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Year 2017

Why Alzheimer does not destroy some aspects of consciosness?

Some aspects of consciousness seem to survive Alzheimer. Alzheimer patient can understand singing and also express himself by singing (see this). Why?

  1. Singing is conventionally associated with holistic aspects of consciousness whereas language corresponds to reductionistic, local, and linear representation of conscious experience. Holistic-reductionistic dichotomy is often associated with right-left dichotomy. One should be of course cautious with this identification and be happy with holistic-reductionistic dichotomy.
  2. In any case, we know that left brain talks and right brain sings. Singing is a representation in terms of frequencies. It is 2-dimensional because also the pitch matters unlike in the case of speech. Everyone familiar with Fourier transform knows that frequency representation is holistic: Fourier amplitude carries information about the function in the entire domain of definition but not about details for low enough frequencies such as occur in singing (maybe the duration of duration of nerve pulse of order millisecond could serve as standard, could notes with pitch below kHz frequency be low frequencies?).
  3. Why cognition does not survive in Alzheimer is easy to understand. Cognition is by definition about details: left brain is responsible for language and language indeed local , linear(!), and reductionistic. Maybe 1-D neural strings and loops assignable to magnetic loops provide a realization of spoken and written language? Alzheimer would destroy synaptic connections and would split these strings. The disappearence of even single bridge in the loop/string splits the loop/string (into two): this is just 1-D topology. Communication line would be broken. Cognitive skills and language would be lost.
  4. Why would the holistic aspects of consciousness survive in Alzheimer? Suppose that right brain involves 2-D net-work like structures instead of 1-D neural strings having much more connections and giving rise to quantum tensor network (see this) as it would be fashionable to say. Quantum entanglement is very probably involved and would be actually responsible for the holistic and hologram-like aspects of neural activities known for a long time. It would not be surprising if brain waves with frequency spectrum below kHz would be important for this representation. EEG waves are almost by definition in the range 1-100 Hz.

    What happens to 2-D networks in the destruction of synapes. Practically nothing! Quite a number of synaptic connections can disappear but this does not split the 2-D network into pieces as it splits 1-D string: 2-D topology! Communications take place and the structure can take care of itself. Holograms are not affected by the local splitting of the synaptic connections. The right brain would happily continue its singing!

    Note that 2-D networks are also natural for the representation of sensory data as images and the language of images is different from the language of words: I have discussed the differences between these two different languages here).

    The natural question is whether could one approach to Alzheimer rely on activation of right brain: could art therapies such as music and visual arts help in Alzheimer? Could guided transition to holistic, artistic mood of conscious existence help to overcome the negative effects of Alzheimer?

See the chapter Quantum Mind and Neuro Science or the article Is it possible to reverse Alzheimer's disease?.

Is it possible to reverse Alzheimer's disease?

I have been reading a marvellous book of Dale Bredesen titled The End of Alzheimer's - thanks for my friend Pertti for an excellent Christmas gift.

Alzheimer's disease (just AD in the sequel) has been regarded as a disease without any effective treatment. A lot of progress has however occurred during last years in the understanding of AD and related diseases causing neuro-degeneration. Bredesen's group has developed a programme to stop and even reverse the development of cognitive decline and dementia.

Programme for reversing AD

The first chapter of the book contains a long list about the symptoms of AD. One must be cautious while reading this list. A strongly introvert and unpractical person like me having suffered from strong social fears during childhood, youth and mid age might conclude having been AD patient for all his life. Our personality however means that we have our strengths and weaknesses. Only if we begin to lose our strengths, there is a good reason to get worried.

AD involves brain inflammation causing a generation of amyloid, a plaque that destroys synaptic connections crucial for various learned skills. This leads to the symptoms of AD. Amyloids were for long time thought to be the cause of AD but it turned out to be only a manner how brain defends itself: in AD this defence has only developed to over reaction: somewhat like too strong immune response causing allergy.

In an attempt to to cure AD one can do three things (in collaboration with a professional since AD has strongly patient dependent profile).

