well as corresponding abstracts.


|| Was von Neumann Right After All||Evolution of Ideas about Hyper-finite Factors in TGD||Does TGD Predict Spectrum of Planck Constants?||Mathematical Speculations about the Hierarchy of Planck constants||Negentropy Maximization Principle||Quantum criticality and dark matter||About the Nottale's formula for hgr and the possibility that Planck length lP and CP2 length R are identical giving G= R2/ℏeff ||TGD View about Quasars||Holography and Quantum Error Correcting Codes: TGD View||

|| Recent status of lepto-hadron hypothesis||TGD and Nuclear Physics||Nuclear String Hypothesis ||Cold Fusion Again||Dark Nuclear Physics and Condensed Matter ||Dark Forces and Living Matter ||Super-Conductivity in Many-Sheeted Space-Time||Quantum Hall effect and Hierarchy of Planck Constants
||A Possible Explanation of Shnoll Effect||
||Appendix A: Quantum Groups and Related Structures||Appendix B||


  1. Basic ideas of TGD

    1. TGD as a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation

    2. TGD as a generalization of the hadronic string model

    3. Fusion of the two approaches via a generalization of the space-time concept

  2. The five threads in the development of quantum TGD

    1. Quantum TGD as configuration space spinor geometry

    2. p-Adic TGD

    3. TGD as a generalization of physics to a theory of consciousness

    4. TGD as a generalized number theory

    5. Dynamical quantized Planck constant and dark matter hierarchy

  3. Bird's eye of view about the contents of the book

  4. The contents of the book

    1. Part I: Hyper-finite factors and hierarchy of Planck constants

    2. Part II: p-Adic length scale hypothesis and dark matter hierarchy



    Was von Neumann Right After All?

