Why TGD and What TGD is?

This piece of text was written as an attempt to provide a popular summary about TGD. This is of course mission impossible since TGD is something at the top of centuries of evolution which has led from Newton to standard model. This means that there is a background of highly refined conceptual thinking about Universe so that even the best computer graphics and animations fail to help. One can still try to create some inspiring impressions at least. This chapter approaches the challenge by answering the most frequently asked questions. Why TGD? How TGD could help to solve the problems of recent day theoretical physics? What are the basic princples of TGD? What are the basic guidelines in the construction of TGD?

These are examples of this kind of questions which I try to answer in using the only language that I can talk. This language is a dialect of the language used by elementary particle physicists, quantum field theorists, and other people applying modern physics. At the level of practice involves technically heavy mathematics but since it relies on very beautiful and simple basic concepts, one can do with a minimum of formulas, and reader can always to to Wikipedia if it seems that more details are needed. I hope that reader could catch the basic principles and concepts: technical details are not important. And I almost forgot: problems! TGD itself and almost every new idea in the development of TGD has been inspired by a problem.

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Topological Geometrodynamics: Three Visions

In this chapter I will discuss three basic visions about quantum Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD). It is somewhat matter of taste which idea one should call a vision and the selection of these three in a special role is what I feel natural just now.

  1. The first vision is generalization of Einstein's geometrization program based on the idea that the K\"ahler geometry of the world of classical worlds (WCW) with physical states identified as classical spinor fields on this space would provide the ultimate formulation of physics.

  2. Second vision is number theoretical and involves three threads. The first thread relies on the idea that it should be possible to fuse real number based physics and physics associated with various p-adic number fields to single coherent whole by a proper generalization of number concept. Second thread is based on the hypothesis that classical number fields could allow to understand the fundamental symmetries of physics and and imply quantum TGD from purely number theoretical premises with associativity defining the fundamental dynamical principle both classically and quantum mechanically. The third threadrelies on the notion of infinite primes whose construction has amazing structural similarities with second quantization of super-symmetric quantum field theories. In particular, the hierarchy of infinite primes and integers allows to generalize the notion of numbers so that given real number has infinitely rich number theoretic anatomy based on the existence of infinite number of real units.

  3. The third vision is based on TGD inspired theory of consciousness, which can be regarded as an extension of quantum measurement theory to a theory of consciousness raising observer from an outsider to a key actor of quantum physics.

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TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness

The basic ideas and implications of TGD inspired theory of consciousness are briefly summarized. The notions of quantum jump and self can be unified in the recent formulation of TGD relying on dark matter hierarchy characterized by increasing values of Planck constant. Negentropy Maximization Principle serves as a basic variational principle for the dynamics of quantum jump. The new view about the relation of geometric and subjective time leads to a new view about memory and intentional action. The quantum measurement theory based on finite measurement resolution and realized in terms of hyper-finite factors of type II1 justifies the notions of sharing of mental images and stereo-consciousness deduced earlier on basis of quantum classical correspondence. Qualia reduce to quantum number increments associated with quantum jump. Self-referentiality of consciousness can be understood from quantum classical correspondence implying a symbolic representation of contents of consciousness at space-time level updated in each quantum jump. p-Adic physics provides space-time correlates for cognition and intentionality.

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TGD and M-Theory

In this chapter a critical comparison of M-theory and TGD as two competing theories is carried out. Dualities and black hole physics are regarded as basic victories of M-theory.

a) The counterpart of electric magnetic duality plays an important role also in TGD and it has become clear that it might change the sign of Kähler coupling strength rather than leaving it invariant. The different signs would be related to different time orientations of the space-time sheets. This option is favored also by TGD inspired cosmology.

b) The AdS/CFT duality of Maldacena involved with the quantum gravitational holography has a direct counterpart in TGD with 3-dimensional causal determinants serving as holograms so that the construction of absolute minima of Kähler action reduces to a local problem.

c) The attempts to develop further the nebulous idea about space-time surfaces as quaternionic sub-manifolds of an octonionic imbedding space led to the realization of duality which could be called number theoretical spontaneous compactification. Space-time can be regarded equivalently as a hyper-quaternionic 4-surface in M8 with hyper-octonionic structure or as a 4-surface in M4× CP2. d) The duality of string models relating Kaluza-Klein quantum numbers with YM quantum numbers could generalize to a duality between 7-dimensional light like causal determinants of the imbedding space (analogs of "big bang") and 3-dimensional light like causal determinants of space-time surface (analogs of black hole horizons).

e) The notion of cotangent bundle of configuration space of 3-surfaces suggests the interpretation of the number-theoretical compactification as a wave-particle duality in infinite-dimensional context. Also the duality of hyper-quaternionic and co-hyper-quaternionic 4-surfaces could be understood analogously. These ideas generalize at the formal level also to the M-theory assuming that stringy configuration space is introduced. The existence of Kähler metric very probably does not allow dynamical target space.

In TGD framework black holes are possible but putting black holes and particles in the same basket seems to be mixing of apples with oranges. The role of black hole horizons is taken in TGD by 3-D light like causal determinants, which are much more general objects. Black hole-elementary particle correspondence and p-adic length scale hypothesis have already earlier led to a formula for the entropy associated with elementary particle horizon.

The recent findings from RHIC have led to the realization that TGD predicts black hole like objects in all length scales. They are identifiable as highly tangled magnetic flux tubes in Hagedorn temperature and containing conformally confined matter with a large Planck constant and behaving like dark matter in a macroscopic quantum phase. The fact that string like structures in macroscopic quantum states are ideal for topological quantum computation modifies dramatically the traditional view about black holes as information destroyers.

The discussion of the basic weaknesses of M-theory is motivated by the fact that the few predictions of the theory are wrong which has led to the introduction of anthropic principle to save the theory. The mouse as a tailor history of M-theory, the lack of a precise problem to which M-theory would be a solution, the hard nosed reductionism, and the censorship in Los Alamos archives preventing the interaction with competing theories could be seen as the basic reasons for the recent blind alley in M-theory.

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Can one apply Occam's razor as a general purpose debunking argument to TGD?

Occarm's razor have been used to debunk TGD. The following arguments provide the information needed by the reader to decide himself. Considerations at three levels.

The level of "world of classical worlds" (WCW) defined by the space of 3-surfaces endowed with Kähler structure and spinor structure and with the identification of WCW space spinor fields as quantum states of the Universe: this is nothing but Einstein's geometrization program applied to quantum theory. Second level is space-time level.

Space-time surfaces correspond to preferred extremals of Käction in M4× CP2. The number of field like variables is 4 corresponding to 4 dynamically independent imbedding space coordinates. Classical gauge fields and gravitational field emerge from the dynamics of 4-surfaces. Strong form of holography reduces this dynamics to the data given at string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces and preferred extremals are minimal surface extremals of Kähler action so that the classical dynamics in space-time interior does not depend on coupling constants at all which are visible via boundary conditions only. Continuous coupling constant evolution is replaced with a sequence of phase transitions between phases labelled by critical values of coupling constants: loop corrections vanish in given phase. Induced spinor fields are localized at string world sheets to guarantee well-definedness of em charge.

At imbedding space level the modes of imbedding space spinor fields define ground states of super-symplectic representations and appear in QFT-GRT limit. GRT involves post-Newtonian approximation involving the notion of gravitational force. In TGD framework the Newtonian force correspond to a genuine force at imbedding space level.

I was also asked for a summary about what TGD is and what it predicts. I decided to add this summary to this chapter although it is goes slightly outside of its title.

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The Geometry of the World of the Classical Worlds

The topics of this chapter are the purely geometric aspects of the vision about physics as an infinite-dimensional Kähler geometry of the "world of classical worlds", with " classical world" identified either as 3-D surface of the unique Bohr orbit like 4-surface traversing through it. The non-determinism of Kähler action forces to generalize the notion of 3-surfaces so that unions of space-like surfaces with time like separations must be allowed. The considerations are restricted mostly to real context and the problems related to the p-adicization are discussed later.

There are two separate tasks involved.

  1. Provide configuration space of 3-surfaces with Kähler geometry which is consistent with 4-dimensional general coordinate invariance so that the metric is Diff4 degenerate. General coordinate invariance implies that the definition of metric must assign to a give 3-surface X3 a 4-surface as a kind of Bohr orbit X4(X3).

  2. Provide the configuration space with a spinor structure. The great idea is to identify configuration space gamma matrices in terms of super algebra generators expressible using second quantized fermionic oscillator operators for induced free spinor fields at the space-time surface assignable to a given 3-surface. The isometry generators and contractions of Killing vectors with gamma matrices would thus form a generalization of Super Kac-Moody algebra.