  1. Get rid of the brain inflammation.
  2. Eliminate the sources of inflammation: both infection by microbes and sugar containing proteins.
  3. Provide brain with the needed nutrients including metabolic energy, hormones, and trophic factors helping the regeneration of synapses.
This program requires nothing less than changing of the life style.

AD as suicidal behavior at neuronal level

The motivation for this post emerged as I started to read a chapter about how the new view about AD developed through the study of AD in Petri dishes, a completely new lab level approach initiated by Bredesen's group. Two big surprises were in store.

  1. It was found that in AD the neurons perform a suicide instead of fighting against the disease! They just give up! This was something totally unexpected.
  2. The researchers had an idea that there are receptors in brain stem, which could relate to neuro-degeneration. The idea was that when the receptors bind to corresponding ligands, the neuron dies. It would be kind of organized suicide. But this did not occur! Neurons die if the ligand is not present! A healthy neuron must have both the ligands and receptors. These ligands can be christened as neurotrophins since they support the growth of cell.
Some basic notions of TGD inspired biology

While reading, I realized that this fits nicely with the TGD based vision that magnetic body (MB) of the organism (biological body (BB)) or part of it takes care of BB, such as brain by receiving information as signals from brain and sending back control commands. Before continuing it is good to briefly summarize some key aspects of TGD view about biology and brain. There are several new notions.

  1. The notion of MB distinguishes between TGD and Maxwellian (gauge theory) view about fields. In many-sheeted space-time one can say that physical object has field identity, field body. Given for instance a magnetic flux tube realized as topological field quantum -tubular 3-surface - one can tell, which physical system it emanates from. The double formed by organism and its environment is replaced with a triple formed by MB , BB , and environment, and this changes profoundly the view about possible disorders of organism.
  2. Hierarchy of Planck constants heff/h=n making possible macroscopic quantum coherence in various scales is a key element of TGD inspired quantum biology. This hierarchy emerges as a prediction of adelic physics suggested to provide a unification of ordinary physics and of physics of cognition by introducing besides real number based physics also various p-adic physics serving as a correlate of cognition. heff/h=n hierarchy and p-adic length scale hypothesis define fractal hierarchies of length and time scales: this fractality means that the standard length scale reductionism breaks down and that interesting new effects emerge in all scales. I have been identifying these effects for more than two decades now: the information flux from web has been indispensable in this task. Living matter would be one of the most striking deviations from the naive reductionism. Even molecular physics and chemistry fail to reduce to atomic physics as the reductionistic dogma dictates.

    MB carries dark cyclotron condensates and dark photons with with non-standard value of heff/h=n. Cyclotron condensates and cyclotron radiation are crucial for the control of organism by its MB. The feed of metabolic energy generates cyclotron condensates.

  3. The view about sensory perception and function of nerve pulse transmission differs from the standard view. Nerve pulse transition would not be communication between parts of CNS but building of communication line for dark photons making possible communications with maximal signal velocity.
    1. This would allow generation of sensory mental images at sensory organs by an iteration involving virtual sensory input from brain to sensory organs. Pattern recognition would be realized as a build-up of an artwork representing standardized mental image as near as possible to the original sensory input.
    2. Neurotransmitters and all information molecules would be bridges needed to construct connected communication lines. Learning as formation of permanent synaptic connections would be generation of permanent bridges of this kind.
  4. Cell membrane and perhaps also other structures serve as generalized Josephson junctions. The (generalized) Josephson radiation generated by nerve pulses would give rise to EEG (and perhaps also to its fractal counterparts) as communication of neural information from brain to MB via Josephson frequency modulation. The size scale of the layer of MB wold be rather large, of the order 1/fc, of the order Earth size in alpha band (fc≈ 10 Hz).
Disorders as problems in the communications between BB and MB and as problems at BB and MB

Both the failure of the communication and control links between magnetic body and problems at BB or MB can give rise to disorders/diseases. Many things can go wrong.