  1. Introduction

    1. Philosophical ideas behind von Neumann algebras

    2. Von Neumann, Dirac, and Feynman

  2. Von Neumann algebras

    1. Basic definitions

    2. Basic classification of von Neumann algebras

    3. Non-commutative measure theory and non-commutative topologies and geometries

    4. Modular automorphisms

    5. Joint modular structure and sectors

    6. Basic facts about hyper-finite factors of type III

  3. Braid group, von Neumann algebras, quantum TGD, and formation of bound states

    1. Factors of von Neumann algebras

    2. Sub-factors

    3. II1 factors and the spinor structure of WCW

    4. About possible space-time correlates for the hierarchy of II1 sub-factors

    5. Could binding energy spectra reflect the hierarchy of effective tensor factor dimensions?

    6. Four-color problem,II1 factors, and anyons

  4. Inclusions of II1 and III1 factors

    1. Basic findings about inclusions

    2. The fundamental construction and Temperley-Lieb algebras

    3. Connection with Dynkin diagrams

    4. Indices for the inclusions of type III1 factors

  5. TGD and hyper-finite factors of type II1: ideas and questions

    1. What kind of hyper-finite factors one can imagine in TGD?

    2. Direct sum of HFFs of type II1as a minimal option

    3. Bott periodicity, its generalization, and dimension D=8 as an inherent property of the hyper-finite II1 factor

    4. The interpretation of Jones inclusions in TGD framework

    5. WCW , space-time, and imbedding space and hyper-finite type II1 factors

    6. Quaternions, octonions, and hyper-finite typeII1 factors

    7. Does the hierarchy of infinite primes relate to the hierarchy of II1 factors?

  6. Could HFFs of type II have application in TGD framework?

    1. Problems associated with the physical interpretation of III1 factors

    2. Quantum measurement theory and HFFs of type III

    3. What could one say about II1 automorphism associated with II∞?

    4. What could be the physical interpretation of two kinds of invariants associated with HFFs type III?

    5. Does the time parameter t represent time translation or scaling?

    6. Could HFFs of type III be associated with the dynamics in M4+/-× CP2?

    7. Could the continuation of braidings to homotopies involve Δit?

    8. HFFs of type $III$ as super-structures providing additional uniqueness?

  7. Appendix: Inclusions of hyper-finite factors of type II1

    1. Jones inclusions

    2. Wassermann's inclusion

    3. Generalization from SU(2) to arbitrary compact group


    Evolution of Ideas about Hyper-finite Factors in TGD

  1. Introduction

    1. Hyper-finite factors in quantum TGD

    2. Hyper-finite factors and M-matrix

    3. Connes tensor product as a realization of finite measurement resolution

    4. Concrete realization of the inclusion hierarchies

    5. Quantum spinors and fuzzy quantum mechanics

  2. A vision about the role of HFFs in TGD

    1. Basic facts about factors

    2. Factors in quantum field theory and thermodynamics

    3. TGD and factors

    4. Can one identify M-matrix from physical arguments?

    5. Finite measurement resolution and HFFs

    6. Questions about quantum measurement theory in zero energy ontology

    7. Discretization and quantum group description as different aspects of finite measurement resolution

    8. How could p-adic coupling constant evolution and p-adic length scale hypothesis emerge from quantum TGD proper?

    9. Planar algebras and generalized Feynman diagrams

    10. Miscellaneous

  3. Fresh view about hyper-finite factors in TGD framework

    1. Crystals, quasicrystals, non-commutativity and inclusions of hyperfinite factors of type $II_1$

    2. HFFs and their inclusions in TGD framework

    3. Little Appendix: Comparison of WCW spinor fields with ordinary second quantized spinor fields

  4. Analogs of quantum matrix groups from finite measurement resolution?

    1. Well-definedness of the eigenvalue problem as constraints to quantum matrices

    2. The relationship to quantum groups and and quantum Lie algebras

    3. About applications

  5. Jones inclusions and cognitive consciousness

    1. Does one have a hierarchy of U- and M-matrices?

    2. Feynman diagrams as higher level particles and their scattering as dynamics of self consciousness

    3. Logic, beliefs, and spinor fields in the world of classical worlds

    4. Jones inclusions for hyperfinite factors of type II1 as a model for symbolic and cognitive representations

    5. Intentional comparison of beliefs by topological quantum computation?

    6. The stability of fuzzy qbits and quantum computation

    7. Fuzzy quantum logic and possible anomalies in the experimental data for the EPR-Bohm experiment

    8. Category theoretic formulation for quantum measurement theory with finite measurement resolution?


    Does TGD Predict a Spectrum of Planck Constants?