From the experience with loop spaces one can expect that there is no hope about existence of well-defined Riemann connection unless this space is union of infinite-dimensional symmetric spaces with constant curvature metric and simple considerations requires that Einstein equations are satisfied by each component in the union. The coordinates labeling these symmetric spaces are zero modes having interpretation as genuinely classical variables which do not quantum fluctuate since they do not contribute to the line element of the configuration space.

The construction of the Kähler structure involves also the identification of complex structure.

  1. Direct construction of Kähler function as action associated with a preferred Bohr orbit like extremal for some physically motivated action action leads to a unique result.

  2. Second approach is group theoretical and is based on a direct guess of isometries of the infinite-dimensional symmetric space formed by 3-surfaces with fixed values of zero modes. The group of isometries is generalization of Kac-Moody group obtained by replacing finite-dimensional Lie group with the group of symplectic transformations of δM4+×CP2, where δM4+ is the boundary of 4-dimensional future light-cone.

  3. Third approach is based on the conjecture that yhr vacuum functional of the theory identifiable as an exponent of Kähler function is expressible as a Dirac determinant. This approach leads to an explicit expression of configuration space metric in terms of finite number of eigenvalues assignable to the modified Dirac operator defined by Kähler action. The notion of number theoretical compactification and the known properties of extremals of Kähler action play key role in this approach.

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Classical TGD

In this chapter the classical field equations associated with the Kähler action are studied. The study of the extremals of the Kähler action has turned out to be extremely useful for the development of TGD. Towards the end of year 2003 quite dramatic progress occurred in the understanding of field equations and it seems that field equations might be in well-defined sense exactly solvable. Years later the understanding of quantum TGD at fundamental level deepened the understanding.

1. Preferred extremals and quantum criticality

The identification of preferred extremals of Kähler action defining counterparts of Bohr orbits has been one of the basic challenges of quantum TGD. By quantum classical correspondence the non-deterministic space-time dynamics should mimic the dissipative dynamics of the quantum jump sequence. It should also represent space-time correlate for quantum criticality.

The solution of the problem through the understanding of the implications number theoretical compactification and the realization of quantum TGD at fundamental level in terms of second quantization of induced spinor fields assigned to the modified Dirac action defined by Kähler action. Noether currents assignable to the modified Dirac equation are conserved only if the first variation of the modified Dirac operator DK defined by Kähler action vanishes. This is equivalent with the vanishing of the second variation of Kähler action -at least for the variations corresponding to dynamical symmetries having interpretation as dynamical degrees of freedom which are below measurement resolution and therefore effectively gauge symmetries.

The vanishing of the second variation in interior of X4(X3l) is what corresponds exactly to quantum criticality so that the basic vision about quantum dynamics of quantum TGD would lead directly to a precise identification of the preferred extremals. Something which I should have noticed for more than decade ago! The question whether these extremals correspond to absolute minima remains however open. The vanishing of second variations of preferred extremals suggests a generalization of catastrophe theory of Thom, where the rank of the matrix defined by the second derivatives of potential function defines a hierarchy of criticalities with the tip of bifurcation set of the catastrophe representing the complete vanishing of this matrix. In the recent case this theory would be generalized to infinite-dimensional context.

The space-time representation for dissipation comes from the interpretation of regions of space-time surface with Euclidian signature of induced metric as generalized Feynman diagrams (or equivalently the light-like 3-surfaces defining boundaries between Euclidian and Minkowskian regions). Dissipation would be represented in terms of Feynman graphs representing irreversible dynamics and expressed in the structure of zero energy state in which positive energy part corresponds to the initial state and negative energy part to the final state. Outside Euclidian regions classical dissipation should be absent and this indeed the case for the known extremals.

2. Hamilton-Jacobi structure

Most known extremals share very general properties. One of them is Hamilton-Jacobi structure meaning the possibility to assign to the extremal so called Hamilton-Jacobi coordinates. This means dual slicings of M4 by string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces. Number theoretic compactification led years later to the same condition. This slicing allows a dimensional reduction of quantum TGD to Minkowksian and Euclidian variants of string model and allows to understand how Equivalence Principle is realized at space-time level. Also holography in the sense that the dynamics of 3-dimensional space-time surfaces reduces to that for 2-D partonic surfaces in a given measurement resolution follows. The construction of quantum TGD relies in essential manner to this property. CP2 type vacuum extremals do not possess Hamilton-Jaboci structure but this can be understood in the picture provided by number theoretical compactification.

3. Physical interpretation of extremals

The vanishing of Lorentz 4-force for the induced Kähler field means that the vacuum 4-currents are in a mechanical equilibrium and dissipation is absent except in the sense that the super-position of generalized Feynman graphs representing the zero energy state represents dissipation. Lorentz 4-force vanishes for all known solutions of field equations.

  1. The vanishing of the Lorentz 4-force in turn implies local covariant conservation of the ordinary energy momentum tensor. The corresponding condition is implied by Einstein's equations in General Relativity.

  2. The hypothesis would mean that the solutions of field equations are what might be called generalized Beltrami fields. The condition implies that vacuum currents can be non-vanishing only provided the dimension DCP2 of the CP2 projection of the space-time surface is less than four so that in the regions with DCP2=4, Maxwell's vacuum equations are satisfied.

  3. The hypothesis that Kähler current is proportional to a product of an arbitrary function φ of CP2 coordinates and of the instanton current generalizes Beltrami condition and reduces to it when electric field vanishes. Kähler current has vanishing divergence for DCP2 < 4, and Lorentz 4-force indeed vanishes. The remaining task would be the explicit construction of the imbeddings of these fields and the demonstration that field equations can be satisfied.

  4. Under additional conditions magnetic field reduces to what is known as Beltrami field. Beltrami fields are known to be extremely complex but highly organized structures. The natural conjecture is that topologically quantized many-sheeted magnetic and Z0 magnetic Beltrami fields and their generalizations serve as templates for the helical molecules populating living matter, and explain both chirality selection, the complex linking and knotting of DNA and protein molecules, and even the extremely complex and self-organized dynamics of biological systems at the molecular level.

  5. Beltrami fields appear in physical applications as asymptotic self organization patterns for which Lorentz force and dissipation vanish. Preferred extremal property abstracted to purely algebraic generalized Beltrami conditions would make sense also in the p-adic context as it should by number theoretic universality.

  6. As a consequence field equations can be reduced to algebraic conditions stating that energy momentum tensor and second fundamental form have no common components (this occurs also for minimal surfaces in string models) and only the conditions stating that Kähler current vanishes, is light-like, or proportional to instanton current, remain and define the remaining field equations. The conditions guaranteing topologization to instanton current can be solved explicitly. Solutions can be found also in the more general case when Kähler current is not proportional to instanton current. On basis of these findings there are strong reasons to believe that classical TGD is exactly solvable.

4. The dimension of CP2 projection as classifier for the fundamental phases of matter

The dimension DCP2 of CP2 projection of the space-time sheet encountered already in p-adic mass calculations classifies the fundamental phases of matter.

  1. For DCP2=4 empty space Maxwell equations would hold true. This phase is chaotic and analogous to de-magnetized phase. There is also a CP breaking associated with this phase. At least CP2 type vacuum extremals and their deformations represent this phase.

  2. DCP2=2 phase is analogous to ferromagnetic phase: highly ordered and relatively simple. In fact, this phase as such does not correspond to preferred extremals but only their small deformations obtained by topological condensation of CP2 type vacuum extremals representing elementary fermions at these extremals and by topological condensation of these extremals at larger space-time sheets creating wormhole contacts representing elementary bosons.

  3. DCP2=3 is the analog of spin glass and liquid crystal phases, extremely complex but highly organized by the properties of the generalized Beltrami fields. Also these extremals would represents ground states whose small deformations represent the phase. This phase is the boundary between chaos and order and corresponds to life emerging in the interaction of magnetic bodies with bio-matter. It is possible only in a finite temperature interval (note however the p-adic hierarchy of critical temperatures) and characterized by chirality just like life.

5. Specific extremals of Kähler action

The study of extremals of Kähler action represents more than decade old layer in the development of TGD.

  1. The huge vacuum degeneracy is the most characteristic feature of Kähler action (any 4-surface having CP2 projection which is Legendre sub-manifold is vacuum extremal, Legendre sub-manifolds of CP2 are in general 2-dimensional). This vacuum degeneracy is behind the spin glass analogy and leads to the p-adic TGD. As found in the second part of the book, various particle like vacuum extremals also play an important role in the understanding of the quantum TGD.