  1. Magnetic flux tubes serve as kind of wave guides carrying signals consisting of dark photons. Telephone network gives an idea about the situation. The flux tube network would consists of permanently existing pieces, which can be connected to single connected communication line by attaching small bridges (relays) between disjoint flux tubes. This process is nothing attachment of information molecule (say neurotrophin ligand) to the receptor and thus serving as a bridge.

    If the connecting ligands are absent, the communication line does not exist and MB does not receive information from brain: MB cannot see its protege. Also the control of MB can fail if it involves this kind of bridges: MB becomes lame unable to help its protege.

    This is of course not the only mechanism. There might be ligands, which are competing for binding but not serving as relays so that the connection would not be built. This turns out to be the case in AP. The dynamical equilibrium between genuine bridges (trophins) and fake bridges (antitrophins) determines how much communication between MB and brain takes place. When fake bridges dominate, one has fully developed AP. This picture seems to be very general and apply also to a wide variety of other diseases, in particular Mad Cow disease.

    Could the blindness of MB with respect BB be the cause of A?! Could AD -and presumably many other diseases - be disorders in communications between BB and MB due to the broken communication lines? Does MB of brain as God of neurons purposefully reject some neurons? Sounds cruel but the limited metabolic resources could force to select between organism and individual neurons.

  2. If MB is dynamical, some layers in its onion-like structure could even disappear. At the level of brain the structures of MB are indeed dynamical. The formation of mental image would involve the generation of connected quantum coherent flux tube network by the formation of bridges.

    Nerve pulse patterns would give rise to this kind of structure with neurotransmitters giving rise to small bridges between pre- and post-synaptic neurons. The formation of amyloid plaques would destroy the synaptic connections and destroy the MBs is the scale of brain.

    Remark: Watch-up network would serve as an analogy here.

  3. The dark photons mediating the signal might fail to be generated at brain or at MB. Also depression involves brain inflammation. Depressive mood rather literally is characterized by a feeling of being rejected by God. MB has indeed forced to reject the patient if the signals from brain or to brain cannot propagate for some reason.

    Cyclotron radiation by biologically important ions would be needed to generate the dark photons needed in communications to and control from MB. EEG would be basic example of this kind of communications, which are however expected to be present in several frequency scales. Control commands could come via genome along flux sheets traversing DNA strand.

    Generalized Josephson radiation from neuronal membranes could mediate "sensory" information from brain to MB. The frequencies of generalized Josephson radiation are sums of differences of cyclotron frequencies at the two sides of the neuronal membrane and genuine Josephson contribution ZeV/heff coding for the nerve pulse patterns representing information as frequency modulation.

    At least the lack of Li and Mg are known to induce depression and suicide rates correlate with Li depletion.

  4. Also control can fail. It is also possible that cyclotron condensates at MB are not generated so that MB cannot generate the dark cyclotron radiation driving the oscillators at biological body representing the control commands. This could be due to the lack of metabolic energy feed from BB to MB.
What AD actually is?

A further reading of the book taught more about what AD actually is.

  1. It was found that peptide amyloid-beta (Aβ) is toxic to neurons acting as anti-trophin competing with trophin making possible the well-fare of neuron. The interpretation is in terms of competition between real and fake bridges. Since metabolic resources are finite, antitrophin can have healthy effect in many situations.
  2. Amyloids was originally seen as the cause of AD. There exists dependence receptor known as amyloid precursor protein (APP): one might say that it monitors the state of neuron. There exists molecular scissors (proteases), which can split APP to either 2 peptides or 4 peptides.

    The members of peptide pair are inside and outside the cell membrane. They maintain the wellfare of the neuron. The 4 peptides divide two groups of 2 peptides inside outside of the membrane and include Aβ. Too high concentration of amyloid beta destroys synapses and leads to neuron death.

    Dynamical equilibrium between these two kinds of peptides determines the fate of the neuron. If the equilibrium shifts to the side of 4 bad peptides increasing their concentration, there is a risk that AD develops.