  1. Introduction

    1. The evolution of mathematical ideas

    2. The evolution of physical ideas

    3. Brief summary about the generalization of the imbedding space concept

  2. Experimental input

    1. Hints for the existence of large hbar phases

    2. Quantum coherent dark matter and hbar

    3. The phase transition changing the value of Planck constant as a transition to non-perturbative phase

  3. A generalization of the notion of imbedding space as a realization of the hierarchy of Planck constants

    1. Basic ideas

    2. The vision

    3. Hierarchy of Planck constants and the generalization of the notion of imbedding space

  4. Updated view about the hierarchy of Planck constants

    1. Basic physical ideas

    2. Space-time correlates for the hierarchy of Planck constants

    3. The relationship to the original view about the hierarchy of Planck constants

    4. Basic phenomenological rules of thumb in the new framework

    5. Charge fractionalization and anyons

    6. What about the relationship of gravitational Planck constant to ordinary Planck constant?

    7. Negentropic entanglement between branches of multi-furcations

    8. Dark variants of nuclear and atomic physics

    9. How the effective hierarchy of Planck constants could reveal itself in condensed matter physics?

    10. Summary

  5. Vision about dark matter as phases with non-standard value of Planck constant

    1. Dark rules

    2. Phase transitions changing Planck constant

    3. Coupling constant evolution and hierarchy of Planck constants

  6. Some applications

    1. A simple model of fractional quantum Hall effect

    2. Gravitational Bohr orbitology

    3. Accelerating periods of cosmic expansion as phase transitions increasing the value of Planck constant

    4. Phase transition changing Planck constant and expanding Earth theory

    5. Allais effect as evidence for large values of gravitational Planck constant?

    6. Applications to elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics

    7. Applications to biology and neuroscience

  7. Appendix

    1. About inclusions of hyper-finite factors of type II1

    2. Generalization from SU(2) to arbitrary compact group


    Mathematical speculations inspired by the hierarchy of Planck constants

  1. Introduction

  2. Jones inclusions and generalization of the imbedding space

    1. Basic facts about Jones inclusions

    2. Jones inclusions and the hierarchy of Planck constants

    3. Questions

  3. Some mathematical speculations

    1. The content of McKay correspondence in TGD framework

    2. Jones inclusions, the large N limit of SU(N) gauge theories and AdS/CFT correspondence

    3. Could McKay correspondence and Jones inclusions relate to each other?

    4. Farey sequences, Riemann hypothesis, tangles, and TGD

    5. Only the quantum variants of M4 and M8 emerge from local hyper-finite II1 factors

Home Abstract

    Negentropy Maximization Principle

  1. Introduction

  2. Basic notions and ideas behind NMP

    1. Zero energy ontology

    2. Fusion of real and p-adic physics

    3. Dark matter hierarchy

    4. Quantum classical correspondence

    5. Connection with standard quantum measurement theory

    6. Quantum jump as moment of consciousness

    7. NMP and negentropic entanglement

    8. Wigner's friend and Schrödinger's cat

    9. ER=EPR and TGD

  3. Generalization of NMP to the case of hyper-finite type II1 factors

    1. Factors

    2. NMP Hyper-finite factors of type II1

  4. Some consequences of NMP

    1. NMP and p-adic length scale hypothesis

    2. NMP and thermodynamics

    3. NMP and biology

    4. NMP, consciousness, and cognition

    5. NMP and quantum computer type systems

    6. Quantum measurement and quantum computation in TGD

  5. Generalization of thermodynamics allowing NE and a model for conscious information processing

    1. Beauregard's model for computer

    2. TGD based variant of Beauregard's model and generalization of thermodynamics

    3. About biological implications of generalized second law

  6. p-Adic physics and consciousness

    1. From quantum measurement theory to a theory of consciousness

    2. NMP and self

    3. p-Adic physics as correlate of cognition and imagination


    Criticality and dark matter

  1. Introduction

  2. Criticality in TGD framework

    1. Mathematical approach to criticality

    2. Basic building bricks of TGD vision

    3. Hierarchy of criticalities and hierarchy breakings of conformal invariance

    4. Emergence of covering spaces associated with the hierarchy of Planck constants

    5. Negentropic entanglement and hierarchy of Planck constants

    6. Phenomenological approach to criticality

    7. Do the magnetic flux quanta associated with criticality carry monopole flux?

  3. What's New In TGD Inspired View About Phase Transitions?

    1. About Thermal And Quantum Phase Transitions

    2. Some Examples Of Quantum Phase Transitions In TGD Framework

    3. ZEO Inspired View About Phase Transitions

    4. Maxwell's lever rule and expansion of water in freezing: two poorly understood phenomena

  4. Test cases for the hypothesis that dark matter is generated at criticality

    1. Particle physics

    2. Condensed matter physics

    3. Living matter

    4. Fringe physics

    5. Proposed mechanisms for generating large heff phases

  5. Applications to condensed matter

    1. Mysterious action at distance between liquid containers

    2. The behavior of superfluids in gravitational field

    3. Does the physics of SmB6 make the fundamental dynamics of TGD directly visible?

    4. Quantization of thermal conductance and quantum thermodynamics

    5. Do magnetic monopoles exist?

    6. Badly behaving photons and space-time as 4-surfaces

    7. Deviation from the prediction of standard quantum theory for radiative energy transfer in faraway region

    8. Time crystals, macroscopic quantum coherence, and adelic physics

    9. Non-local production of photon pairs as support for heff/h=n hypothesis

    10. Exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate at room temperature and heff hierarchy

    11. New findings related to high Tc super-conductivity

  6. Biological applications

    1. Why metabolism and what happens in bio-catalysis?

    2. Worrying about the consistency with the TGD inspired quantum biology

    3. A new control mechanism of TGD inspired quantum biology

    4. Can bacteria induce superfluidity?

    5. Bacteria behave like spin system: Why?

    6. One step further in the understanding the origins of life

    7. Could the replication of mirror DNA teach something about chiral selection?

    8. Is dark DNA dark also in TGD sense?

    9. Mysteriously disappearing valence electrons of rare Earth metals and hierarchy of Planck constants

    10. Clustering of RNA polymerase molecules and Comorosan effect

    11. An island at which body size shrinks

  7. The analogs of CKM mixing and neutrino oscillations for particle and its dark variants

    1. 21-cm anomaly as a motivation for the model of the interaction between different levels of heff hierarchy