  2. The so called CP2 type vacuum extremals have finite, negative action and are therefore an excellent candidate for real particles whereas vacuum extremals with vanishing Kähler action are candidates for the virtual particles. These extremals have one dimensional M4 projection, which is light like curve but not necessarily geodesic and locally the metric of the extremal is that of CP2: the quantization of this motion leads to Virasoro algebra. Space-times with topology CP2#CP2#...CP2 are identified as the generalized Feynmann diagrams with lines thickened to 4-manifolds of "thickness" of the order of CP2 radius. The quantization of the random motion with light velocity associated with the CP2 type extremals in fact led to the discovery of Super Virasoro invariance, which through the construction of the configuration space geometry, becomes a basic symmetry of quantum TGD.

  3. There are also various non-vacuum extremals.

    1. String like objects, with string tension of same order of magnitude as possessed by the cosmic strings of GUTs, have a crucial role in TGD inspired model for the galaxy formation and in the TGD based cosmology.

    2. The so called massless extremals describe non-linear plane waves propagating with the velocity of light such that the polarization is fixed in given point of the space-time surface. Characteristic for TGD is the light like Kähler current: in the ordinary Maxwell theory vacuum gauge currents are not possible. This current serves as a source of coherent photons, which might play an important role in the quantum model of bio-system as a macroscopic quantum system.

    3. In the so called Maxwell's phase, ordinary Maxwell equations for the induced Kähler field are satisfied in an excellent approximation. A special case is provided by a radially symmetric extremal having an interpretation as the space-time exterior to a topologically condensed particle. The sign of the gravitational mass correlates with that of the Kähler charge and one can understand the generation of the matter antimatter asymmetry from the basic properties of this extremal. The possibility to understand the generation of the matter antimatter asymmetry directly from the basic equations of the theory gives strong support in favor of TGD in comparison to the ordinary EYM theories, where the generation of the matter antimatter asymmetry is still poorly understood.

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Physics as a Generalized Number Theory

There are two basic approaches to the construction of quantum TGD. The first approach relies on the vision of quantum physics as infinite-dimensional Kähler geometry for the "world of classical worlds" identified as the space of 3-surfaces in in certain 8-dimensional space. Essentially a generalization of the Einstein's geometrization of physics program is in question. The second vision is the identification of physics as a generalized number theory. This program involves three threads: various p-adic physics and their fusion together with real number based physics to a larger structure, the attempt to understand basic physics in terms of classical number fields (in particular, identifying associativity condition as the basic dynamical principle), and infinite primes whose construction is formally analogous to a repeated second quantization of an arithmetic quantum field theory. In this article brief summaries of physics as infinite-dimensional geometry and generalized number theory are given to be followed by more detailed articles.

1. p-Adic physics and their fusion with real physics

The basic technical problems of the fusion of real physics and various p-adic physics to single coherent whole relate to the notion of definite integral both at space-time level, imbedding space level and the level of WCW (the "world of classical worlds"). The expressibility of WCW as a union of symmetric spacesleads to a proposal that harmonic analysis of symmetric spaces can be used to define various integrals as sums over Fourier components. This leads to the proposal the p-adic variant of symmetric space is obtained by a algebraic continuation through a common intersection of these spaces, which basically reduces to an algebraic variant of coset space involving algebraic extension of rationals by roots of unity. This brings in the notion of angle measurement resolution coming as Δ φ= 2π/pn for given p-adic prime p. Also a proposal how one can complete the discrete version of symmetric space to a continuous p-adic versions emerges and means that each point is effectively replaced with the p-adic variant of the symmetric space identifiable as a p-adic counterpart of the real discretization volume so that a fractal p-adic variant of symmetric space results.

If the Kähler geometry of WCW is expressible in terms of rational or algebraic functions, it can in principle be continued the p-adic context. One can however consider the possibility that that the integrals over partonic 2-surfaces defining flux Hamiltonians exist p-adically as Riemann sums. This requires that the geometries of the partonic 2-surfaces effectively reduce to finite sub-manifold geometries in the discretized version of Δ M4+× CP2. If Kähler action is required to exist p-adically same kind of condition applies to the space-time surfaces themselves. These strong conditions might make sense in the intersection of the real and p-adic worlds assumed to characterized living matter.

2. TGD and classical number fields

The basis vision is that the geometry of the infinite-dimensional WCW ("world of classical worlds") is unique from its mere existence. This leads to its identification as union of symmetric spaces whose Kähler geometries are fixed by generalized conformal symmetries. This fixes space-time dimension and the decomposition M4× S and the idea is that the symmetries of the Kähler manifold S make it somehow unique. The motivating observations are that the dimensions of classical number fields are the dimensions of partonic 2-surfaces, space-time surfaces, and imbedding space and M8 can be identified as hyper-octonions- a sub-space of complexified octonions obtained by adding a commuting imaginary unit. This stimulates some questions.

Could one understand S=CP2 number theoretically in the sense that M8 and H=M4× CP2 be in some deep sense equivalent ("number theoretical compactification" or M8-H duality)? Could associativity define the fundamental dynamical principle so that space-time surfaces could be regarded as associative or co-associative (defined properly) sub-manifolds of M8 or equivalently of H.

One can indeed define the associativite (co-associative) 4-surfaces using octonionic representation of gamma matrices of 8-D spaces as surfaces for which the modified gamma matrices span an associate (co-associative) sub-space at each point of space-time surface. Also M8-H duality holds true if one assumes that this associative sub-space at each point contains preferred plane of M8 identifiable as a preferred commutative or co-commutative plane (this condition generalizes to an integral distribution of commutative planes in M8). These planes are parametrized by CP2 and this leads to M8-H duality.

WCW itself can be identified as the space of 4-D local sub-algebras of the local Clifford algebra of M8 or H which are associative or co-associative. An open conjecture is that this characterization of the space-time surfaces is equivalent with the preferred extremal property of Kähler action with preferred extremal identified as a critical extremal allowing infinite-dimensional algebra of vanishing second variations.

3. Infinite primes

The construction of infinite primes is formally analogous to a repeated second quantization of an arithmetic quantum field theory by taking the many particle states of previous level elementary particles at the new level. Besides free many particle states also the analogs of bound states appear. In the representation in terms of polynomials the free states correspond to products of first order polynomials with rational zeros. Bound states correspond to nth order polynomials with non-rational but algebraic zeros.

The construction can be generalized to classical number fields and their complexifications obtained by adding a commuting imaginary unit. Special class corresponds to hyper-octonionic primes for which the imaginary part of ordinary octonion is multiplied by the commuting imaginary unit so that one obtains a sub-space M8 with Minkowski signature of metric. Also in this case the basic construction reduces to that for rational or complex rational primes and more complex primes are obtained by acting using elements of the octonionic automorphism group which preserve the complex octonionic integer property.

Can one map infinite primes/integers/rationals to quantum states? Do they have space-time surfaces as correlates? Quantum classical correspondence realized in terms of modified Dirac operator implies that if infinite rationals can be mapped to quantum states then the mapping of quantum states to space-time surfaces automatically gives the map to space-time surfaces. The question is therefore whether the mapping to quantum states defined by WCW spinor fields is possible. A natural hypothesis is that number theoretic fermions can be mapped to real fermions and number theoretic bosons to WCW ("world of classical worlds") Hamiltonians. The crucial observation is that one can construct infinite hierarchy of hyper-octonionic units by forming ratios of infinite integers such that their ratio equals to one in real sense: the integers have interpretation as positive and negative energy parts of zero energy states. One can construct also sums of these units with complex coefficients using commuting imaginary unit and these sums can be normalized to unity and have interpretation as states in Hilbert space. These units can be assumed to possess well defined standard model quantum numbers. It is possible to map the quantum number combinations of WCW spinor fields to these states. Hence the points of M8 can be said to have infinitely complex number theoretic anatomy so that quantum states of the universe can be mapped to this anatomy. One could talk about algebraic holography or number theoretic Brahman=Atman identity.

One can also ask how infinite primes relate to the p-adicization program and to the hierarchy of Planck constants. The key observation is that infinite primes are in one-one correspondence with rational numbers at the lower level of hierarchy. At the first level of hierarchy the p-adic norm with respect to p-adic prime for this rational gives power p-n so that one has two powers of p - pn+ andpn-- since two infinite primes corresponding to fermionic vacua X+/- 1, where X is the product of all primes at given level of hierarchy, characterize the partonic 2-surface. The proposal inspired by the p-adicization program is that Δ φ= 2π/pn defines angle measurement resolution crucial in the construction of p-adic variants of WCW ("world of classical world") as a union of symmetric coset spaces by starting from discrete variants of the real counterpart of symmetric space having common points with tis p-adic variant. The two measurement resolutions correspond to CD and CP2 degrees of freedom. The hierarchy of Planck constants generalizes imbedding space to a book like structure with pages identified in terms of singular coverings and factor spaces of CD and CP2. There are good arguments suggesting that only coverings characterized by integers na and nb are realized. The identifications na=n+ and nb=n- lead to highly non-trivial physical predictions and allow sharpen the view about the hierarchy of Planck constants. Therefore the notion of finite measurement resolution becomes the common denominator for the three threads of the number theoretic vision and give also a connection with the physics as infinite-dimensional geometry program and with the inclusions of hyper-finite factors defined by WCW spinor fields and proposed to characterize finite measurement resolution at quantum level.

