Could dark DNA, RNA, tRNA and amino-acids correspond to different charge states of codons?
If dark codons correspond to dark nucleon triplets as assumed in the following considerations there are 4 basic types of dark nucleon triplets: ppp,ppn, pnn, nnn. Also dark nucleons could represent codons as uuu,uud,udd,ddd: the following discussion generalizes as such also to this case. If strong isospin/em charge decouples from spin the spin content is same independently of the nucleon content. One can consider the possibility of charge neuralization by the charges assignable to color flux tubes but this is not necessarily. In any case, one would have 4 types of nucleon triplets depending on the values of total charges.
Could different dark nucleon total charges correspond to DNA,RNA, tRNA and amino-acids? Already the group representation content - perhaps correlating with quark charges - could allow to distinguish between DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids. For amino-acids one would have only 4× 5 and ordinary statistics and color singlets. For DNA and RNA one would have full multiplet also color non-singlets and for tRNA one could consider (4⊕ 21⊕ 22)× 5 containing 40 states. 31 is the minimum number of tRNAs for the realization of the genetic code. The number of tRNA molecules is known to be between 30-40 in bacterial cells. The number is larger in animal cells but this could be due to different chemical representations of dark tRNA codons.
If the net charge of dark codon distinguishes between DNA,RNA, tRNA, and amino-acid sequences, the natural hypothesis to be tested is that dark ppp, ppn, pnn, and nnn sequences are accompanied by DNA,RNA, tRNA, and amino-acid sequences. The dark beta decays of dark protons proposed to play essential role in the model of cold fusion could transform dark protons to dark neurons. Peptide backbones are neutral so that dark nnn sequence could be also absent but the dark nnn option is more natural if the general vision is accepted.
Is this picture consistent with what is known about charges of amino-acids DNA,RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids?
- DNA strand has one negative charge per nucleotide. Also RNA molecule has high negative charge. This conforms with the idea that dark nucleons accompany both DNA and RNA. DNA codons could be accompanied by dark ppp implying charge neutralization in some scale and RNA codons by dark ppn. The density of negative charge for RNA would be 2/3 for that for DNA.
- Arg, His, and Lys have positively charged side chains and Asp,Glu negative side chains (see (see this). The charge state of amino-acid is sensitive to the pH value of solution and its conformation is sensitive to the counter ions present. Total charge for amino-acid in peptide however vanishes unless it is associated with the side chain: as in the case of DNA and RNA it is the backbone whose charge is expected to matter.
- Amino-acid has central C atom to which side chain, NH2, H and COOH are attached. For free amino-acids in solution water solution NH2→ NH3+ tends to occur pH=2.2 by receiving possibly dark proton whereas COOH tends to become negatively charged above pH= 9.4 by donating proton, which could become dark. In peptide OH attach to C and one H attached to N are replaced with peptide bond. In the pH range 2.2-9.4 amino-acid is zwitterion for which both COOH is negatively charged and NH2 is replaced with NH3+ so that the net charge vanishes. The simplest interpretation is that the ordinary proton from negatively ionized COOH attaches to NH2 - maybe via intermediate dark proton state.
- The backbones of peptide chains are neutral. This conforms with the idea that dark amino-acid sequence consists of dark neutron triplets. Also free amino-acids would be accompanied by dark neutron triplets. If the statistics is ordinary only 4 dark nnn states are possible as also 5 dark color flux tube spin states.
- tRNA could involve dark pnn triplet associated with the codon. An attractive idea is secondary genetic code assigning RNA codons to tRNA-amino-acid complex and projecting 8⊗ (5⊕ 3) containing 64 dark RNA spin states to 8⊗ 5 containing 40 dark tRNA spin states with same total nucleon and flux tube spins. Dark tRNA codons would in turn be attached to dark amino-acids by a tertiary genetic code projecting spin states 8⊗ 5 to 4⊗ 5 by spin projection. In the transcription dark tRNA would attach to dark mRNA inducing attachment of dark amino-acid to the growing amino-acid sequence and tRNA having only dark tRNA codon would be left. The free amino-acids in the water solution would be mostly charged zwitterions in the pH range 2.2-9.4 and the negative charge of COO- would be help in the attachement of the free amino-acid to the dark proton of tRNA codon. Therefore also the chemistry of free amino-acids would be important.
An interesting question is why pnn triplets for tRNA would only 5 in flux tube degrees of freedom entire 8 in nucleon degrees of freedom. For RNA consisting of ppn triplets also 3 would be possible. What distinguishes between ppn and pnn?
An updated nuclear string variant is summarized and also its connection with the model of harmony is discussed in
chapter Nuclear String Model and in the article About physical representations of genetic code in terms of dark nuclear strings.