" Humans and Supernova-Born Neutron Stars Have Similar Structures, Discover Scientists" is the title of a popular article about the finding that neutron stars and eukaryotic (not only human) cells contain geometrically similar structures. In cells the cytoplasma between cell nucleus and cell membrane contains a complex highly folded membrane structure known as endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER in turn contains stacks of evenly spaced sheets connected by helical ramps. They resemble multistory parking garages (see the illustration of the popular article). These structures are referred to as parking places for ribosomes, which are the machinery for the translation of mRNA to amino-acids. The size scale of these structures must be in the range 1-100 microns.
Computer simulations for neutron stars predict geometrically similar structures, whose size is however million times larger and therefore must be in the range of 1-100 meters.The soft condensed-matter physicist Greg Huber from U.C. Santa Barbara and nuclear physicist Charles Horowitz from Indiana University have worked together to explore the shapes (see this and this).
The physical principles leading to these structures look quite different. At nuclear physics side one has strong and electromagnetic interaction at microscopic level and in the model used they give rise to these geometric structures in macroscopic scales. In living matter the model assumes basically entropic forces and the basic variational principle is minimization of the free energy of the system - second law of thermodynamics for a system coupled to thermal bath at constant temperature. The proposal is that some deeper principle might be behind these intriguing structural similarities.
In TGD framework one is forced to challenge the basic principles behind these models as really fundamental principles and to consider deeper reasons for the geometric similarity. One ends up challenging even the belief that neutron stars are just dead matter.
This view inspires interesting speculative questions.
- In TGD framework space-time identified as 4-D surface in H=M4× CP2 is many-sheeted fractal structure. In TGD these structures are topological structures for the space-time itself as a 4-surface rather than for the distribution of the matter in topologically trivial almost empty Minkowski space.
TGD space-time is also fractal characterized by the hierarchy of p-adic length scales assignable to primes near powers of two and to a hierarchy of Planck constants. Zero energy ontology (ZEO) predicts also a hierarchy of causal diamonds (CDs) as regions inside which space-time surfaces are located.
The usual length scale reductionism is replaced with fractality and the fractality of the many-sheeted space-time could explain the structural similarity of structures with widely different size scales.
- Dark matter is identified as a hierarchy of phases of ordinary matter labelled by the value heff=n× h of Planck constant. In adelic physics heff/h=n has purely number theoretic interpretation as a measure for the complexity of extension of rationals - the hierarchy of dark matters would correspond to the hierarchy of these extensions and evolution corresponds to the increase of this complexity. It would be dark matter at the flux tubes of the magnetic body of the system that would make the system living and intelligent. This would be true for all systems, not only for those that we regard as living systems. Perhaps even neutron stars!
- In adelic physics (see this p-adic physics for various primes as physics of cognition and ordinary real number based physics are fused together. One has a hierarchy of adeles defined by extensions of rational numbers (not only algebraic extensions but by those using roots of e). The higher the complexity of the extension, the larger the number of common points shared by reals and p-adics: they correspond to space-time points with coordinates in an extension of rationals defining the adele. These common points are identified as cognitive representations, something in the intersection of cognitive and sensory. The larger the number of points, the more complex the cognitive representations. Adeles define thus an evolutionary hierarchy.
The points of space-time surface defining the cognitive representation are excellent candidates for the carriers of fundamental fermions since many-fermion states allow interpretation in terms of a realization of Boolean algebra. If so then the complexity of the cognitive representation characterized by heff/h increases with the density of fundamental fermions! The larger the density of matter, the higher the intelligence of the system if this view is correct!
See the chapter Cold fusion again or the article with the same title.
See also the article Cold fusion, low energy nuclear reactions, or dark nuclear synthesis?.
- In TGD inspired theory of consciousness conscious entities form a fractal hierarchy accompanying geometric fractal hierarchies. Could the analogies between neutron stars and cells be much deeper than merely geometric? Could neutron stars be super-intelligent systems possessing structures resembling those inside cells? What about TGD counterparts of black holes? For blackhole like structures the fermionic cognitive representation would contain even more information per volume than those for neutron star. Could blackholes be super-intelligences instead of mere cosmic trashbins?
Living systems metabolize. The interpretation is that the metabolic energy allows to increase the value of heff/h and generate negentropic entanglement crucial for cognition. Also blackholes "eat matter from their environment: is the reason the same as in the case of living cell?
Living systems communicate using flux tubes connecting them and serving also as correlates of attention. In TGD frame flux tubes emanates from all physical systems, in particular stars and blackholes and mediate gravitational interactions. In fact, flux tubes replace wormholes in ER-EPR correspondence in TGD framework or more precisely: wormhole contacts replace flux tubes in GRT framework.
- Could also blackhole like structures possess the analog of endoplasmic reticulum replacing the cell membrane with an entire network of membranes in the interior of cell? Interpretation as minimal surface is very natural in TGD framework. Could the predicted space-time sheet within blackhole like structure having Euclidian signature of the induced metric serve as the analog for cell nucleus? In fact, all systems - even elementary particles - possess the space-time sheet with Euclidian signature: this sheet is analogous to the line of Feynman diagram. Could the space-time sheet assignable to cell nucleus have Euclidian signature of the induced metric? Could cell membrane be analogous to blackhole horizon?
- What abut genetic code? In TGD inspired biology genetic code could be realized already at the level of dark nuclear physics in terms of strings of dark protons: also ordinary nuclei are identified as strings of nucleons. Biochemical representation would be only a secondary representation and biochemistry would be a kind of shadow for the deeper dynamics of dark matter and magnetic flux tubes. Dark 3-proton states correspond naturally to DNA, RNA, tRNA and amino-acids and dark nuclei as polymers of these states (see this).
Could neutron stars containing dark matter as dark nuclei indeed realize genetic code? This view about dark matter leads also to a proposal that the so called cold fusion could actually correspond to dark nucleosynthesis such that the resulting dark nuclei with rather small nuclear binding energy transform to ordinary nuclei and liberate most of the ordinary nuclear binding energy in this process (see this). Could dark nucleosynthesis produce elements heavier than Fe and also part of the lighter elements outside stellar interiors. Could this happen also in the fusion of neutron stars to neutron star like entity as the recent simultaneous detection of gravitational waves (GW170817 event) and em radiation from this kind of fusion suggests (see this).
- How can one understand cell (or any system) as a trashbin like structure maximizing its entropy on one hand and as an intelligent system on one hand? This can make sense in TGD framework where the amount of conscious information, negentropy, is measured by the sum of p-adic variants of entanglement entropies and is negative(!) thanks to the properties of p-adic norm. Neutron stars, blackholes and cells would be entropic objects if one limits the consideration to real sector of adeles but in p-adic sectors they would carry conscious information. The sum of real and p-adic entropies tends to be negative. Living cell would be very entropic object in real sense but very negentropic in p-adic sense: even more, the sum of negative p-adic negentropies associated with cognition in adelic physics would overcome this entropy (see this).