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Unified Number Theoretic Vision

An updated view about M8-H duality is discussed. M8-H duality allows to deduce M4× CP2 via number theoretical compactification. One important correction is that octonionic spinor structure makes sense only for M8 whereas for M4× CP2 complefixied quaternions characterized the spinor structure.

Octonions, quaternions, quaternionic space-time surfaces, octonionic spinors and twistors and twistor spaces are highly relevant for quantum TGD. In the following some general observations distilled during years are summarized.

There is a beautiful pattern present suggesting that H=M4× CP2 is completely unique on number theoretical grounds. Consider only the following facts. M4 and CP2 are the unique 4-D spaces allowing twistor space with Kähler structure. Octonionic projective space OP2 appears as octonionic twistor space (there are no higher-dimensional octonionic projective spaces). Octotwistors generalise the twistorial construction from M4 to M8 and octonionic gamma matrices make sense also for H with quaternionicity condition reducing OP2 to to 12-D G2/U(1)× U(1) having same dimension as the the twistor space CP3× SU(3)/U(1)× U(1) of H assignable to complexified quaternionic representation of gamma matrices.

A further fascinating structure related to octo-twistors is the non-associated analog of Lie group defined by automorphisms by octonionic imaginary units: this group is topologically six-sphere. Also the analogy of quaternionicity of preferred extremals in TGD with the Majorana condition central in super string models is very thought provoking. All this suggests that associativity indeed could define basic dynamical principle of TGD.

Number theoretical vision about quantum TGD involves both p-adic number fields and classical number fields and the challenge is to unify these approaches. The challenge is non-trivial since the p-adic variants of quaternions and octonions are not number fields without additional conditions. The key idea is that TGD reduces to the representations of Galois group of algebraic numbers realized in the spaces of octonionic and quaternionic adeles generalizing the ordinary adeles as Cartesian products of all number fields: this picture relates closely to Langlands program. Associativity would force sub-algebras of the octonionic adeles defining 4-D surfaces in the space of octonionic adeles so that 4-D space-time would emerge naturally. M8-H correspondence in turn would map the space-time surface in M8 to M4× CP2.

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Evolution of Ideas about Hyper-finite Factors in TGD

The work with TGD inspired model for quantum computation led to the realization that von Neumann algebras, in particular hyper-finite factors, could provide the mathematics needed to develop a more explicit view about the construction of M-matrix generalizing the notion of S-matrix in zero energy ontology (ZEO). In this chapter I will discuss various aspects of hyper-finite factors and their possible physical interpretation in TGD framework.

1. Hyper-finite factors in quantum TGD

The following argument suggests that von Neumann algebras known as hyper-finite factors (HFFs) of type III1 appearing in relativistic quantum field theories provide also the proper mathematical framework for quantum TGD.

  1. The Clifford algebra of the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space is a von Neumann algebra known as HFF of type II1. Therefore also the Clifford algebra at a given point (light-like 3-surface) of world of classical worlds (WCW) is HFF of type II1. If the fermionic Fock algebra defined by the fermionic oscillator operators assignable to the induced spinor fields (this is actually not obvious!) is infinite-dimensional it defines a representation for HFF of type II1. Super-conformal symmetry suggests that the extension of the Clifford algebra defining the fermionic part of a super-conformal algebra by adding bosonic super-generators representing symmetries of WCW respects the HFF property. It could however occur that HFF of type II results.
  2. WCW is a union of sub-WCWs associated with causal diamonds (CD) defined as intersections of future and past directed light-cones. One can allow also unions of CDs and the proposal is that CDs within CDs are possible. Whether CDs can intersect is not clear.
  3. The assumption that the M4 proper distance a between the tips of CD is quantized in powers of 2 reproduces p-adic length scale hypothesis but one must also consider the possibility that a can have all possible values. Since SO(3) is the isotropy group of CD, the CDs associated with a given value of a and with fixed lower tip are parameterized by the Lobatchevski space L(a)=SO(3,1)/SO(3). Therefore the CDs with a free position of lower tip are parameterized by M4× L(a). A possible interpretation is in terms of quantum cosmology with a identified as cosmic time. Since Lorentz boosts define a non-compact group, the generalization of so called crossed product construction strongly suggests that the local Clifford algebra of WCW is HFF of type III1. If one allows all values of a, one ends up with M4× M4+ as the space of moduli for WCW.
  4. An interesting special aspect of 8-dimensional Clifford algebra with Minkowski signature is that it allows an octonionic representation of gamma matrices obtained as tensor products of unit matrix 1 and 7-D gamma matrices γk and Pauli sigma matrices by replacing 1 and γk by octonions. This inspires the idea that it might be possible to end up with quantum TGD from purely number theoretical arguments. One can start from a local octonionic Clifford algebra in M8. Associativity (co-associativity) condition is satisfied if one restricts the octonionic algebra to a subalgebra associated with any hyper-quaternionic and thus 4-D sub-manifold of M8. This means that the induced gamma matrices associated with the Kähler action span a complex quaternionic (complex co-quaternionic) sub-space at each point of the sub-manifold. This associative (co-associative) sub-algebra can be mapped a matrix algebra. Together with M8-H duality this leads automatically to quantum TGD and therefore also to the notion of WCW and its Clifford algebra which is however only mappable to an associative (co-associative( algebra and thus to HFF of type II1.

2. Hyper-finite factors and M-matrix

HFFs of type III1 provide a general vision about M-matrix.

  1. The factors of type III allow unique modular automorphism Δit (fixed apart from unitary inner automorphism). This raises the question whether the modular automorphism could be used to define the M-matrix of quantum TGD. This is not the case as is obvious already from the fact that unitary time evolution is not a sensible concept in zero energy ontology.
  2. Concerning the identification of M-matrix the notion of state as it is used in theory of factors is a more appropriate starting point than the notion modular automorphism but as a generalization of thermodynamical state is certainly not enough for the purposes of quantum TGD and quantum field theories (algebraic quantum field theorists might disagree!). Zero energy ontology requires that the notion of thermodynamical state should be replaced with its "complex square root" abstracting the idea about M-matrix as a product of positive square root of a diagonal density matrix and a unitary S-matrix. This generalization of thermodynamical state -if it exists- would provide a firm mathematical basis for the notion of M-matrix and for the fuzzy notion of path integral.
  3. The existence of the modular automorphisms relies on Tomita-Takesaki theorem, which assumes that the Hilbert space in which HFF acts allows cyclic and separable vector serving as ground state for both HFF and its commutant. The translation to the language of physicists states that the vacuum is a tensor product of two vacua annihilated by annihilation oscillator type algebra elements of HFF and creation operator type algebra elements of its commutant isomorphic to it. Note however that these algebras commute so that the two algebras are not hermitian conjugates of each other. This kind of situation is exactly what emerges in zero energy ontology (ZEO): the two vacua can be assigned with the positive and negative energy parts of the zero energy states entangled by M-matrix.
  4. There exists infinite number of thermodynamical states related by modular automorphisms. This must be true also for their possibly existing "complex square roots". Physically they would correspond to different measurement interactions meaning the analog of state function collapse in zero modes fixing the classical conserved charges equal to the quantal counterparts. Classical charges would be parameters characterizing zero modes.

A concrete construction of M-matrix motivated the recent rather precise view about basic variational principles is proposed. Fundamental fermions localized to string world sheets can be said to propagate as massless particles along their boundaries. The fundamental interaction vertices correspond to two fermion scattering for fermions at opposite throats of wormhole contact and the inverse of the conformal scaling generator L0 would define the stringy propagator characterizing this interaction. Fundamental bosons correspond to pairs of fermion and antifermion at opposite throats of wormhole contact. Physical particles correspond to pairs of wormhole contacts with monopole Kähler magnetic flux flowing around a loop going through wormhole contacts.

3. Connes tensor product as a realization of finite measurement resolution

The inclusions N M of factors allow an attractive mathematical description of finite measurement resolution in terms of Connes tensor product but do not fix M-matrix as was the original optimistic belief.