  3. What determines the equilibrium between these two kinds of peptides? APP is a receptor than can bind to kinds of ligands, let us call them good and bad. The good ligand is known as netrin-1. In this case APP splits into to peptides supporting neuronal well-fare. Netrin-1 is trophin.

    Remark: Netrin comes from word "netr", which is sanskrit and means "one who guides". Netrin would indeed serve as a link to MB, which indeed guides!

    The bad ligand is Aβ! This leads to positive feedback. The higher the concentration of Aβ produced in splittings to 4 peptides is the faster the rate for the new similar splittings. This causes a catastrophe: an uncontrolled exponential growth of Aβ concentration analogous to cancer. Similar mechanisms appear also in cancer and Mad Cow disease. Peptides able to amplify their own concentration are known as prionic.

  4. There are many causes of AP explaining why the usual single cause - single medication approaches to AD have failed. Bredesen's group as identified 36 independent causes of AD! One of these causes is APOE4. It was originally thought to reduce the clearance of amyloid from brain. This is true but it was also found to have much deeper role. It can affect gene expressing by binding to the promoter regions of DNA and preventing the transcription of genes coding for proteins promoting the well-fare of neuron. APOE4 is thus an active tool for inducing death of neuron.
  5. Bredesen takes business organization in market economy as a metaphor. Brain must monitor whether the neurons are useful and whether metabolic and other resources are enough for survival. At older age these resources deplete. Brain must destroy the neutrons when there is shortage about nutrients, vitamins, hormones. Also neurons, which are inactive or somehow damage, must go.
TGD view about AD

The interpretation of this picture in TGD framework should be now rather obvious.

  1. The simplest view is that netrin serves as a genuine bridge to MB and Aβ as the fake bridge. The dominance of fake bridges means that connection to MB is lost.
  2. Brain must survive and decides to kill the neurons or force them to perform suicide, and uses APOE4 as one particular tool to realize this. MB would be innocent, so to say.
  3. Or could MB serve as Stalin actively promoting neuronal death by activating mechanisms leading to neuronal death? Could the connections via the flux sheets of MB of DNA making possible control of BB allow this: is the activation of APOE4 preventing transcription of important genes related to this. One could argue that MB affects only DNA via promoter regions and APOE4 generated by brain itself prevents this. MB would not be Stalin after all.
  4. Irrespective of who did it, in TGD Universe there is a hierarchy of selves and layers of MB serving as "Gods" and it includes also us. We can change our life style and prevent Alzheimer and many other diseases if we act early enough. We can do good deeds - also to our our biological bodies! Perhaps this is easier!

    Remark: This inspires the question whether same applies in capitalism/market economy, which is a fractal copy of biology at cell level in TGD Universe. We can transform biology to culture by bringing in ethics, values and moral.

Questions about memory

Alzheimer's disease also inspires questions about memory. Neuroscientists often identify memories as skills. There are however memories such as sensory memories, which can be induced in any-one by electrical stimulation of temporal lobes. Also dreams involve these memories. One can have spontaneous memory of some smell or suffer pain in non-existing leg. Some people often regarded as cognitively impaired might have sensory memories regularly: this could explain their amazing memory feats. Some people hear music all the time in their head: Tchaikovsky is one example of this.

I find it difficult to believe that sensory memories would reduce to strengthening of synaptic connections in the brain now: they are not learned skills. In TGD picture the new view about time leads forced by zero energy ontology (ZEO) leads to the idea that the perceptive field is 4-D causal diamond (CD, 2-D visualization helps to understand) and that sensory memories are mental images (sub-CDs) located near either boundary of CD. The remaining mental images inside CD would be represented symbolically so that it would make sense to speak about "sensory now" in 3-D sense. Cognitive impairment would mean a loss of the symbolic representations and sensory representations might replace it and make memory feats possible.

Remark: In ZEO one can even make the scifi sounding question whether the brains of geometric past still in good shape could be used? There are people who have lost most of their brains but still can cope with challenges of everyday life.

