During years I have many times tried to understand what happens in electrolysis and every time I have been forced to to admit that I do not! Very embarrassing observation. I have tried to gain wisdom from an old chemistry book with 1000 pages again and again but always in vain. This is especially embarrassing because a unified theory builder to be taken seriously is expected to build brave new brane worlds in 11 or 12 dimensions to possibly explain a possible detected particle at mass 750 GeV at LHC instead of trying to understand age old little problems solved aeons ago. The wau-coefficient of chemistry is zero as compared to the awesome 10500 of M-theory.
Energetics has been my personal problem (besides funding). I learn from chemistry book that an electric field - say voltage of 2 V per 1 mm splits molecules to ions. The bond energies of molecules are in few eV range. For instance, O-H bond has 5 eV energy. V= 2V/mm electric field corresponds to electrostatic energy E=eVd∼ 2-10 eV energy gain for a unit charge moving from the end of the bond to the other one. This is incredibly small energy and to my understanding should have absolutely no effect to the state molecule. Except that it has!
A heretic thought: could it be that chemists have just accepted this fact (very reasonable!) and built their models as mathematical parameterizations without any attempt to understand what really happens? Could the infinite vanity of theoretical physicists have prevented them from lowering themselves to the intellectual level of chemists and prevented them from seeing that electrolysis is not at all understood?
In order that this kind of energy would have so drastic effect as splitting molecule to pieces, the system molecule + yet unidentified "something" must be in critical state. Something at the top of hill so that even slightest perturbation makes it fall down. The technical term is criticality or even quantum criticality.
What produces quantum criticality against charge separation? What is this unidentified "something" besides the system? Magnetic body carrying dark matter! This is the answer in TGD Universe. The TGD inspired model assumes that the protons transform to dark protons at dark magnetic flux tubes possibly carrying monopole flux. If these protons form dark nuclei the liberated dark nuclear energy can split further O-H bonds and transform protons to dark phase. The energy needed is about 5 eV and is in the nuclear binding energy scale scaling as 1/heff (like distance) if the size scale of dark protons proportional to heff/h is 1 nm. One would have heff/h≈ 106: the size scale of DNA codons - not an accident in TGD Universe. The liberated dark nuclear energy can ionize other molecules such as KOH, NaOH, HCl, Ca(OH)2, CaO,...
- Biological systems are critical systems extremely sensitive to small changes. Criticality means criticality against molecular ionization - charge separation basically. Also in electrolysis this criticality is present. Both DNA and cell are negatively charged. Inside cells there are various kinds of ions. In TGD Universe all matter is quantum critical.
- Charge separation occurs also in Pollack's experiments in which the fourth phase of water is generated. This phase contains negatively charged regions with effective H1.5O stoichiometry (hydrogen bonded state of two water molecules which has lost proton). Positive charge associated with lost protons has gone outside these regions.
Entire spectrum of values of heff/h is possible. For laser pulse induced fusion (see the article ) assumed to induce longitudinal compression one would have heff/h≈ 103. Dark nuclear physics with non-standard values of Planck constant would be a crucial element of electrolysis. Condensed matter physics and nuclear physics would not live in totally separate compartments and dark matter an ordinary matter would interact! How humiliating for theoreticians! I do not hear the derisive laughter of superstring theoreticians anymore!
Ordinary electrolysis would thus produce dark nuclei. The problem is that most of them would leak out from the system along dark flux tubes and potentially available nuclear energy is lost! As also various elements so badly needed by modern techno-society! For instance, in the splitting of water to hydrogen, the flux tubes assignable to the beam containing hydrogen would take the dark nuclei away. Could one transform dark nuclei to ordinary ones?
- If this beam collides with say metal target, some fraction of the dark nuclei could however transform to ordinary nuclei and liberate really huge energy: the difference between nuclear binding energies of initial and finals state would be essentially that of the final state unlike in ordinary nuclear fusion.
- In particular, electrodes could induce transformation of the dark nuclei to ordinary ones. Even in the experiments of Pons and Fleichman the role of porous Pd target could be secondary: it would be only a target allowing the dark nuclei produced by bubble fusion to transform to ordinary nuclei and the large surface area would help in this respect. Same applies to Rossi's E-Cat.
- So called Brown's gas generated in the splitting of water is claimed to be able to melt metals although its temperature is relatively low- around 100 Celsius. The claims is of course taken not seriously by a "serious" scientists as the Wikipedia article so clearly demonstrates. It could be however understood if the melting is caused the transformation of dark nuclei to ordinary ones. The corrosion of the metallic surface in the presence of cavitating water would be also due to the dark nuclear energy. Not all of the energy would be used to produce corrosive effects, and I have in some discussions been told that in electric plants an anomalous production of energy assignable to corrosive effects in turbine has been observed. Electric plants could have served secretly as dark nuclear plants! Unfortunately, I do not have reference to this claim. TGD inspired model for it article later affects aluminium disks inside cavitating water corrosively: LeClair (LeClair effect is discussed here ) might have reinvented Brown's gas!
But why metals? The surface of metal in external electric field carries negative charge density of conduction electrons. Could it be that they attract the positively charged dark nuclei from the magnetic flux tubes back to the visible world, and help them to tranform back to ordinary nuclei? Conductors in electric fields would thus help to transform dark nuclei to ordinary matter.
- Brown's gas is reported to have no effect on living matter? Why? If living matter uses dark nuclear physics as a basic tool, it should have developed tools to avoid the transformation of dark nuclei to ordinary nuclei in uncontrollable manner. What aspect of quantum biophysics could make this possible? Negentropy Maximization Principle defining the basic variational principle of TGD inspired theory of consciousness could be the general reason preventing this transformation (see this). The negentropy characterizing negentropic entanglement serving as a measure for potentially conscious information assignable to non-standard values of heff would be reduced if heff is reduced. But how to understand this at a more detailed level? Could the fact that bio-molecules are mostly insulators rather than electronic conductors explain this?
See the article Cold Fusion Again or the chapter with the same title.