    2. Mixing and oscillations of dark photons

    3. Mixing of ordinary and dark photons

  8. TGD inspired view about blackholes and Hawking radiation

    1. Is information lost or not in blackhole collapse?

    2. What are the problems?

    3. TGD view about black holes and Hawking radiation

    4. More about BMS supertranslations

  9. How to demonstrate quantum superposition of classical gravitational fields?

    1. Is gravitation classical or quantal?

    2. Zeno effect and weak measurements

  10. Topological order and Quantum TGD

    1. What does topological order mean?

    2. Topological order and category theory

    3. Category theoretical description of topological order TGD

  11. Deconstruction and reconstruction in quantum physics and conscious experience

    1. Deconstruction and reconstruction in perception, condensed matter physics and in TGD inspired theory of consciousness

    2. Could condensed matter physics and consciousness theory have something to share?


    About the Nottale's formula for hgr and the possibility that Planck length lP and CP2 length R are identical giving G= R2/ℏeff

  1. Introduction

    1. About the physical interpretation of the velocity parameter in the formula for the gravitational Planck constant

    2. Is the hierarchy of Planck constants behind the reported variation of Newton's constant?

  2. About the physical interpretation of the velocity parameter in the formula for the gravitational Planck constant

    1. Formula for the gravitational Planck constant and some background

    2. A formula for β0 from ZEO

    3. Testing the model in the case of Sun and Earth

    4. Under what conditions the models for dark and ordinary Bohr orbits are consistent with each other?

    5. How could Planck length be actually equal to much larger CP2 radius?!

  3. Is the hierarchy of Planck constants behind the reported variation of Newton's constant?

    1. The experiments

    2. TGD based explanation in terms of hierarchy of Newton's constants

    3. A little digression: Galois groups and genes

    4. Does fountain effect involve non-standard value of G?

    5. Does Podkletnov effect involve non-standard value of G?

    6. Did LIGO observe non-standard value of $G$ and are galactic blackholes really supermassive?

    7. Is it possible to determine experimentally whether gravitation is quantal interaction?

    8. Conscious experiences about antigravity

  4. Appendix: About the dependence of scattering amplitudes on ℏeff

    1. General observations about the dependence of $n$-particle scattering amplitudes on &hbar

    2. Photon-photon scattering as objection against TGD view about discrete coupling constant evolution

    3. What about quantum gravitation for dark matter with large enough ℏeff

    4. A little sidetrack: How a finite number of terms in perturbation expansion can give a good approximation although perturbation series fails to converge?


