Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) is assumed to be the variational principle telling what can happen in quantum jump and says that the information content of conscious experience for the entire system is maximized. In zero energy ontology (ZEO) the definition of NMP is far from trivial and the recent progress - as I believe - in the understanding of structure of quantum jump forces to check carefully the details related to NMP. A very intimate connection between quantum criticality, life as something in the intersection of realities and p-adicities, hierarchy of effective vales of Planck constant, negentropic entanglement, and p-adic view about cognition emerges. One ends up also with an argument why p-adic sector is necessary if one wants to speak about conscious information.
The anatomy of quantum jump in zero energy ontology (ZEO)
Zero energy ontology emerged around 2005 and has had profound consequences for the understanding of quantum TGD. The basic implication is that state function reductions occur at the opposite light-like boundaries of causal diamonds (CDs) forming a hierarchy, and produce zero energy states with opposite arrows of imbedding space time. Also concerning the identification of quantum jump as moment of consciousness ZEO encourages rather far reaching conclusions. In ZEO the only difference between motor action and sensory representations on one hand, and intention and cognitive representation on the other hand , is that the arrows of imbedding space time are opposite for them. Furthermore, sensory perception followed by motor action corresponds to a basic structure in the sequence of state function reductions and it seems that these processes occur fractally for CDs of various size scales.
How the formation of cognitive and sensory representations could relate to quantum jump?
- State function reduction can be performed to either boundary of CD but not both simultaneously. State function reduction at either boundary is equivalent to state preparation giving rise to a state with well defined quantum numbers (particle numbers, charges, four-momentum, etc...) at this boundary of CD. At the other boundary single particle quantum numbers are not well defined although total conserved quantum numbers at boundaries are opposite by the zero energy property for every pair of positive and negative energy states in the superposition. State pairs with different total energy, fermion number, etc.. for other boundary are possible: for instance, t coherent states of super-conductor for which fermion number is ill defined are possible in zero energy ontology and do not break the super-selection rules.
- The basic objects coding for physics are U-matrix, M-matrices and S-matrix. M-matrices correspond to a orthogonal rows of unitary U-matrix between zero energy states, and are expressible as products of a hermitian square root of density matrix and of unitary S-matrix which more or less corresponds to ordinary S-matrix. One can say that quantum theory is formally a square root of thermodynamics. The thermodynamics in question would however relate more naturally to NMP rather than second law, which at ensemble level and for ordinary entanglement can be seen as a consequence of NMP.
The non-triviality of M-matrix requires that for given state reduced at say the "lower" boundary of CD there is entire distribution of statesat "upper boundary" (given initial state can lead to a continuum of final states). Even more, all size scales of CDs are possible since the position of only the "lower" boundary of CD is localized in quantum jump whereas the location of upper boundary of CD can vary so that one has distribution over CDs with different size scales and over their Lorentz boots and translates.
- The quantum arrow of time follows from the asymmetry between positive and negative energy parts of the state: the other is prepared and the other corresponds to the superposition of the final states resulting when interactions are turned on. What is remarkable that the arrow of time at imbedding space level at least changes direction when quantum jump occurs to opposite boundary.
This brings strongly in mind the old proposal of Fantappie that in living matter the arrow of time is not fixed and that entropy and its diametric opposite syntropy apply to the two arrows of the imbedding space time. The arrow of subjective time assignable to second law would hold true but the increase of syntropy would be basically a reflection of second law since only the arrow of the geometric time at imbedding space level has changed sign. The arrow of geometric at space-time level which conscious observer experiences directly could be always the same if quantum classical correspondence holds true in the sense that the arrow of time for zero energy states corresponds to arrow of time for preferred extremals. The failure of strict non-determinism making possible phenomena analogous to multifurcations makes this possible.
