## Two new findings related to high Tc super-conductivity
I learned simultaneously about two findings related to high Tc super-conductivity leading to a proposal of a general mechanism of bio-control in which small signal can serve as a control knob inducing phase transition producing macroscopically quantum coherent large h
Indian physicists Kumar Thapa and Anshu Pandey have found evidence for superconductivity at ambient (room) temperature and pressure in nanostructures (see this). There are also earlier claims about room temperature superconductivity that I have discussed in my writings.
Here is part of the abstract of the article of Kumar Thapa and Anshu Pandey.
During years I have developed a TGD based model of high Tc superconductivity and of bio-superconductivity (see this and this).
Dark matter is identified as phases of ordinary matter with non-standard value h
This superconductivity is essential also for microtubules exhibit signatures for the generation of this kind of phase at critical frequencies of AC voltages serving as a metabolic energy feed providing for charged particles the needed energy that they have in h
Large h
What is interesting is that Ag and Au have single valence electron. The obvious guess would be that valence electrons become dark and form Cooper pairs in the transition to superconductivity. What is interesting that the basic claim of a layman researcher David Hudson is that ORMEs or mono-atomic elements as he calls them include also Gold. These claims are not of course taken seriously by academic researchers. In the language of quantum physics the claim is that ORMEs behave like macroscopic quantum systems. I decided to play with the thought that the claims are correct and this hypothesis served later one of the motivations for the hypothesis about dark matter as large h TGD explanation of high Tc superconductivity and its biological applications strongly suggest that a feed of "metabolic" energy is a prerequisite of high Tc superconductivity quite generally. The natural question is whether experimenters might have found something suggesting that the external energy feed - usually seen as a prerequisite for self-organization - is involved with high Tc superconductivity. During same day I got FB link to another interesting finding related to high Tc superconductivity in cuprates and suggesting positive answer to this question!
After writing the above comments I learned from a popular article (see this) about and objection (see this) challenging the claimed discovery (see this). The claimed finding received a lot of attention and physicist Brian Skinner in MIT decided to test the claims. At first the findings look quite convincing to him. He however decided to look for the noise in the measured value of volume susceptibility χ
For diamagnetic materials χ
Figure 3a of the article of authors gives χ
The problem is that the fluctuations of χ The pessimistic interpretation is that this part of data is fabricated. Second possibility is that human error is involved. The third interpretation would be that the random looking variation with temperature is not a fluctuation but represents genuine temperature dependence: this possibility looks infeasible but can be tested by repeating the measurements or simply looking whether it is present for the other measurements.
One should understand why the effect found by Skinner occurs only for certain pairs of magnetic fields strengths B
Suppose that B The pseudo fluctuation should have same shape as a function temperature for the two values of magnetic fields involved but not for other pairs of magnetic field strengths. - Concerning the selection of only preferred pairs of magnetic fields Haas-van Alphen effect gives a
clue. As the intensity of magnetic field is varied, one observes so called de Haas-van Alphen effect (see this) used to deduce the shape of the Fermi sphere: magnetization and some other observables vary periodically as function of 1/B. In particular, this is true for χ
_{V}.The value of P is P _{H-A}== 1/B_{H-A}= 2π e/hbar S_{e},where S _{e}is the extremum Fermi surface cross-sectional area in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field and can be interpreted as area of electron orbit in momentum space (for illustration see this).Haas-van Alphen effect can be understood in the following manner. As B increases, cyclotron orbits contract. For certain increments of 1/B n+1:th orbit is contracted to n:th orbit so that the sets of the orbits are identical for the values of 1/B, which appear periodically. This causes the periodic oscillation of say magnetization. From this one learns that the electrons rotating at magnetic flux tubes of B _{ext}are responsible for magnetization. - One can get a more detailed theoretical view about de Haas-van Alphen effect from the article of Lifschitz and Mosevich (see this). In a reasonable approximation one can write