    TGD View about Quasars

  1. Introduction

    1. Could quasars be MECOs rather than supermassive blackholes?

    2. TGD view

  2. Background about TGD

    1. General vision

    2. Twistor lift of TGD

    3. Is the cosmological constant really understood?

    4. Does p-adic coupling constant evolution reduce to that for cosmological constant?

    5. What does one really mean with gravitational Planck constant?

  3. TGD view about quasars

    1. Overall view about the model

    2. Estimate for the strength of the poloidal component $Bθof the magnetic field just below rS

    3. Intelligent blackholes?

  4. Appendix: Explicit formulas for the evolution of cosmological constants

    1. General form for the imbedding of twistor sphere

    2. Induced Kähler form

    3. Induced metric

    4. Coordinates (v,Ψ ) in terms of (u,Φ )

    5. Various partial derivatives

    6. Calculation of the evolution of cosmological constant


    Holography and Quantum Error Correcting Codes: TGD View

  1. Introduction

    1. Could one replace AdS/CFT correspondence with TGD version of holography?

    2. Perfect tensors and tensor networks realized in terms of magnetic body carrying negentropically entangled dark matter

    3. Physics of living matter as physics condensed dark matter at magnetic bodies?

  2. Holography

    1. Holographies

    2. Blackholes and wormholes

    3. Hyperbolic tesselations are possible for both AdS and Minkowski space

  3. Entanglement and physics of quantum complexity

    1. Some general results

    2. Entanglement in TGD Universe

  4. Quantum error correcting codes, holography, and tensor networks

    1. Tensor networks

    2. Isometries and perfect tensors

    3. Hyperbolic tesselations and holographic quantum states and codes

    4. Entanglement structure of holographic states

  5. TGD view about the holographic states and codes

    1. Realization of the holographic states in terms of flux tube networks

    2. Generalization of the area formula for entanglement entropy

    3. Summary

  6. Tensor Networks and S-matrices

    1. Twistorial and number theoretic visions

    2. Generalization of the notion of unitarity

    3. Scattering diagrams as tensor networks constructed from perfect tensors

    4. Eigenstates of Yangian co-algebra generators as a manner to generate maximal entanglement?

    5. Two different tensor network descriptions

    6. Taking into account braiding and WCW degrees of freedom

    7. How do the gauge couplings appear in the vertices?



    Recent Status of Lepto-Hadron Hypothesis

  1. Introduction

  2. Lepto-hadron hypothesis

    1. Anomalous e+e- pairs in heavy ion collisions

    2. Lepto-pions and generalized PCAC hypothesis

    3. Lepto-pion decays and PCAC hypothesis

    4. Lepto-pions and weak decays

    5. Orto-positronium puzzle and lepto-pion in photon photon scattering

    6. Spontaneous vacuum expectation of lepto-pion field as source of lepto-pions

    7. Sigma model and creation of lepto-hadrons in electromagnetic fields

    8. Classical model for lepto-pion production

    9. Quantum model for lepto-pion production

  3. Further developments

    1. How to observe leptonic color?

    2. New experimental evidence

    3. Experimental evidence for τ-hadrons

    4. Dark matter puzzle

    5. Has Pamela observed evidence for the non-dark electropion of M89 leptohadron physics?

    6. Positron anomaly nine years later

    7. Could lepto-hadrons be replaced with bound states of exotic quarks?

    8. About the masses of lepto-hadrons

    9. Do X and Y mesons provide support for color excited quarks?


    1. Evaluation of leptopion production amplitude

    2. Production amplitude in quantum model

    3. Numerical evaluation of the production amplitudes

    4. Evaluation of the singular parts of the amplitudes


    TGD and Nuclear Physics

    1. Introduction

      1. p-Adic length scale hierarchy

      2. TGD based view about dark matter

      3. The identification of long range classical weak gauge fields as correlates for dark massless weak bosons

      4. Dark color force as a space-time correlate for the strong nuclear force?

      5. Tritium beta decay anomaly

      6. Cold fusion and Trojan horse mechanism

    2. Model for the nucleus based on exotic quarks

      1. The notion of color bond

      2. Are the quarks associated with color bonds dark or p-adically scaled down quarks?

      3. Electro-weak properties of exotic and dark quarks

      4. About the energetics of color bonds

      5. How strong isospin emerges?

      6. How to understand the emergence of harmonic oscillator potential and spin-orbit interaction?

      7. Binding energies and stability of light nuclei

      8. Strong correlation between proton and neutron numbers and magic numbers

      9. A remark about stringy description of strong reactions

    3. Neutron halos, tetra-neutron, and "sticky toffee" model of nucleus

      1. Tetraneutron

      2. The formation of neutron halo and TGD

      3. The "sticky toffee" model of Chris Illert for alpha decays

    4. Tritium beta decay anomaly

      1. Could TGD based exotic nuclear physics explain tritium beta decay anomaly?

      2. The model based on dark neutrinos

      3. Some other apparent anomalies made possible by dark neutrinos

    5. Cold fusion and Trojan horse mechanism

      1. Exotic quarks and charged color bonds as common denominator of anomalous phenomena