- This picture differs radically from the standard view and if quantum jump represents a fundamental algorith, this
variation of the arrow of geometric time from quantum jump to quantum jump should manifest itself in the functioning of brain and living organisms. The basic building brick in the functioning of brain is the formation of sensory representation followed by motor action. These processes look very much like temporal mirror images of each other such as the state function reductions to opposite boundaries of CD look like. The fundamental process could correspond to a sequences of these two kinds of state function reductions for opposite boundaries of CDs and maybe independently for CDs of different size scales in a "many-particle" state defined by a union of CDs.
- ZEO allows quantum jumps between different number fields so that p-adic cognitive representations can be formed and intentional actions realized. How these quantum jumps are realized at the level of generalized Feynman diagrams is non-trivial question: one possibility suggested by the notion of adele combining reals and various p-adic number fields to a larger structure is that the lines and vertices of generalized Feynman diagrams can correspond to different number fields.
The formation of cognitive representation could correspond to a quantum jump in which real space-time sheet identified as a preferred extremal is mapped to its p-adic counterpart or superposition of them with the property that the discretized versions of all p-adic counterparts are identical. In the latter case the chart map of real preferred extremal would be quantal and correspond to delocalized state in WCW. The p-adic chart mappings are not expected to take place but with some probabilities determined by the number theoretically universal U-matrix.
- Similar consideration applies to intentional actions realized as real chart maps for p-adically realized intention. The natural interpretation of the process is as a time reversal of cognitive map. Cognitive map would be generated from real sensory represention and intentional action would transform time reversed cognitive map to real "motor" action identifiable as time reversal of sensory perception. This would occur in various length scales in fractal manner.
- The formation of superpositions of preferred extremals associated with discrete p-adic chart maps from real preferred extremals could be interpretated as an abstraction process. Similar abstraction could take place also in the mapping of p-adic space-time surface to a superposition of real preferred extrmals representing intentional action. U-matrix should give also the probability amplitudes for these processes, and the intuitive idea is that the larger then number of common rational and algebraic points of real and p-adic surfaces is, the higher the probability for this is: the first guess is that the amplitude is proportional the number of common points. On the other hand, large number of common points means high measurement resolution so that the number of different surfaces in superposition tends to be smaller.
- One should not make any un-necessary assumptions about the order of various kinds of quantum jumps. For the most general option real-to-padic and p-adic-to-real quantum jumps can follow any quantum jumps and state function reductions to opposite boundaries of CD can also occur any time in any length scale. Also the length scale of resolution scale assignable to the cognitive representation should be determined probabilistically. Quantal probabilities for quantum jumps should therefore apply to all aspect of quantum jump and now ad hoc assumptions should be made. Very probably internal consistency allows only very few alternative scenarios. The assumption that the cascade beginning from given CD continues downwards until stops due to the emergence of negentropic entanglement looks rather natural constraint.
What happens in single state function reduction?
State function reduction is a measurement of density matrix. The condition that a measurement of density matrix takes place implies standard measurement theory on both real and p-adic sectors: system ends to an eigen-space of density matrix. This is true in both real and p-adic sectors. NMP is stronger principle at the real side and implies state function reduction to 1-D subspace - its eigenstate.
The resulting N-dimensional space has however rational entanglement probabilities p=1/N so that one can say that it is the intersection of realities and p-adicities. If the number theoretic variant of entanglement entropy is used as a measure for the amount of entropy carried by entanglement rather than either entangled system, the state carries genuine information and is stable with respect to NMP if the p-adic prime p divides N. NMP allows only single p-adic prime for real → p-adic transition: the power of this prime appears is the largest power of prime appearing in the prime decomposition of N. Degeneracy means also criticality so that that ordinary quantum measurement theory for the density matrix favors criticality and NMP fixes the p-adic prime uniquely.
