During last decade s I have proposed several examples about systems to which I have assigned non-standard value
of Planck constant heff=n× h. If the hypothesis about the connection with criticality is correct they should exhibit criticality and if heff =hgr hypothesis is true, also phase separation. Also the proposed mechanisms to generate dark matter should involve generation of criticality.
In particle physics there are some possible applications for the new
view about dark matter.
Condensed matter physics
- The perturbative expansion of scattering amplitudes in terms of gauge coupling strength or gravitational coupling strength ceases to converge at some critical value of the coupling parameter. This can be regarded as a critical phenomenon since a transition to strongly coupled phase with different properties takes place. For instance, in gauge theories according to the electric-magnetic duality the magnetic monopoles replaces charged particles as natural basic entities. The original proposal indeed was that the transition to large heff phase takes place when the perturbation theory in terms of say electromagnetic coupling strength Z1Z2 e2/hbar c ceases to converge. By replacing h with hem= Z1Z2/e2heff the convergence is achieved and v0/c replaces gauge coupling strength as coupling constant. A stronger hypothesis is that heff =h× h=hem would connect this hypothesis with generalized conformal invariance and its breaking.
- One of the earliest applications of TGD notion of color (associated not only with quarks and gluons but also leptons through color partial waves) was to to explain anomalous production of electron-positron pairs in heavy ion collisions just above the
Coulomb wall. The TGD inspired hypothesis was that the electron positron pairs result from the decays of leptopions, which are pion-like color singlet bound states of color octet excitations of electron and positron but one could consider also other options. The identification as positronium is excluded since in this case direct decays would not be kinematically possible. The objection against postulating new elementary light particles is that they should make themselves visible in the decay widths of weak bosons.
One manner to escape the problem is that spartners are heavy so that the decays of weak bosons to spartner pairs are not possible. Another explanation could be that the exotic particles involved correspond to non-standard value of Planck constant. As a matter fact, these particles could be very massive but due to the large value of heff would appear as effectively massless particles below the scaled-up Compton length.
One can consider also other identifications for the new particles possibly involved. TGD predicts that right handed covariantly constant neutrino generates N=2 supersymmetry. An elegant universal explanation for the absence of spartners would be that they are heavy but can make themselves visible as dark variants in scales below scaled up Compton length. Maybe the lepto-electrons are selectrons possibly moving in color octet partial wave!
This explanation would apply to all elementary elementary particles and predict that these particles can be produced only in critical systems. This would solve the puzzle created by the non-observation of standard N=1 SUSY and at LHC. Leptopion production indeed takes place at criticality: just above the Coulomb wall, when the incoming nucleus becomes able to collide directly with the target. It should be noticed that there is experimental evidence also for the leptopions associated with muon and tau.
- RHIC and later LHC found that the de-confinement phase transition (criticality is obviously involved!) supposed to lead to QCD plasma produced something different. The phase in question has long range correlations and exhibits the presence of string like structures decaying to ordinary hadrons. There is also evidence for strong parity breaking in the system and it is involved with the magnetic fields present. TGD interpretation could be in terms of a criticality in which long range correlations are generated as dark matter is created. Since strong parity breaking is involved, it seems that the dark particles must be associated with the weak length scale characterized by Mersenne prime M89, which characterizes also the "almost-predicted"! scaled up copy of ordinary hadron physics characterize by Mersenne prime M107. The mass scale is 512 times higher than for ordinary hadrons. Due to darkness the Compton scales of M89 hadrons and also weak bosons would be scaled up to about M107 p-adic scale if heff/h= 29 holds true.
By its nature condensed matter physics provides rich repertoire of critical phenomena.
- Different phases of same substance, say water, can be in phase equilibrium at criticality and dark matter. There are critical regions of parameter space -critical lines and critical points, in which the transitions between different phases are possible. Long range thermodynamical correlations are associated with these systems and the the association with dark matter would suggest that dark matter could appear in these critical systems.
- Different substances can form mixtures For instance, oil can mix to water in some parameter regions. This kind of systems are good candidates for critical systems. There is actually rich spectrum of mixtures. Solutions, colloids, dispersions and the substances can be also in different phases (gas, liquid, solid) so that very rich spectrum of possibilities emerges. Is the generation of dark matter involved only with the phase transitions between different types of mixed phases or between mixed and non-mixed phase? Are some phases like gel inherently critical?