      2. The experiments of Ditmire et al

      3. Brief summary of cold fusion

      4. TGD inspired model of cold fusion

      5. Do nuclear reaction rates depend on environment?


    Nuclear String Hypothesis

    1. Introduction

      1. A>4 nuclei as nuclear strings consisting of A≤ 4 nuclei

      2. Bose-Einstein condensation of color bonds as a mechanism of nuclear binding

      3. Giant dipole resonance as de-coherence of Bose-Einstein condensate of color bonds

    2. Some variants of the nuclear string hypothesis

      1. Could linking of nuclear strings give rise to heavier stable nuclei?

      2. Nuclear strings as connected sums of shorter nuclear strings?

      3. Is knotting of nuclear strings possible?

    3. Could nuclear strings be connected sums of alpha strings and lighter nuclear strings?

      1. Does the notion of elementary nucleus make sense?

      2. Stable nuclei need not fuse to form stable nuclei

      3. Formula for binding energy per nucleon as a test for the model

      4. Decay characteristics and binding energies as signatures of the decomposition of nuclear string

      5. Are magic numbers additive?

      6. Stable nuclei as composites of lighter nuclei and necessity of tetraneutron?

      7. What are the building blocks of nuclear strings?

    4. Light nuclei as color bound Bose-Einstein condensates of 4He nuclei

      1. How to explain the maximum of EB for iron?

      2. Scaled up QCD with Bose-Einstein condensate of 4He nuclei explains the growth of EB

      3. Why EB decreases for heavier nuclei?

    5. What QCD binds nucleons to A≤ 4 nuclei?

      1. The QCD associated with nuclei lighter than 4He

      2. The QCD associated with 4He

      3. What could be the general mass formula?

      4. Nuclear strings and cold fusion

      5. Strong force as a scaled and dark electro-weak force?

    6. Giant dipole resonance as a dynamical signature for the existence of Bose-Einstein condensates?

      1. De-coherence at the level of 4He nuclear string

      2. De-coherence inside 4He nuclei

      3. De-coherence inside A=3 nuclei and pygmy resonances

      4. De-coherence and the differential topology of nuclear reactions

    7. Nuclear anomalies

      1. Individual Nucleons Inside Nuclei Do Not Behave According To Predictions

      2. GSI Anomaly

      3. New Evidence For Anomalies Of Radio-Active Decay Rates

      4. Reactor antineutrino anomaly as indication for new nuclear physics predicted by TGD

      5. Pear-shaped Barium nucleus as evidence for large parity breaking effects in nuclear scales

      6. Unexpected support for nuclear string model

    8. X boson as evidence for nuclear string model

      1. Two observations and a possible puzzle generated by them

      2. The estimate for Γ (π (113), γ γ ) is consistent with the limits on Γ (X, γ γ )

      3. Model for Γ (π (113), e+e-)

      4. Model based on nuclear strings

      5. Conclusion

    9. Cold fusion, plasma electrolysis, biological transmutations, and burning salt water

      1. The data

      2. H1.5O anomaly and nuclear string model

      3. A model for the observations of Mizuno

      4. Comparison with the model of deuterium cold fusion

      5. What happens to OH bonds in plasma electrolysis?

      6. A model for plasma electrolysis

      7. Comparison with the reports about biological transmutations

      8. Are the abundances of heavier elements determined by cold fusion in interstellar medium?

      9. Tests and improvements

    10. About Physical Representations of Genetic Code in Terms of Dark Nuclear Strings

      1. Background

      2. Models of genetic code based on dark nuclear strings

      3. The model mapping codons to dark 3-nucleon states


    Cold Fusion Again

  1. Introduction

  2. TGD inspired proposal for the mechanism of cold fusion

    1. TGD variant of Widom-Larsen model

    2. Could TGD allow heavy electron as exotic state of electron

    3. Cold fusion of dark protons to dark nuclei at dark magnetic flux tubes followed by transformation to ordinary nuclei

    4. Fusion induced by Coulomb explosions as a manner to fix the details of TGD inspired model

    5. Phase transition temperatures of 405-725 K in superfluid ultra-dense hydrogen clusters on metal surfaces

    6. Do all variants of cold fusion reduce to dark bubble fusion?

    7. Surface plasmon polaritons and cold fusion

    8. Heavy electron induced cold fusion is not promising in TGD framework

  3. Examples about cold fusion like processes

    1. Pons-Fleichman effect

    2. Solution of the Ni62 mystery of Rossi's E-Cat

    3. Sonofusion

    4. Leclair effect

    5. Is cold fusion becoming a new technology?

    6. Could Pollack effect make cell membrane a self-loading battery?

  4. Could cold fusion solve some problems of standard model of nucleosynthesis?

    1. Standard view about nucleosynthesis

    2. Could cold fusion help?

    3. What is the IQ of neutron star?

  5. Neutron production from an arc current in gaseous hydrogen

    1. Experimental work

    2. TGD based model for the neutron anomaly

  6. Cold fusion, low energy nuclear reactions, or dark nuclear synthesis?

    1. General comments

    2. Comparison with TGD inspired models of CF/LENR

    3. More about dark nucleosynthesis model

    4. Fusion fiasco and lost history from TGD perspective

    5. Appendix: Could dark protons and electrons be involved with di-electric breakdown in gases and conduction in electrolytes?