  1. In ZEO N would create states experimentally indistinguishable from the original one. Therefore N takes the role of complex numbers in non-commutative quantum theory. The space M/ N would correspond to the operators creating physical states modulo measurement resolution and has typically fractal dimension given as the index of the inclusion. The corresponding spinor spaces have an identification as quantum spaces with non-commutative N-valued coordinates.
  2. This leads to an elegant description of finite measurement resolution. Suppose that a universal M-matrix describing the situation for an ideal measurement resolution exists as the idea about square root of state encourages to think. Finite measurement resolution forces to replace the probabilities defined by the M-matrix with their N "averaged counterparts. The "averaging" would be in terms of the complex square root of N-state and a direct analog of functionally or path integral over the degrees of freedom below measurement resolution defined by (say) length scale cutoff.
  3. One can construct also directly M-matrices satisfying the measurement resolution constraint. The condition that N acts like complex numbers on M-matrix elements as far as N-"averaged probabilities are considered is satisfied if M-matrix is a tensor product of M-matrix in M( N interpreted as finite-dimensional space with a projection operator to N. The condition that N averaging in terms of a complex square root of N state produces this kind of M-matrix poses a very strong constraint on M-matrix if it is assumed to be universal (apart from variants corresponding to different measurement interactions).

4. Analogs of quantum matrix groups from finite measurement resolution?

The notion of quantum group replaces ordinary matrices with matrices with non-commutative elements. In TGD framework I have proposed that the notion should relate to the inclusions of von Neumann algebras allowing to describe mathematically the notion of finite measurement resolution.

In this chapter I will consider the notion of quantum matrix inspired by recent view about quantum TGD and it provides a concrete representation and physical interpretation of quantum groups in terms of finite measurement resolution. The basic idea is to replace complex matrix elements with operators expressible as products of non-negative hermitian operators and unitary operators analogous to the products of modulus and phase as a representation for complex numbers.

The condition that determinant and sub-determinants exist is crucial for the well-definedness of eigenvalue problem in the generalized sense. The weak definition of determinant meaning its development with respect to a fixed row or column does not pose additional conditions. Strong definition of determinant requires its invariance under permutations of rows and columns. The permutation of rows/columns turns out to have interpretation as braiding for the hermitian operators defined by the moduli of operator valued matrix elements. The commutativity of all sub-determinants is essential for the replacement of eigenvalues with eigenvalue spectra of hermitian operators and sub-determinants define mutually commuting set of operators.

The resulting quantum matrices define a more general structure than quantum group but provide a concrete representation and interpretation for quantum group in terms of finite measurement resolution if q is a root of unity. For q=+/- 1 (Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics) one obtains quantum matrices for which the determinant is apart from possible change by sign factor invariant under the permutations of both rows and columns. One could also understand the fractal structure of inclusion sequences of hyper-finite factors resulting by recursively replacing operators appearing as matrix elements with quantum matrices.

5. Quantum spinors and fuzzy quantum mechanics

The notion of quantum spinor leads to a quantum mechanical description of fuzzy probabilities. For quantum spinors state function reduction cannot be performed unless quantum deformation parameter equals to q=1. The reason is that the components of quantum spinor do not commute: it is however possible to measure the commuting operators representing moduli squared of the components giving the probabilities associated with "true" and "false". The universal eigenvalue spectrum for probabilities does not in general contain (1,0) so that quantum qbits are inherently fuzzy. State function reduction would occur only after a transition to q=1 phase and decoherence is not a problem as long as it does not induce this transition.

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Does TGD Predict Spectrum of Planck Constants?

The quantization of Planck constant has been the basic them of TGD since 2005. The basic idea was stimulated by the finding of Nottale that planetary orbits could be seen as Bohr orbits with enormous value of Planck constant given by hbargr= GM1M2/v0, where the velocity parameter v0 has the approximate value v0≈ 2-11 for the inner planets. This inspired the ideas that quantization is due to a condensation of ordinary matter around dark matter concentrated near Bohr orbits and that dark matter is in macroscopic quantum phase in astrophysical scales. The second crucial empirical input were the anomalies associated with living matter. The recent version of the chapter represents the evolution of ideas about quantization of Planck constants from a perspective given by seven years's work with the idea. A very concise summary about the situation is as follows.

Basic physical ideas

The basic phenomenological rules are simple and there is no need to modify them.

  1. The phases with non-standard values of effective Planck constant are identified as dark matter. The motivation comes from the natural assumption that only the particles with the same value of effective Planck can appear in the same vertex. One can illustrate the situation in terms of the book metaphor. Imbedding spaces with different values of Planck constant form a book like structure and matter can be transferred between different pages only through the back of the book where the pages are glued together. One important implication is that light exotic charged particles lighter than weak bosons are possible if they have non-standard value of Planck constant. The standard argument excluding them is based on decay widths of weak bosons and has led to a neglect of large number of particle physics anomalies.
  2. Large effective or real value of Planck constant scales up Compton length - or at least de Broglie wave length - and its geometric correlate at space-time level identified as size scale of the space-time sheet assignable to the particle. This could correspond to the Kähler magnetic flux tube for the particle forming consisting of two flux tubes at parallel space-time sheets and short flux tubes at ends with length of order CP2 size.

    This rule has far reaching implications in quantum biology and neuroscience since macroscopic quantum phases become possible as the basic criterion stating that macroscopic quantum phase becomes possible if the density of particles is so high that particles as Compton length sized objects overlap. Dark matter therefore forms macroscopic quantum phases. One implication is the explanation of mysterious looking quantal effects of ELF radiation in EEG frequency range on vertebrate brain: E=hf implies that the energies for the ordinary value of Planck constant are much below the thermal threshold but large value of Planck constant changes the situation. Also the phase transitions modifying the value of Planck constant and changing the lengths of flux tubes (by quantum classical correspondence) are crucial as also reconnections of the flux tubes.

    The hierarchy of Planck constants suggests also a new interpretation for FQHE (fractional quantum Hall effect) in terms of anyonic phases with non-standard value of effective Planck constant realized in terms of the effective multi-sheeted covering of imbedding space: multi-sheeted space-time is to be distinguished from many-sheeted space-time.

    In astrophysics and cosmology the implications are even more dramatic. It was Nottale who first introduced the notion of gravitational Planck constant as hbargr= GMm/v0, v0<1 has interpretation as velocity light parameter in units c=1. This would be true for GMm/v0 ≥ 1. The interpretation of hbargr in TGD framework is as an effective Planck constant associated with space-time sheets mediating gravitational interaction between masses M and m. The huge value of hbargr means that the integer hbargr/hbar0 interpreted as the number of sheets of covering is gigantic and that Universe possesses gravitational quantum coherence in super-astronomical scales for masses which are large. This changes the view about gravitons and suggests that gravitational radiation is emitted as dark gravitons which decay to pulses of ordinary gravitons replacing continuous flow of gravitational radiation.

  3. Why Nature would like to have large effective value of Planck constant? A possible answer relies on the observation that in perturbation theory the expansion takes in powers of gauge couplings strengths α=g2/4πhbar. If the effective value of hbar replaces its real value as one might expect to happen for multi-sheeted particles behaving like single particle, α is scaled down and perturbative expansion converges for the new particles. One could say that Mother Nature loves theoreticians and comes in rescue in their attempts to calculate. In quantum gravitation the problem is especially acute since the dimensionless parameter GMm/hbar has gigantic value. Replacing hbar with hbargr=GMm/v0 the coupling strength becomes v0<1.

Space-time correlates for the hierarchy of Planck constants

The hierarchy of Planck constants was introduced to TGD originally as an additional postulate and formulated as the existence of a hierarchy of imbedding spaces defined as Cartesian products of singular coverings of M4 and CP2 with numbers of sheets given by integers na and nb and hbar=nhbar0. n=nanb.

With the advent of zero energy ontology, it became clear that the notion of singular covering space of the imbedding space could be only a convenient auxiliary notion. Singular means that the sheets fuse together at the boundary of multi-sheeted region. The effective covering space emerges naturally from the vacuum degeneracy of Kähler action meaning that all deformations of canonically imbedded M4 in M4×CP2 have vanishing action up to fourth order in small perturbation. This is clear from the fact that the induced Kähler form is quadratic in the gradients of CP2 coordinates and Kähler action is essentially Maxwell action for the induced Kähler form. The vacuum degeneracy implies that the correspondence between canonical momentum currents ∂LK/∂(∂αhk) defining the modified gamma matrices and gradients ∂α hk is not one-to-one. Same canonical momentum current corresponds to several values of gradients of imbedding space coordinates. At the partonic 2-surfaces at the light-like boundaries of CD carrying the elementary particle quantum numbers this implies that the two normal derivatives of hk are many-valued functions of canonical momentum currents in normal directions.

Multi-furcation is in question and multi-furcations are indeed generic in highly non-linear systems and Kähler action is an extreme example about non-linear system. What multi-furcation means in quantum theory? The branches of multi-furcation are obviously analogous to single particle states. In quantum theory second quantization means that one constructs not only single particle states but also the many particle states formed from them. At space-time level single particle states would correspond to N branches bi of multi-furcation carrying fermion number. Two-particle states would correspond to 2-fold covering consisting of 2 branches bi and bj of multi-furcation. N-particle state would correspond to N-sheeted covering with all branches present and carrying elementary particle quantum numbers. The branches co-incide at the partonic 2-surface but since their normal space data are different they correspond to different tensor product factors of state space. Also now the factorization N= nanb occurs but now na and nb would relate to branching in the direction of space-like 3-surface and light-like 3-surface rather than M4 and CP2 as in the original hypothesis.