P= e× ℏ/m _{e}E_{F}= [4α/3^{2/3}π^{1/3}]× [1/B_{e}] , B_{e}== e/a_{e}^{2}=[x^{-2}16 Tesla ,a _{e}= (V/N)^{1/3}= =xa , a=10^{-10}m .Here N/V corresponds to valence electron density assumed to form free Fermi gas with Fermi energy E _{F}= ℏ^{2}(3pi^{2}N/V)^{2/3}/2m_{e}. a=10^{-10}m corresponds to atomic length scale. α≈ 1/137 is fine structure constant. For P one obtains the approximate expressionP≈ .15 x ^{2}Tesla^{-1}.If the difference of Δ (1/B _{ext}) for B_{ext}=1 Tesla and B_{ext}=.1 Tesla correspond to a k-multiple of P, one obtains the conditionkx ^{2}≈ 60 . - Suppose that B
_{ext,1}=1 Tesla and B_{ext,1}=.1 Tesla differ by a period P of Haas-van Alphen effect. This would predict same value of χ_{V}for the two field strengths, which is not true. The formula used for χ_{V}however holds true only inside given flux tube: call this value χ_{V,H-A}.The fraction f of flux tubes penetrating into the superconductor can depend on the value of B _{ext}and this could explain the deviation. f can depend also on temperature. The simplest guess is that that two effects separate:χ _{V}= χ_{V,H-A}(B_{H-A}/B_{ext})× f(B_{ext},T) .Here χ _{V,H-A}has period P_{H-A}as function of 1/B_{ext}and f characterizes the fraction of penetrated flux tubes. - What could one say about the function f(B
_{ext},T)? B_{H-A}=1/P_{H-A}has dimensions of magnetic field and depends on 1/B_{ext}periodically. The dimensionless ratio E_{c,H-A}/T of cyclotron energy E_{c,H-A}= hbar eB_{H-A}/m_{e}and thermal energy T and B_{ext}could serve as arguments of f(B_{ext},T) so that one would havef(B _{ext},T)=f_{1}(B_{ext})f_{2}(x) ,x=T/E _{H-A}(B_{ext})) .One can consider also the possibility that E _{c,H-A}is cyclotron energy with hbar_{eff}=nh_{0}and larger than otherwise. For h_{eff}=h and B_{ext}= 1 Tesla one would have E_{c}= .8 K, which is same order of magnitude as variation length for the pseudo fluctuation. For instance, periodicity as a function of x might be considered.If B _{ext,1}=1 Tesla and B_{ext,1}=.1 Tesla differ by a period P one would haveχ _{V}(B_{ext,1},T)/χ_{V}(B_{ext,2},T) =f_{1}(B_{ext,1})/f_{1}(B_{ext,2})independently of T. For arbitrary pairs of magnetic fields this does not hold true. This property and also the predicted periodicity are testable.
The discovery of positive feedback in the transition to hight Tc superconductivity is described in the popular article " The article reports the discovery of a positive feedback loop that greatly enhances the superconductivity of cupra superconductors. The abstract of the article is here.
The explanation of the positive feedback in TGD TGD framework could be following. The formation of dark electrons requires "metabolic" energy. The combination of dark electrons to Cooper pairs however liberates energy. If the liberated energy is larger than the energy needed to transform electron to its dark variant it can transform more electrons to dark state so that one obtains a spontaneous transition to high Tc superconductivity. The condition for positive feedback could serve as a criterion in the search for materials allowing high Tc superconductivity. The mechanism could be fundamental in TGD inspired quantum biology. The spontaneous occurrence of the transition would make possible to induce large scale phase transitions by using a very small signal acting therefore as a kind of control knob. For instance, it could apply to bio-superconductivity in TGD sense, and also in the transition of protons to dark proton sequences giving rise to dark analogs of nuclei with a scaled down nuclear binding energy at magnetic flux tubes explaining Pollack effect. This transition could be also essential in TGD based model of "cold fusion" based also on the analog of Pollack effect. It could be also involved with the TGD based model for the finding of macroscopic quantum phase of microtubules induced by AC voltage at critical frequencies (see this). See the chapter Quantum criticality and dark matter or the article Two new findings related to high Tc super-conductivity. |