Home Abstract

    Dark Nuclear Physics and Condensed Matter

  1. Introduction

    1. Dark rules

    2. Implications

  2. A generalization of the notion of imbedding space as a realization of the hierarchy of Planck constants

    1. Hierarchy of Planck constants and the generalization of the notion of imbedding space

    2. Could the dynamics of Kähler action predict the hierarchy of Planck constants?

  3. General ideas about dark matter

    1. Hierarchy of Planck constants and the generalization of the notion of imbedding space

    2. How the scaling of hbar affects physics and how to detect dark matter?

    3. General view about dark matter hierarchy and interactions between relatively dark matters

    4. How dark matter and visible matter interact?

    5. Could one demonstrate the existence of large Planck constant photons using ordinary camera or even bare eyes?

    6. Dark matter and exotic color and electro-weak interactions

    7. Anti-matter and dark matter

  4. Dark variants of nuclear physics

    1. Constraints from the nuclear string model

    2. Constraints from the anomalous behavior of water

    3. Exotic chemistries and electromagnetic nuclear darkness

  5. Has dark matter been observed?

    1. Optical rotation of a laser beam in magnetic field

    2. Do nuclear reaction rates depend on environment?

    3. Refraction of gamma rays from silicon prism?

  6. Water and new physics

    1. The 41 anomalies of water

    2. The model

    3. Comments on 41 anomalies

    4. The strange properties of water as indication for the existence of dark matter in TGD sense

    5. Burning salt water by radio-waves and large Planck constant

  7. The experiments of Masaru Emoto with emotional imprinting of water

    1. The reception of the findings of Emoto

    2. TGD based model for Emoto's findings

  8. Connection with mono-atomic elements, cold fusion, and sonofusion?

    1. Mono-atomic elements as dark matter?

    2. Connection with cold fusion?

    3. Connection with sono-luminescence and sono-fusion?

    4. Does Rossi's reactor give rise to cold fusion?

  9. The TGD variant of the model of Widom and Larsen for cold fusion

    1. Challenges of the model

    2. TGD variant of the model

  10. Dark atomic physics

    1. From naive formulas to conceptualization

    2. Dark atoms

    3. Dark cyclotron states

    4. Could q-Laguerre equation relate to the claimed fractionation of the principal quantum number for hydrogen atom?

    5. Shy positrons

Home Abstract

    Dark Forces and Living Matter

  1. Introduction

    1. Evidence for long range weak forces and new nuclear physics

    2. Dark rules

    3. Weak form of electric magnetic duality, screening of weak charges, and color confinement?

    4. Dark weak forces and almost vacuum extremals

  2. Weak form electric-magnetic duality and color and weak forces

    1. Could a weak form of electric-magnetic duality hold true?

    2. Magnetic confinement, the short range of weak forces, and color confinement

  3. Dark matter hierarchy, genetic machinery, and the un-reasonable selectivity of bio-catalysis

    1. Dark atoms and dark cyclotron states

    2. Spontaneous decay and completion of dark fractional atoms as a basic mechanisms of bio-chemistry?

    3. The new view about hydrogen bond and water

  4. TGD based model for qualia and sensory receptors

    1. A general model of qualia and sensory receptor

    2. Detailed model for the qualia

    3. Overall view about qualia

    4. About detailed identification of the qualia

  5. Could cell membrane correspond to almost vacuum extremal?

    1. Cell membrane as almost vacuum extremal

    2. Are photoreceptors nearly vacuum extremals?

  6. Pollack's findings about fourth phase of water and the model of cell

    1. Pollack's findings

    2. Dark nuclei and Pollack's findings

    3. Fourth phase of water and pre-biotic life in TGD Universe

  7. Could photosensitive emulsions make dark matter visible?

    1. The findings

    2. The importance of belief system

    3. Why not tachyonic monopoles?

    4. Interpretation as dark matter structures becoming visible in presence of living matter


    Super-Conductivity in Many-Sheeted Space-Time

  1. Introduction

    1. General ideas about super-conductivity in many-sheeted space-time

    2. TGD inspired model for high Tc superconductivity

  2. General TGD based view about super-conductivity

    1. Basic phenomenology of super-conductivity

    2. Universality of the parameters in TGD framework

    3. Quantum criticality and super-conductivity

