One of the topics of discussion were the results related to supermassive blackholes at the centers of galaxies. Gareth gave a link to an article telling about correlations between supermassive blackhole in galactic center and the evolution of galaxy itself.
This view about galactic blackholes also suggests a profound revision of GRT based view for the formation of blackholes. Note that in TGD one must of course speak about blackhole like objects differing from their GRT counterparts inside Schwartschildt radius and also outside it in microscopic scales (gravitational flux is mediated by magnetic flux tubes carrying dark particles). Perhaps also ordinary blachholes were once intersections of dark cosmic strings containing dark matter which gradually produce the stellar matter! If so, old blackholes would be more massive than the young ones.
- In TGD Universe galaxies are like pearls in a necklace defined by a long cosmic string. This explains the flat rotational spectrum and predicts essentially free motion along the string related perhaps to coherent motions in very long length scales. This explains also the old observation that galaxies form filament like structures and the correlations between spin directions of galaxies along the same filament since one expects that the spin is parallel to the filament locally. Filament can of course change its direction locally so that charge of direction of rotation gives information about the filament shape.
- The channelling of gravitational flux in the radial direction orthogonal to the string makes gravitational force very long ranged (1/transversal distance instead of 1/r2) and also stronger and predicts rotational spectrum. This model of dark matter differs dramatically from the fashionable halo model and involves only the string tension as a parameter unlike the halo model.
The observed rigid body rotation within radius 2-3 times the optical radius (region inside which most stars are) can be understood if the long cosmic string is either strongly knotted or has closed galactic string around long cosmic string. The knotted portion would formed a highly knotted spaghetti like structure giving approximately constant mass density. Stars would be associated with the knotted structure as sub-knots. Light beams from supernovas could be along the string going through the star. Maybe even planets might be associated with thickened strings! One can also imagine intersections of long cosmic strings and Milky Way could contain such.
- Galactic black hole like object could correspond to a self intersection of the long cosmic string or of closed galactic cosmic string bound to it. There could be several intersections. They would contain both dark matter and energy in TGD sense and located inside the string. Matter antimatter asymmetry would mean that there is slightly more antimatter inside string and slightly more matter outside it. Twistor lift of TGD predicts the needed new kind of CP breaking. What is new that the galactic blackhole like objects would be present from the beginning and lose their dark mass gradually. Time evolution would be opposite to what it has been usually thought to be!
Most of the energy of the cosmic string would be magnetic energy identifiable as dark energy. During the cosmic evolution various perturbations would force the cosmic string to gradually thicken so that in M4 projection ceases to be pointlike. Magnetic monopole flux is conserved (BS= constant, S the transversal area), which forces magnetic energy density per unit length - string tension - to be reduced like 1/S. The lost energy becomes ordinary matter: the energy of inflaton field would be replaced with dark magnetic energy and the TGD counterpart for inflationary period would be transition from cosmic string dominated period to radiation dominated cosmology and also the emergence of space-time in GRT sense.
The primordial cosmic string dominated phase would consist of cosmic strings in M4×CP2. The explanation for the constancy of CMB temperature would suggest quantum coherence in even cosmic scales made possible by the hierarchy of dark matters labelled by the valued of Planck constant heff/h=n. Maybe characterization as a super-fluid rather than gas discussed with Gareth is more precise manner to say it. What would be fantastic that these primordial structures would be directly visible nowadays.
- The dark matter particles emanating from the dark supermassive blackhole would transform gradually to ordinary matter so that galaxy would be formed. This would explain the correlation of the bulge size with the mass (and size) of the blackhole correlating with the string tension. The rotational velocity of distant stars with string tension so that the strange correlation between velocity of distant stars and size of galactic blackhole is implied by a common cause.
This also explains the appearance of Fermi bubbles. Fermi bubbles are formed when dark particles from the blackhole scatter with dark matter and partially transform to ordinary cosmic rays and produce dark photons transformed to visible photons partially. This occurs only within the region where the spaghetti like structure containing dark matter inside the cosmic string exists. Fermi bubbles indeed have the same size as this region.
- While writing this I realized that also the galactic bar (2/3 of spiral galaxies have it) should be understood. This is difficult if there is nothing breaking the rotational symmetry around the long cosmic string. The situation changes if one has a portion of cosmic string along the plane of galaxy.
There is indeed evidence for the second straight string portion: in Milky Way there are mini-galaxies rotating in the plane forming roughly 60 degrees angle with respect to galactic plane and the presence of two cosmic strings portions roughly orthogonal to each other could explain this (see this). Galactic blackhole could be associated with the intersection of string portions. The horizontal string portion could be part of long cosmic string, a separate closed cosmic string, or even another long cosmic string. One can imagine two basic options for the formation of the bar.
- The first option is that galactic bar is formed around the straight portion of string. The gravitational force orthogonal to the string portion would create the bar. The ordinary matter in rigid body rotation would be accelerated while approaching the bar and then slow down and dissipate part of its energy in the process. The slowed down stars would after a further rotation of π tend to stuck around the string portion forming bound states with it and start to rotate around it: a kind of galactic traffic jam. Bars would be asymptotic outcomes of the galactic dynamics. Recent studies have confirmed the idea that bars are now are signs of full maturity as the "formative years" end (see this).
- Second option is that the bar is formed as dark matter inside bar is transformed to ordinary matter as the portion thickens and loses dark energy identified as Kähler magnetic energy by a process analogous to the decay of inflaton vacuum energy. Bars would be transients in the evolution of galaxies rather than final outcomes. This option is not consistent with the idea that that only the galactic blackhole serves as the source of dark matter transforming to ordinary matter.
- The pearls in string model explains also why elliptic galaxies have declining rotational velocity. They correspond to "free" closed strings which have not formed bound states with long cosmic strings transforming them to spiral galaxies. The recently found 10 billion old galaxies with declining rotational velocity could correspond to elliptical galaxies of this kind.
One can also imagine the analog of ionization. The bound state of closed cosmic string and long cosmic string decays and spiral galaxy starts to decay under centrifugal force not anymore balanced by the gravitational force of the long cosmic strings and would transform to elliptic galaxy. Also the central bulge would start to increase in size.
It would also lose its central blackhole if is associated with the long cosmic string. I am grateful for Gareth for giving a link to a popular article telling about this kind of elliptic galaxy with very large size of one million light years and without central blackhole and unusually large bulge region.