Multi-furcations relate closely to the quantum criticality of Kähler action. Feigenbaum bifurcations represent a toy example of a system which via successive bifurcations approaches chaos. Now more general multi-furcations in which each branch of given multi-furcation can multi-furcate further, are possible unless on poses any additional conditions. This allows to identify additional aspect of the geometric arrow of time. Either the positive or negative energy part of the zero energy state is "prepared" meaning that single n-sub-furcations of N-furcation is selected. The most general state of this kind involves superposition of various n-sub-furcations.

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Cosmology and Astrophysics in Many-Sheeted Space-Time

In this chapter the applications of TGD to astrophysics and cosmology are discussed. TGD inspired cosmology and astrophysics in their recent forms rely on an ontology differing dramatically from that of GRT based cosmologies. Zero energy ontology states that all physical states have vanishing net quantum numbers so that all matter is creatable from vacuum. The hierarchy of dark matter identified as macroscopic quantum phases labeled by arbitrarily large values of Planck constant is second aspect of the new ontology. The values of the gravitational Planck constant assignable to space-time sheets mediating gravitational interaction are gigantic. This implies that TGD inspired late cosmology might decompose into stationary phases corresponding to stationary quantum states in cosmological scales and critical cosmologies corresponding to quantum transitions changing the value of the gravitational Planck constant and inducing an accelerated cosmic expansion.

1. Does Equivalence Principle hold true in TGD Universe?

The understanding of Equivalence Principle in TGD framework has taken a long time.

  1. First came the conviction that coset representation for super-symplectic and super Kac-Moody algebras provides extremely general formulation of Equivalence Principle in which inertial and gravitational four-momenta are replaced with Super Virasoro generators of two algebras whose differences annihilate physical states. This idea came for years before becoming aware of its importance and I simply forgot it.

  2. Next came the realization of the fundamental role of number theoretical compactification providing a number theoretical interpretation of M4×CP2 and thus also of standard model quantum numbers. This lead to the identification of the preferred extremals of Kähler action and to the formulation of quantum TGD in terms of second quantized induced spinors fields. One of conclusion was that dimensional reduction for preferred extremals of Kähler action- if they have the properties required by theoretic compactification- leads to string model with string tension which is however not proportional to the inverse of Newton's constant but to Lp2, p-adic length scale squared and thus gigantic. The connection between gravitational constant and Lp2 comes from an old argument that I discovered about two decades ago and which allowed to predict the value of Kähler coupling strength by using as input electron mass and p-adic mass calculations. In this framework the role of Planck length as a fundamental length scale is taken by CP2 size so that Planck length scale loses its magic role as a length scale in which usual views about space-time geometry cease to hold true.

  3. The next step was the realization that zero energy ontology allows to avoid the paradox implied in positive energy ontology by the fact that gravitational energy is not conserved but inertial energy identified as Noether charge is. Energy conservation is always in some length scale in zero energy ontology.

  4. As a matter fact, there was still one step. I had to become fully aware that the identification of gravitational four-momentum in terms of Einstein tensor makes sense only in long length scales. This is of course trivial but for some reason I did not realize that this fact resolves the paradoxes associated with objects like cosmic strings.

The construction of quantum theory leads naturally to zero energy ontology stating that everything is creatable from vacuum. Zero energy states decompose into positive and negative energy parts having identification as initial and final states of particle reaction in time scales of perception longer than the geometro-temporal separation T of positive and negative energy parts of the state. If the time scale of perception is smaller than T, the usual positive energy ontology applies.

In zero energy ontology inertial four-momentum is a quantity depending on the temporal time scale T used and in time scales longer than T the contribution of zero energy states with parameter T1 < T to four-momentum vanishes. This scale dependence alone implies that it does not make sense to speak about conservation of inertial four-momentum in cosmological scales. Hence it would be in principle possible to identify inertial and gravitational four-momenta and achieve strong form of Equivalence Principle. It however seems that this is not the correct approach to follow.

Dark matter revolution with levels of the hierarchy labeled by values of Planck constant forces a further generalization of the notion of imbedding space and thus of space-time. One can say, that imbedding space is a book like structure obtained by gluing together infinite number of copies of the imbedding space like pages of a book: two copies characterized by singular discrete bundle structure are glued together along 4-dimensional set of common points. These points have physical interpretation in terms of quantum criticality. Particle states belonging to different sectors (pages of the book) can interact via field bodies representing space-time sheets which have parts belonging to two pages of this book.

4. Quantum criticality

TGD Universe is quantum counterpart of a statistical system at critical temperature. Quite recently it became clear that quantum criticality at the space-time level means the vanishing of second variation of Kähler action for preferred extremals- at least for deformations representing dynamical symmetries.

As a consequence, topological condensate is expected to possess hierarchical, fractal like structure containing topologically condensed 3-surfaces with all possible sizes. Both Kähler magnetized and Kähler electric 3-surfaces ought to be important and string like objects indeed provide a good example of Kähler magnetic structures important in TGD inspired cosmology. In particular space-time is expected to be many-sheeted even at cosmological scales and ordinary cosmology must be replaced with many-sheeted cosmology. The presence of vapor phase consisting of free cosmic strings containing topologically condensed fermions is second crucial aspect of TGD inspired cosmology.

Quantum criticality of TGD Universe, which corresponds to the vanishing of second variation of Kähler action for preferred extremals - at least of the variations related to dynamical symmetries- supports the view that many-sheeted cosmology is in some sense critical. Criticality in turn suggests fractality. Phase transitions, in particular the topological phase transitions giving rise to new space-time sheets, are (quantum) critical phenomena involving no scales. If the curvature of the 3-space does not vanish, it defines scale: hence the flatness of the cosmic time=constant section of the cosmology implied by the criticality is consistent with the scale invariance of the critical phenomena. This motivates the assumption that the new space-time sheets created in topological phase transitions are in good approximation modelable as critical Robertson-Walker cosmologies for some period of time at least.

These phase transitions are between stationary quantum states having stationary cosmologies as space-time correlates: also these cosmologies are determined uniquely apart from single parameter.

TGD allows global imbedding of subcritical cosmologies. A partial imbedding of one-parameter families of critical and overcritical cosmologies is possible. The infinite size of the horizon for the imbeddable critical cosmologies is in accordance with the presence of arbitrarily long range fluctuations at criticality and guarantees the average isotropy of the cosmology. Imbedding is possible for some critical duration of time. The parameter labeling these cosmologies is scale factor characterizing the duration of the critical period. These cosmologies have the same optical properties as inflationary cosmologies. Critical cosmology can be regarded as a 'Silent Whisper amplified to Bang' rather than 'Big Bang' and transformed to hyperbolic cosmology before its imbedding fails. Split strings decay to elementary particles in this transition and give rise to seeds of galaxies. In some later stage the hyperbolic cosmology can decompose to disjoint 3-surfaces. Thus each sub-cosmology is analogous to biological growth process leading eventually to death.

The critical cosmologies can be used as a building blocks of a fractal cosmology containing cosmologies containing ... cosmologies. p-Adic length scale hypothesis allows a quantitative formulation of the fractality. Fractal cosmology predicts cosmos to have essentially same optic properties as inflationary scenario but avoids the prediction of unknown vacuum energy density. Fractal cosmology explains the paradoxical result that the observed density of the matter is much lower than the critical density associated with the largest space-time sheet of the fractal cosmology. Also the observation that some astrophysical objects seem to be older than the Universe, finds a nice explanation.

Cosmic strings are the basic building blocks of TGD inspired cosmology and all structures including large voids, galaxies, stars, and even planets can be seen as pearls in a cosmic fractal necklaces consisting of cosmic strings containing smaller cosmic strings linked around them containing... During cosmological evolution the cosmic strings are transformed to magnetic flux tubes with smaller Kähler string tension and these structures are also key players in TGD inspired quantum biology.

The observed large voids would contain galactic cosmic strings at their boundaries. These voids would participate cosmic expansion only in average sense. During stationary periods the quantum states would be modelable using stationary cosmologies and during phase transitions increasing gravitational Planck constant and thus size of the large void they critical cosmologies would be the appropriate description. The acceleration of cosmic expansion predicted by critical cosmologies can be naturally assigned with these periods.

7. Quantum astrophysics

The identification of dark matter as a hierarchy of macroscopic quantum phases labeled by the value of Planck constant transforms astrophysics to quantum astrophysics. Only two examples about numerous applications are discussed in this chapter.