    4. Space-time description of the mechanisms of super-conductivity

    5. Super-conductivity at magnetic flux tubes

  3. TGD based model for high Tc super conductors

    1. Some properties of high Tc super conductors

    2. TGD inspired vision about high Tc superconductivity

  4. Quantitative model of high Tc super-conductivity and bio-super-conductivity

    1. A more detailed flux tube model for super-conductivity

    2. Simple quantitative model

    3. Fermionic statistics and bosons

    4. Interpretation in the case of high Tc super-conductivity

    5. Quantitative estimates in the case of TGD inspired quantum biology


    Quantum Hall effect and Hierarchy of Planck Constants

  1. Introduction

    1. Abelian and non-Abelian anyons

    2. TGD based view about FQHE

  2. Fractional Quantum Hall effect

    1. Basic facts about FQHE

    2. The model of FQHE based on composite fermions

  3. About theories of quantum Hall effect

    1. Quantum Hall effect as a spontaneous symmetry breaking down to a discrete subgroup of the gauge group

    2. Witten-Chern-Simons action and topological quantum field theories

    3. Chern-Simons action for anyons

    4. Topological quantum computation using braids and anyons

  4. Updated view about the hierarchy of Planck constants

    1. Basic physical ideas

    2. Space-time correlates for the hierarchy of Planck constants

    3. Basic phenomenological rules of thumb in the new framework

    4. Charge fractionalization and anyons

    5. What about the relationship of gravitational Planck constant to ordinary Planck constant?

    6. Summary

  5. Quantum Hall effect, charge fractionalization, and hierarchy of Planck constants

    1. General description of the anyonic phase

    2. Basic aspects of FQHE

  6. Quantum Hall effect, charge fractionalization, and hierarchy of Planck constants

    1. General description of the anyonic phase

    2. Basic aspects of FQHE

  7. Quantization of conductance in neutral matter as evidence for many-sheeted space-time?

  8. Condensed matter simulation of 4-D quantum Hall effect from TGD point of view

    1. The ideas of the simulation of 4-D QHE

    2. TGD inspired comments about the simulation


    A Possible Explanation of Shnoll Effect

  1. Introduction

  2. p-Adic topology and the notion of canonical identification

    1. Canonical identification

    2. Estimate for the p-adic norm of factorial

  3. Arguments leading to the identification of the deformed Poisson distribution

    1. The naive modification of Poisson distribution based on canonical identification fails

    2. Quantum integers as a solution of the problems

  4. Explanation for the findings of Shnoll

    1. The basic characteristics of the distributions

    2. The temporal and spatial dependence of the distributions

  5. Hierarchy of Planck constants allows small-p p-adicity

    1. Estimate for the value of Planck constant

    2. Is dark matter at the space-time sheets mediating gravitational interaction involved?

  6. Conclusions



    Appendix A: Quantum Groups and Related Structures

  1. Introduction

  2. Hopf algebras and ribbon categories as basic structures

    1. Hopf algebras and ribbon categories very briefly

    2. Algebras, co-algebras, bi-algebras, and related structures

    3. Tensor categories

  3. Axiomatic approach to S-matrix based on the notion of quantum category

    1. Δ andμand the axioms eliminating loops

    2. The physical interpretation of non-trivial braiding and quasi-associativity

    3. Generalizing the notion of bi-algebra structures at the level of configuration space

    4. Ribbon category as a fundamental structure?

    5. Minimal models and TGD

  4. Some examples of bi-algebras and quantum groups

    1. Simplest bi-algebras

    2. Quantum group Uq(sl(2))

    3. General semisimple quantum group

    4. Quantum affine algebras


    Appendix B:

  1. Basic properties of CP2

    1. CP2 as a manifold

    2. Metric and Kähler structures of CP2

    3. Spinors in CP2

    4. Geodesic sub-manifolds of CP2

  2. CP2 geometry and standard model symmetries

    1. Identification of the electro-weak couplings

    2. Discrete symmetries

  3. Basic facts about induced gauge fields

    1. Induced gauge fields for space-times for which CP2 projection is a geodesic sphere

    2. Space-time surfaces with vanishing em, Z0, or Kähler fields

  4. p-Adic numbers and TGD

    1. p-Adic number fields

    2. Canonical correspondence between p-adic and real numbers

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