If one - contrary to the above conclusion - assumes that NMP holds true in the entire p-adic sector, NMP gives in p-adic sector rise to a reduction of the negentropy in state function reduction if the original situation is negentropic and the eigen-spaces of the density matrix are 1-dimensional. This situation is avoided if one assumes that state function reduction cascade in real or genuinely p-adic sector occurs first (without NMP) and gives therefore rise to N-dimensional eigen spaces. The state is negentropic and stable if the p-adic prime p divides N. Negentropy is generated.
The real state can be transformed to a p-adic one in quantum jump (defining cognitive map) if the entanglement coefficients are rational or belong to an algebraic extension of p-adic numbers in the case that algebraic extension of p-adic numbers is allowed (number theoretic evolution gradually generates them). The density matrix can be expressed as sum of projection operators multiplied by probabilities for the projection to the corresponding sub-spaces. After state function reduction cascade the probabilities are rational numbers of form p=1/N.
Number theoretic entanglement entropy also allows to avoid some objections related to fermionic and bosonic statistics. Fermionic and bosonic statistics require complete anti-symmetrization/symmetrization. This implies entanglement which cannot be reduced away. By looking for symmetrized or antisymmetrized 2-particle state consisting of spin 1/2 fermions as the simplest example one finds that the density matrix for either particle is the simply unit 2× 2 matrix. This is stable under NMP based on number theoretic negentropy. One expects that the same result holds true in the general case. The interpretation would be that particle symmetrization/antisymmetrization carries negentropy.
The degeneracy of the density matrix is of course not a generic phenomenon and one can argue that it corresponds to some very special kind of physics. The identification of space-time correlates for the hierarchy for the effective values hbareff=n×hbar of Planck constant as n-furcations of space-time sheet suggests strongly the identification of this physics in terms of this hierarchy. Hence quantum criticality, the essence of life as something in the rational intersection of realities and p-adicities, the hierarchy of effective values of hbar, negentropic quantum entanglement, and the possibility to make real-p-adic transitions and thus cognition and intentionality would be very intimately related. This is a highly satisfactory outcome, since these ideas have been rather loosely related hitherto.
What happens in quantum jump?
Suppose that everything can be reduced to what happens for a given CD characterized by a scale. There are at least two questions to be answered.
- There are two processes involved. State function reduction and quantum jump transforming real state to p-adic state (matter to cognition) and vice versa (intention to action). Do these transitions occur independently or not? Does the ordering of the processes matter? The proposed view about state function reduction strongly suggests that the p-adic ↔real transition (if possible at all) can occur any time without affecting the outcome of the state function reduction.
- State function reduction cascade in turn consists of two different kinds of state function reductions. The M-matrix characterizing the zero energy state is product of square root of density matrix and of unitary S-matrix and the first step means the measurement of the projection operator. It defines a density matrix for both upper and lower boundary of CD and these density matrices are essentially same.
- At the first step a measurement of the density matrix between positive and negative energy parts of the quantum state takes place for CD. One can regard both the lower and upper boundary as an eigenstate of density matrix in absence of negentropic entanglement. The measurement is thus completely symmetric with respect to the boundaries of CDs. At the real sector this leads to a 1-D eigen-space of density matrix if NMP holds true. In the intersection of real and p-adic sectors this need not be the case if the eigenvalues of the density matrix have degeneracy. Zero energy state becomes stable against further state function reductions! The interactions with the external world can of course destroy the stability sooner or later. An interesting question is whether so called higher states of consciousness relate to this kind of states.
- If the first step gave rise to 1-D eigen-space of the density matrix, a state function reduction cascade at either upper of lower boundary of CD proceeding from long to short scales. At given step divides the sub-system into two systems and the sub-system-complement pair which produces maximum negentropy gain is subject to quantum measurement maximizing negentropy gain. The process stops at given subsystem resulting in the process if the resulting eigen-space is 1-D or has negentropic entanglement (p-adic prime p divides the dimension N of eigenspace in the intersection of reality and p-adicity).
For details and background see the section "Updates since 2012" of chapter "Negentropy Maximization Principle" of "TGD Inspired Theory of consciousness".