  1. Dark black holes with gigantic value of Planck constant in anyonic state in which charges of particles are fractional and confined to an anyonic surface representing the analog of black hole horizon is a natural prediction of TGD. The standard view about black holes as highly entropic objects must be given up since black hole entropy is proportional to 1/hbar and would be of order unity for these objects. As a matter fact, all dark matter could be confined inside this kind of surfaces accompanying also planetary orbits.

  2. A further fascinating possibility -which could be inspired by the anyonic vision - is that the evidence for Bohr orbit quantization of planetary orbits could have interpretation in terms of gigantic Planck constant for underlying dark matter so that macroscopic and -temporal quantum coherence would be possible in astrophysical length scales manifesting itself in many manners: say as preferred directions of quantization axis (perhaps related to the CMB anomaly) or as anomalously low dissipation rates. Since the gravitational Planck constant hbargr=GM1m/v0, v0=2-11 for the inner planets, is proportional to the product of the gravitational masses of interacting systems, it must be assigned to the field body of the two systems and characterizes the interaction between systems rather than systems themselves. This observation applies quite generally and each field body of the system (em, weak, color, gravitational) is characterized by its own Planck constant.

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Overall view about TGD from particle physics perspective

Topological Geometrodynamics is able to make rather precise and often testable predictions. In this and two other chapters I want to describe the recent over all view about the aspects of quantum TGD relevant for particle physics.

In the first chapter I concentrate the heuristic picture about TGD with emphasis on particle physics.

  1. First I represent briefly the basic ontology: the motivations for TGD and the notion of many-sheeted space-time, the concept of zero energy ontology, the identification of dark matter in terms of hierarchy of Planck constant which now seems to follow as a prediction of quantum TGD, the motivations for p-adic physics and its basic implications, and the identification of space-time surfaces as generalized Feynman diagrams and the basic implications of this identification.

  2. Symmetries of quantum TGD are discussed. Besides the basic symmetries of the imbedding space geometry allowing to geometrize standard model quantum numbers and classical fields there are many other symmetries. General Coordinate Invariance is especially powerful in TGD framework allowing to realize quantum classical correspondence and implies effective 2-dimensionality realizing strong form of holography. Super-conformal symmetries of super string models generalize to conformal symmetries of 3-D light-like 3-surfaces and one can understand the generalization of Equivalence Principle in terms of coset representations for the two super Virasoro algebras associated with lightlike boundaries of so called causal diamonds defined as intersections of future and past directed lightcones (CDs) and with light-like 3-surfaces. Super-conformal symmetries imply generalization of the space-time supersymmetry in TGD framework consistent with the supersymmetries of minimal supersymmetric variant of the standard model. Twistorial approach to gauge theories has gradually become part of quantum TGD and the natural generalization of the Yangian symmetry identified originally as symmetry of N=4 SYMs is postulated as basic symmetry of quantum TGD.

  3. The so called weak form of electric-magnetic duality has turned out to have extremely far reaching consequences and is responsible for the recent progress in the understanding of the physics predicted by TGD. The duality leads to a detailed identification of elementary particles as composite objects of massless particles and predicts new electro-weak physics at LHC. Together with a simple postulate about the properties of preferred extremals of Kähler action the duality allows also to realized quantum TGD as almost topological quantum field theory giving excellent hopes about integrability of quantum TGD.

  4. There are two basic visions about the construction of quantum TGD. Physics as infinite-dimensional Kähler geometry of world of classical worlds (WCW) endowed with spinor structure and physics as generalized number theory. These visions are briefly summarized as also the practical constructing involving the concept of Dirac operator. As a matter fact, the construction of TGD involves three Dirac operators. The Kähler Dirac equation holds true in the interior of space-time surface and its solutions havea natural interpretation in terms of description of matter, in particular condensed matter. Chern-Simons Dirac action is associated with the light-like 3-surfaces and space-like 3-surfaces at ends of space-time surface at light-like boundaries of CD. One can assign to it a generalized eigenvalue equation and the matrix valued eigenvalues correspond to the the action of Dirac operator on momentum eigenstates. Momenta are however not usual momenta but pseudo-momenta very much analogous to region momenta of twistor approach. The third Dirac operator is associated with super Virasoro generators and super Virasoro conditions define Dirac equation in WCW. These conditions characterize zero energy states as modes of WCW spinor fields and code for the generalization of S-matrix to a collection of what I call M-matrices defining the rows of unitary U-matrix defining unitary process.

  5. Twistor approach has inspired several ideas in quantum TGD during the last years and it seems that the Yangian symmetry and the construction of scattering amplitudes in terms of Grassmannian integrals generalizes to TGD framework. This is due to ZEO allowing to assume that all particles have massless fermions as basic building blocks. ZEO inspires the hypothesis that incoming and outgoing particles are bound states of fundamental fermions associated with wormhole throats. Virtual particles would also consist of on mass shell massless particles but without bound state constraint. This implies very powerful constraints on loop diagrams and there are excellent hopes about their finiteness. Twistor approach also inspires the conjecture that quantum TGD allows also formulation in terms of 6-dimensional holomorphic surfaces in the product CP3× CP3 of two twistor spaces and general arguments allow to identify the partial different equations satisfied by these surfaces.

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Particle massivation in TGD Universe

This chapter represents the most recent view about particle massivation in TGD framework. This topic is necessarily quite extended since many several notions and new mathematics is involved. Therefore the calculation of particle masses involves five chapters. In the following my goal is to provide an up-to-date summary whereas the chapters are unavoidably a story about evolution of ideas.

The identification of the spectrum of light particles reduces to two tasks: the construction of massless states and the identification of the states which remain light in p-adic thermodynamics. The latter task is relatively straightforward. The thorough understanding of the massless spectrum requires however a real understanding of quantum TGD. It would be also highly desirable to understand why p-adic thermodynamics combined with p-adic length scale hypothesis works. A lot of progress has taken place in these respects during last years.

Zero energy ontology providing a detailed geometric view about bosons and fermions, the generalization of S-matrix to what I call M-matrix, the notion of finite measurement resolution characterized in terms of inclusions of von Neumann algebras, the derivation of p-adic coupling constant evolution and p-adic length scale hypothesis from the first principles, the realization that the counterpart of Higgs mechanism involves generalized eigenvalues of the modified Dirac operator: these are represent important steps of progress during last years with a direct relevance for the understanding of particle spectrum and massivation although the predictions of p-adic thermodynamics are not affected.

During 2010 a further progress took place. These steps of progress relate closely to zero energy ontology, bosonic emergence, the realization of the importance of twistors in TGD, and to the discovery of the weak form of electric-magnetic duality. Twistor approach and the understanding of the Chern-Simons Dirac operator served as a midwife in the process giving rise to the birth of the idea that all particles at fundamental level are massless and that both ordinary elementary particles and string like objects emerge from them. Even more, one can interpret virtual particles as being composed of these massless on mass shell particles assignable to wormhole throats so that four-momentum conservation poses extremely powerful constraints on loop integrals and makes them manifestly finite.

The weak form of electric-magnetic duality led to the realization that elementary particles correspond to bound states of two wormhole throats with opposite Kähler magnetic charges with second throat carrying weak isospin compensating that of the fermion state at second wormhole throat. Both fermions and bosons correspond to wormhole contacts: in the case of fermions topological condensation generates the second wormhole throat. This means that altogether four wormhole throats are involved with both fermions, gauge bosons, and gravitons (for gravitons this is unavoidable in any case). For p-adic thermodynamics the mathematical counterpart of string corresponds to a wormhole contact with size of order CP2 size with the role of its ends played by wormhole throats at which the signature of the induced 4-metric changes. The key observation is that for massless states the throats of spin 1 particle must have opposite three-momenta so that gauge bosons are necessarily massive, even photon and other particles usually regarded as massless must have small mass which in turn cancels infrared divergences and give hopes about exact Yangian symmetry generalizing that of N=4 SYM. Besides this there is weak "stringy" contribution to the mass assignable to the magnetic flux tubes connecting the two wormhole throats at the two space-time sheets.

1. Physical states as representations of super-symplectic and Super Kac-Moody algebras

Physical states are assumed to belong to the representation of super-symplectic algebra and Super Kac-Moody algebra assignable SO(2) × SU(3)× SU(2)rot× U(2)ew associated with the 2-D surfaces X^2 defined by the intersections of light-like 3-surfaces with δ M4+/-×CP2. These 2-surfaces have interpretation as partons.

Yangian algebras associated with the super-conformal algebras and motivated by twistorial approach generalize the super-conformal symmetry and make it multi-local in the sense that generators can act on several partonic 2-surfaces simultaneously. These partonic 2-surfaces generalize the vertices for the external massless particles in twistor Grassmann diagrams. The implications of this symmetry are yet to be deduced but one thing is clear: Yangians are tailor made for the description of massive bound states formed from several partons identified as partonic 2-surfaces.