- One example about criticality is phase transition to super-fluidity or super-conductivity. In the transition from super-conducitivity the value of specific hearts diverges having the shape of greek letter λ: hence the name lambda point. This
suggests that in transition point the specific heat behaves like N2 due to the quantum coherence instead of proportionality to N as usually. The strange properties of super-fluid, in particular fountain effect, could be understood in terms of heff = hgr hypothesis as will be discussed.
Biology is full of critical systems and criticality makes living matter highly sensitive to the external perturbations, gives maximal richness of structure, and makes them quantum coherent in macroscopic scales. Therefore it is not difficult to invent examples. The basic problem is whether the criticality is associated only with the transitions between different systems or with the systems themselves.
- Sols and gels are very important in biology. Sol is definition a micture solid grains and liquid (say blood of cell liquid). Gel involves fixed solid structure and liquid. Sol-gel phase transition of the cell fluid takes place when nerve pulse travels along axon leading to the expansion of the cell. Is the dark phase generated with the sol-gel transition or does it characterized sol. Perhaps the most logical interpretation is that it is involved with the phase transition.
- Pollack's fourth phase of water resembles gel. Charge separation implying that the exclusion zones are negatively charged takes place. Charging takes place because part of protons goes to outside of EZ. TGD proposal is that protons go to magnetic flux tubes outside the region or to flux tubes which are considerably larger than EZ that most of their wave functions is located outside the EZ. Is fourth phase is permanently quantum critical? Or is the quantum criticality associated only with the transition so that magnetic flux tubes
would carry protons but they would not be dark after the phase transition. EZs have a strange property that impurities flow out of them. Could the presence of dark flux tubes and heff=hgr forces the separation of particles with different masses?
- The chirality selection of bio-molecules is a mystery from the point of view of standard physics. Large heff phase with so large value of Planck constant that the Compton length of weak bosons defines nanoscale, could explain this: weak bosons would be effectively massless and mediate long range interactions below the scaled up Compton scale. This phase transition could also force phases separation if hgr=heff holds true. If the masses of biomolecules with different handedness are slightly different also the values of hgr would differ and the molecules would go to flux tubes with different value of heff - at least in the phase transition. The value of hgr=GMm/v0 is in the range 1010-1011 for biomolecules so that the Δ n/n ≈ Δ m/m≈ 10-10-10-11 would be needed: this would correspond to an energy of eV which corresponds to the energy scale
of bio-photons and visible light.
- Neuronal membrane could be permanently a critical system since the membrane potential is slightly above the threshold for nerve pulse generation. Criticality might give rise to the dark magnetic flux tubes connecting lipids to the DNA nucleotides or codons
assumed in the model of DNA as topological quantum computer. The braiding of the flux tubes would represent the effect of the nerve pulse patterns and would be generated by the 2-D flow of the lipids of the membrane forming a liquid crystal.
If one wants the label of crackpot it is enough to study critical phenomena. Those who try to replicate (or usually, to non-replicate) the claimed findings fail (or rather manage) easily since criticality implies careful tuning of the external parameters to demonstrate the phenomenon. Therefore the tragedy of fringe physicist is to become a victim of the phenomenon that he is studying.
The above sections only list examples about systems where dark matter in TGD sense could appear. A lot of details remain to be understood. The basic question whether some of these systems are permanently near critical state or only in phase transitions between
- Cold fusion involves bombarding of target consisting of Palladium target doped with deuterium using hydrogen atoms as projectiles. Cold fusion is reported to occur in a critical range of doping fraction. This suggests quantum criticality and large heff phase. One of the TGD based models generalizes the model of Widom and Larsen. The model assumes that weak interactions involving emission of W boson neutralizing the incoming proton makes possible to overcome the Coulomb wall. What would make the system critical? Does criticality make Palladium a good catalyst? Could the Palladium and with a large surface area define nano-scale variant of partonic 2-surface and large area which quite generally would make it effective as catalyst? Certainly this could hold true for bio-catalysts. Could Pd target be permanently in critical state? Effectiveness of catalyst might mean quantum coherence making chemical reaction rates proportional to N2 instead of N, which could be the number of reactants of particular kind.
