The basic objection against TGD is that induced metrics for space-time surfaces in M4× CP2 form an extremely limited set in the space of all space-time metrics appearing in the path integral formulation of General Relativity. Even special metrics like the metric of a rotating black hole fail to be imbeddable as an induced metric. For instance, one can argue that TGD cannot reproduce the post-Newtonian approximation to General Relativity since it involves linear superposition of gravitational fields of massive objects. As a matter fact, Holger B. Nielsen- one of the very few colleagues who has shown interest in my work - made this objection for at least two decades ago in some conference and I remember vividly the discussion in which I tried to defend TGD with my poor English.
The objection generalizes also to induced gauge fields expressible solely in terms of CP2 coordinates and their gradients. This argument is not so strong as one might think first since in standard model only classical electromagnetic field plays an important role.
- Any electromagnetic gauge potential has in principle a local imbedding in some region. Preferred extremal property poses strong additional constraints and the linear superposition of massless modes possible in Maxwell's electrodynamics is not possible.
- There are also global constraints leading to topological quantization playing a central role in the interpretation of TGD and leads to the notions of field body and magnetic body having non-trivial application even in non-perturbative hadron physics. For a very large class of preferred extremals space-time sheets decompose into regions having interpretation as geometric counterparts for massless quanta characterized by local polarization and momentum directions. Therefore it seems that TGD space-time is very quantal. Is it possible to obtain from TGD what we have used to call classical physics at all?
The imbeddability constraint has actually highly desirable implications in cosmology. The enormously tight constraints from imbeddability imply that imbeddable Robertson-Walker cosmologies with infinite duration are sub-critical so that the most pressing problem of General Relativity disappears. Critical and over-critical cosmologies are unique apart from a parameter characterizing their duration and critical cosmology replaces both inflationary cosmology and cosmology characterized by accelerating expansion. In inflationary theories the situation is just the opposite of this: one ends up with fine tuning of inflaton potential in order to obtain recent day cosmology.
Despite these and many other nice implications of the induced field concept and of sub-manifold gravity the basic question remains. Is the imbeddability condition too strong physically? What about linear superposition of fields which is exact for Maxwell's electrodynamics in vacuum and a good approximation central also in gauge theories. Can one obtain linear superposition in some sense?
- Linear superposition for small deformations of gauge fields makes sense also in TGD but for space-time sheets the field variables would be the deformations of CP2 coordinates which are scalar fields. One could use preferred complex coordinates determined about SU(3) rotation to do perturbation theory but the idea about perturbations of metric and gauge fields would be lost. This does not look promising. Could linear superposition for fields be replaced with something more general but physically equivalent?
- This is indeed possible. The basic observation is utterly simple: what we know is that the effects of gauge fields superpose. The assumption that fields superpose is un-necessary! This is a highly non-trivial lesson in what operationalism means for theoreticians tending to take these kind of considerations as mere "philosphy".
- The hypothesis is that the superposition of effects of gauge fields occurs when the M4 projections of space-time sheets carrying gauge and gravitational fields intersect so that the sheets are extremely near to each other and can touch each other ( CP2 size is the relevant scale).
A more detailed formulation goes as follows.
- One can introduce common M4 coordinates for the space-time sheets. A test particle (or real particle) is identifiable as a wormhole contact and is therefore pointlike in excellent approximation. In the intersection region for M4 projections of space-time sheets the particle forms topological sum contacts with all the space-time sheets for which M4 projections intersect.
- The test particle experiences the sum of various gauge potentials of space-time sheets involved. For Maxwellian gauge fields linear superposition is obtained. For non-Abelian gauge fields gauge fields contain interaction terms between gauge potentials associated with different space-time sheets. Also the quantum generalization is obvious. The sum of the fields induces quantum transitions for states of individual space time sheets in some sense stationary in their internal gauge potentials.
- The linear superposition applies also in the case of gravitation. The induced metric for each space-time sheet can be expressed as a sum of Minkowski metric and CP2 part having interpretation as gravitational field. The natural hypothesis that in the above kind of situation the effective metric is sum of Minkowski metric with the sum of the CP2 contributions from various sheets. The effective metric for the system is well-defined and one can calculate a curvature tensor for it among other things and it contains naturally the interaction terms between different space-time sheets. At the Newtonian limit one obtains linear superposition of gravitational potentials. One can also postulate that test p"/public_html/articles/ moving along geodesics in the effective metric. These geodesics are not geodesics in the metrics of the space-time sheets.
- This picture makes it possible to interpret classical physics as the physics based on effective gauge and gravitational fields and applying in the regions where there are many space-time sheets which M4 intersections are non-empty. The loss of quantum coherence would be due to the effective superposition of very many modes having random phases.
The effective superposition of the CP2 parts of the induced metrics gives rise to an effective metric which is not in general imbeddable to M4× CP2. Therefore many-sheeted space-time makes possible a rather wide repertoire of 4-metrics realized as effective metrics as one might have expected and the basic objection can be circumvented In asymptotic regions where one can expect single sheetedness, only a rather narrow repertoire of "archetypal" field patterns of gauge fields and gravitational fields defined by topological field quanta is possible.
The skeptic can argue that this still need not make possible the imbedding of a rotating black hole metric as induced metric in any physically natural manner. This might be the case but need of course not be a catastrophe. We do not really know whether rotating blackhole metric is realized in Nature. I have indeed proposed that TGD predicts new physics new physics in rotating systems. Unfortunately, gravity probe B could not check whether this new physics is there since it was located at equator where the new effects vanish.
For background and more details see either the article
Could the measurements trying to detect absolute motion of Earth allow to test sub-manifold gravity? or the chapter TGD and GRT.