2. Particle massivation

Particle massivation can be regarded as a generation of thermal conformal weight identified as mass squared and due to a thermal mixing of a state with vanishing conformal weight with those having higher conformal weights. The observed mass squared is not p-adic thermal expectation of mass squared but that of conformal weight so that there are no problems with Lorentz invariance.

One can imagine several microscopic mechanisms of massivation. The following proposal is the winner in the fight for survival between several competing scenarios.

  1. Instead of energy, the Super Kac-Moody Virasoro (or equivalently super-symplectic) generator L0 (essentially mass squared) is thermalized in p-adic thermodynamics (and also in its real version assuming it exists). The fact that mass squared is thermal expectation of conformal weight guarantees Lorentz invariance. That mass squared, rather than energy, is a fundamental quantity at CP2 length scale is also suggested by a simple dimensional argument (Planck mass squared is proportional to hbar so that it should correspond to a generator of some Lie-algebra (Virasoro generator L0!)).

  2. By Equivalence Principle the thermal average of mass squared can be calculated either in terms of thermodynamics for either super-symplectic of Super Kac-Moody Virasoro algebra and p-adic thermodynamics is consistent with conformal invariance.

  3. There is also a modular contribution to the mass squared, which can be estimated using elementary particle vacuum functionals in the conformal modular degrees of freedom of the partonic 2-surface. It dominates for higher genus partonic 2-surfaces. For bosons both Virasoro and modular contributions seem to be negligible and could be due to the smallness of the p-adic temperature.

  4. A long standing problem has been whether coupling to Higgs boson is needed to explain gauge boson masses via a generation of Higgs vacuum expectation having possibly interpretation in terms of a coherent state. The deviation Δ h of the total ground state conformal weight from negative integer gives rise to Higgs type contribution to the thermal mass squared and dominates in case of gauge bosons for which p-adic temperature is small. In the case of fermions this contribution to the mass squared is small. It is natural to relate Δ h to the generalized eigenvalues of Chern-Simons Dirac operator.

  5. A natural identification of the non-integer contribution to the conformal weight is as Higgsy and stringy contributions to the vacuum conformal weight (strings are now "weak strings"). In twistor approach the generalized eigenvalues of Chern-Simons Dirac operator for external particles indeed correspond to light-like momenta and when the three-momenta are opposite this gives rise to non-vanishing mass. Higgs is necessary to give longitudinal polarizations for gauge bosons and also gauge bosons usually regarded as exactly massless particles would naturally receive small mass in this manner so that Higgs would disappear completely from the spectrum. The theoretetical motivation for a small mass would be exact Yangian symmetry. Higgs vacuum expectation assignable to coherent state of Higgs bosons is not needed to explain the boson masses. Twistorial consideration suggest that Higgs disappears completely from the spectrum and this might happen also for its super counterpart.

p-Adic thermodynamics is what gives to this approach its predictive power.

  1. p-Adic temperature is quantized by purely number theoretical constraints Boltzmann weight exp(-E/kT) is replaced with pL0/Tp, 1/Tp integer) and fermions correspond to Tp=1 whereas Tp=1/n, n>1, seems to be the only reasonable choice for gauge bosons.

  2. p-Adic thermodynamics forces to conclude that CP2 radius is essentially the p-adic length scale R ≈ L and thus of order R ≈103.5 (hbar G)1/2 and therefore roughly 103.5 times larger than the naive guess. Hence p-adic thermodynamics describes the mixing of states with vanishing conformal weights with their Super Kac-Moody Virasoro excitations having masses of order 10-3.5 Planck mass.

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New physics predicted by TGD

TGD predicts a lot of new physics and it is quite possible that this new physics becomes visible at LHC. Although the calculational formalism is still lacking, p-adic length scale hypothesis allows to make precise quantitative predictions for particle masses by using simple scaling arguments.

The basic elements of quantum TGD responsible for new physics are following.

  1. The new view about particles relies on their identification as partonic 2-surfaces (plus 4-D tangent space data to be precise). This effective metric 2-dimensionality implies generalizaton of the notion of Feynman diagram and holography in strong sense. One implication is the notion of field identity or field body making sense also for elementary particles and the Lamb shift anomaly of muonic hydrogen could be explained in terms of field bodies of quarks.

  2. The topological explanation for family replication phenomenon implies genus generation correspondence and predicts in principle infinite number of fermion families. One can however develop a rather general argument based on the notion of conformal symmetry known as hyper-ellipticity stating that only the genera g=0,1,2 are light. What "light" means is however an open question. If light means something below CP2 mass there is no hope of observing new fermion families at LHC. If it means weak mass scale situation changes.

    For bosons the implications of family replication phenomenon can be understood from the fact that they can be regarded as pairs of fermion and antifermion assignable to the opposite wormhole throats of wormhole throat. This means that bosons formally belong to octet and singlet representations of dynamical SU(3) for which 3 fermion families define 3-D representation. Singlet would correspond to ordinary gauge bosons. Also interacting fermions suffer topological condensation and correspond to wormhole contact. One can either assume that the resulting wormhole throat has the topology of sphere or that the genus is same for both throats.

  3. The view about space-time supersymmetry differs from the standard view in many respects. First of all, the super symmetries are not associated with Majorana spinors. Super generators correspond to the fermionic oscillator operators assignable to leptonic and quark-like induced spinors and there is in principle infinite number of them so that formally one would have N=∞ SUSY. I have discussed the required modification of the formalism of SUSY theories and it turns out that effectively one obtains just N=1 SUSY required by experimental constraints. The reason is that the fermion states with higher fermion number define only short range interactions analogous to van der Waals forces. Right handed neutrino generates this super-symmetry broken by the mixing of the M4 chiralities implied by the mixing of M4 and CP2 gamma matrices for induced gamma matrices. The simplest assumption is that particles and their superpartners obey the same mass formula but that the p-adic length scale can be different for them.

  4. The new view about particle massivation involves besides p-adic thermodynamics also Higgs but there is no need to assume that Higgs vacuum expectation plays any role. The most natural option favored by the assumption that elementary bosons are bound states of massless elementary fermions, by twistorial considerations, and by the fact that both gauge bosons and Higgs form SU(2) triplet and singlet, predicts that also photon and other massless gauge bosons develop small mass so that all Higgs particles and their colored variants would disappear from spectrum. Same could happen for Higgsinos.

  5. One of the basic distinctions between TGD and standard model is the new view about color.

    1. The first implication is separate conservation of quark and lepton quantum numbers implying the stability of proton against the decay via the channels predicted by GUTs. This does not mean that proton would be absolutely stable. p-Adic and dark length scale hierarchies indeed predict the existence of scale variants of quarks and leptons and proton could decay to hadons of some zoomed up copy of hadrons physics. These decays should be slow and presumably they would involve phase transition changing the value of Planck constant characterizing proton. It might be that the simultaneous increase of Planck constant for all quarks occurs with very low rate.

    2. Also color excitations of leptons and quarks are in principle possible. Detailed calculations would be required to see whether their mass scale is given by CP2 mass scale. The so called leptohadron physics proposed to explain certain anomalies associated with both electron, muon, and τ lepton could be understood in terms of color octet excitations of leptons.

  6. Fractal hierarchies of weak and hadronic physics labelled by p-adic primes and by the levels of dark matter hierarchy are highly suggestive. Ordinary hadron physics corresponds to M107=2107-1 One especially interesting candidate would be scaled up hadronic physics which would correspond to M89=2^{89}-1 defining the p-adic prime of weak bosons. The corresponding string tension is about 512 GeV and it might be possible to see the first signatures of this physics at LHC. Nuclear string model in turn predicts that nuclei correspond to nuclear strings of nucleons connected by colored flux tubes having light quarks at their ends. The interpretation might be in terms of M127 hadron physics. In biologically most interesting length scale range 10 nm-2.5 μm there are four Gaussian Mersennes and the conjecture is that these and other Gaussian Mersennes are associated with zoomed up variants of hadron physics relevant for living matter. Cosmic rays might also reveal copies of hadron physics corresponding to M61 and M31

  7. Weak form of electric magnetic duality implies that the fermions and antifermions associated with both leptons and bosons are Kähler magnetic monopoles accompanied by monopoles of opposite magnetic charge and with opposite weak isospin. For quarks Kähler magnetic charge need not cancel and cancellation might occur only in hadronic length scale. The magnetic flux tubes behave like string like objects and if the string tension is determined by weak length scale, these string aspects should become visible at LHC. If the string tension is 512 GeV the situation becomes less promising.

In this chapter the predicted new physics and possible indications for it are discussed.

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