- Di-electric breakdown in given medium occurs when the electric field strength is just above the critical value. A lot of strange claims have been assigned to these systems by non-professionals: in academic environment these phenomena are kind of taboo. Tesla studied them and was convinced that these phenomena involve new physics. The basic finding was that that charges appeared everywhere: this certainly conforms with long range
fluctuations and emergence of flux tubes carrying charged particles as dark matter to the environment. Unfortunately, recent day physicist regards Tesla's demonstrations as a mere entertainment and does not bother to ponder whether Maxwell's theory really explains
what happens. It is tragic that the greatest intellectual achievements stop thinking for centuries. hgr=heff hypothesis allows even to estimate the length scales range in which these phenomena should appear.
Ball lightning is also a good candidate for an analogous phenomenon and has been admitted to be a real phenomenon after sixties even by skeptics.
C. Seward has discovered that di-electric breakdowns generate rather stable torus-like magnetic flux tubes around the breakdown current (see this), which he calls ESTSs (Electron Spiral Toroid Spheromak) and proposed that ball lightnings might correspond to rotating ESTSs.
In TGD framework the stability might be understood if the toroid corresponds to a magnetic flux tube carrying monopole flux. This would allow to understand stability of the configuration and of ball lightning. Monopole flux tubes could also provide a solution to the plasma confinement problem plaguing hot fusion. Also ordinary lightnings involve poorly understood aspect such as gamma and X-ray bursts and high energy electrons. The common mystery is how the dissipation in atmosphere could allow this phenomena. A possible explanation would be in terms of dark flux tubes generated near criticality to the generation of lightning.
- So called free energy systems (for TGD inspired view see the book include many phenomena claimed to involve a liberation of surplus energy. To my opinion, it is quite possible that over-unity energy production is a transient phenomenon and the dreams about final solution of energy problems will not be fulfilled. What makes these phenomena so interesting to me is that they might involve new physics predicted or at least allowed by TGD.
The splitting of water represents besides magnetic motors (to be discussed below) a key example of free energy phenomena. In the splitting of water to oxygen and hydrogen the formation of Brown gas (Wikipedia article about Brown gas provides an amusing
example full of "fringe science"s about how skeptic writes about something inducing cognitive dissonance in skeptic's mind) with strange properties was reported long time ago. For instance, Brown gas is reported to melt metals whose melting temperature is thousands of degrees although the Brown gas itself has temperature of order 100 degrees Celsius.
I have proposed an interpretation as large heff phase containing dark proton sequences at magnetic flux tubes and responsible for the liberation of energy as this phase transforms to ordinary one. Brown's gas could be essentially the fourth phase of water containing exclusion zones (EZs) discovered by Pollack. The TGD inspired model for them
involves magnetic flux tubes at which part of protons in EZ is transferred and forms dark proton sequences- essentially dark protons. There a many manners to generate Brown's gas: for instance, cavitation due to the mechanical agitation and application of electric fields could do it. The expanding and compressing bubble created by acoustic wave in sono-luminescence and reported to have a very high temperature and maybe even allowing nuclear fusion, could be also EZ.
- Water memory is one of the curse words of skeptic and related to scientific attempts to understand the claimed effects of homeopathy, which defines even stronger curse word in the vocabulary of skeptic - of equal strength as "remote mental interaction". The simple idea that the mere presence of original molecules could be replaced by electromagnetic representation of relevant properties of the molecule is utterly impossible for a skeptic to grasp - despite that also skeptic lives in information society. I have developed a model for water memory explaining also claimed homeopathic effects and this process has been extremely useful for the development of the model of living matter. Same mechanisms that apply to the model of living matter based on the notion of magnetic body, apply also to water memory and remote mental interactions.
The key idea is that low energy frequency spectrum provides a representation for the bio-active molecules. The spectrum could be identified as cyclotron frequency spectrum associated with the magnetic bodies of EZs and allow them to mimic the bio-active molecule as far as the effects on living matter are considered. The mechanical agitation of the homeopathic remedy could generate EZs just as it generates cavitation. The model for dark proton sequences yields counterparts of DNA, RNA, amino-acids and even tRNA and
genetic code based primitive life would be realized at fundamental particle level with biological realization serving as a higher level representation.
Proposed mechanisms for generating large heff phase
I have proposed several mechanisms, which might generate large heff phase, and an interesting question is whether these mechanisms generate criticality.
- Generation of strong electric fields near criticality for the di-electric breakdown is consistent with criticality and living matter would provide a key example in this respect. Teslas's strange findings support the view about presence of dark matter phases.
- The findings of Cyril Smith suggesting a pairing between low and high em frequencies such that low frequency irradiation of bio-matter creates regions to which one can assign high frequency and corresponding wavelength as a size scale. TGD explanation would be that the ratio fh/fl of high and low frequencies equals to the heff/h=n, and there is a criticality in the sense that for integer values of this frequency ratio a phase transition transforming dark low energy photons to high frequency of same energy or vice versa can take place. The reverse transition might be interpreted as an analog of Bose-Einstein condensation for low frequency photons (recall the n-fold covering property). The criticality would thus be associated with the formation of the analog of Bose-Einstein condensate.
- I have proposed that rotating systems could in certain circumstances make a transition to a critical state in which large heff phase is generated.
- First motivation comes a model for the findings reported by Russian experimentalists Roschin and Godin, who studied a rotating magnetic system probably inspired by the work of british inventor Searl. The experimenters claim several unexpected effects near criticality for mechanical breakdown of the system. For instance, cylindrical magnetic walls of thickness of few centimeters with distance of order .5 meters are formed. The system starts to accelerate spontaneously. Cooling of the nearby environment is reported. Also visible light probably due to di-electric breakdown - another critical phenomenon - are reported.
One of the proposed TGD inspired explanations suggests that there is energy and angular momentum transfer from the magnetic walls which could contain dark matter. Dark photons at cyclotron frequencies but possessing energies of visible photons could make the energy transfer very effective. One possibility is the change of direction for spontaneous dark magnetization emitting large amount of energy. Also collective cyclotron transitions
reducing the angular momentum of Bose-Einstein condensate like state can be considered.
- Third motivation comes from a model of a rotating system to which constant torque is applied. This situation can be described in terms of potential function V= τφ and modelled using Schrödinger equation. Since V is not periodic function of φ, the solution cannot be periodic if τ lasts forever. It is however possible to have a situation in which the duration T of τ is finite. In this case one can consider the possibility that the phase space which is in the simplest situation circle is replaced with its n-fold covering and solutions are periodic with period n× 2π during the period T and before it energy eigenstates for a free system. The average energy for the final state would be differ from that for the initial state and the difference would be the energy fed to the system equal to Δ E=τΔ φ classically. During energy feed the systems wave functions have 1/n-fractional angular momenta unless one assumes heff=n× h phase.
What is intriguing that also stationary solutions are obtained: the equation reduces to that for Airy functions in this case. These solutions do not however satisfy periodicity condition for any finite n. Solutions located in a finite covering of circle cannot be energy eigenstates. Could the constancy of energy mean that no dissipation takes place and no energy is feed to the system.
This description brings in mind the general view about large heff phases as being associated with the breaking of conformal invariance. n could characterize the number of sheets of the covering of S2. What does criticality correspond to now? Why should angular momentum and energy feed require or imply criticality? There is also a criticality associated with the change of n as the minimum number of periods that τ lasts. If this is the correct identification, the value of n would increase after
every turn in positive energy ontology. In zero energy ontology it would be pre-determined and determined by the duration of τ.
The motivation for the model comes from the ATPase molecule, which is a basic tool in energy metabolism. ATPase can be regarded as a molecular motor taking its energy from the change of the energy of protons as they flow through the cell membrane. Three ADPs are transformed to ATP during single turn by giving them phosphate molecule. What could
make the system critical? The system in question is not neuronal membrane but there is tendency to consider the possibility that also the mitochondrial membrane potential is near to breakdown value and the flow of protons through it is the counterpart for nerve pulse.
- TGD inspired model for the recent findings about microtubules by the group of the group of Bandyonopadhyay is based on the assumption that the oscillatory em perturbation of the system induces generation of A type microtubules not present in Nature by a phase transition from B type microtubules. This phenomenon would take for a critical frequency and fh/fl=n condition is suggestive. The proposal is that large heff phase is generated and gives rise to long range correlations at the level of microtubule so that 13-tubulin units combine to form longer units and the broken helical symmetry becomes un-broken symmetry. Quite recently also an observation of short lasting (nanoseconds) super-conductivity at room temperature (induced by irradiation of high temperature super conductor with infrared light. The mechanism could be similar and involve fh/fl=n condition.
For details and references see the new chapter Criticality and dark matter of "Hyper-finite factors and hierarchy of Planck constants" or the article Criticality and dark matter.