Could this view be tested? Could Alzheimer patients have long term memories about time when brain was still healthy? Could they have sensory memories about that time? This might be the case: my grandmother lost her cognitive skills during her last years but re-lived her youth very intensely: she had even strong intention of going to dance!

See the chapter Quantum Mind and Neuro Science or the article Is it possible to reverse Alzheimer's disease?.

The mystery of DMT

In FB I got a link to a very interesting article about DMT. DMT is psychedelic or hallucinogen - depending on one's attitudes. DMT is used for spiritual and healing purposes in many cultures. The effect is short-lasting: from 5 to 15 minutes. DMT induces mystical experiences, euphoria, dynamical geometric hallucinations of geometric forms, experiences about meeting of higher intelligences, extraterrestrials, elves, and even God.

First some facts about DMT.

  1. DMT is found in both plants and animals and is the only naturally occurring psychedelic. Its occurrence in the pineal gland of rodents and therefore also of mammals has been reported.
  2. Chemically DMT is a structural analog of serotonin and melatonin and involves aromatic 6-cycle and 5-cycle with common edge appearing in amino-acid tryptophan. Also DNA nucleotides A and G have this double cycle structure but have however more than one nitrogen atom.
  3. The biosynthesis of DMT from amino-acid L-tryptophan (occurring endogenously in plants but not in animals) has been detected in rabbit's lungs. Whether DMT is produced by brain is still an unsettled question. It has been even argued that DMT is mere waste.

    In TGD framework aromatic cycles serve as indication that molecule contains paired valence electrons with the value of heff/h=n higher than its standard value: this explains the delocalization of electrons to longer than atomic length scale. n would serve as a kind of intelligence quotient: the larger the value of n is, the larger the maximal value of entanglement negentropy of the system is (understanding of this statement requires going outside the framework of the mathematical framework of standard physics: I call this framework adelic physics).

    In this picture the interpretation as a waste does not look sensible and the proposal that DMT is produced by brain or some other parts of body looks more reasonable. Biology does not usually manufacture anything without purpose. Especially so, if the manufacturing process requires metabolic energy. The biosynthesis of DMT from tryptophan does not occur spontaneously and requires N-methyltransferase enzyme as a catalyst. Also the highly non-trivial positive effects of DMT on consciousness suggests that it cannot be waste.

To understand what the purpose of DMT could be, one must have some idea about sensory perception in TGD Universe (I have already earlier written about DMT and psychedelics, see this).
  1. TGD view about sensory perception relies on the idea that sensory qualia are at the level of sensory organs: this view makes sense if one accepts macroscopic quantum coherence (see this). TGD based view about time (zero energy ontology (ZEO)) allow to circumvent basic objections such as phantom leg: pain in phantom leg would be sensory memory of pain and in geometric past when the leg still existed. These sensory memories can be produced by stimulating parietal lobes in any subject person. One also avoids the challenge of explaining why structures consisting of essentially identical neutrons can produce so different sensory qualia.
  2. This model however requires virtual visual feedback from brain realized as dark photons, which leak to ordinary photons identifiable as biophotons with energied in visible and UV range. The presence of virtual visual input could explain why the retina has inverted structure not expected in engineerish thinking.

    Sensory percept would be an artwork created by the perceiver. This conforms with the fact that when congenitally blind people receive their vision, they report only seeing of diffuse light. The percept would be a standardized sensory mental images emerging as an outcome of iteration in which dark photons signals travel forth and back and give rise to a pattern recognition by transforming sensory input to standardized input nearest to it.

  3. Dark photon signals would travel along magnetic flux tubes between brain to sensory organs and even between brain and magnetic body (MB) in much longer scales. Flux tubes would gives rise to a connection network analogous to a telephone network. This network would have permanent part and dynamical part consisting of switches allowing to connect two flux tubes to single flux tube by a short bridge. Information molecules such as neurotransmitters, hormones, and messengers could act as switches/bridges: as the information molecule attaches to a receptor, the bridge is formed and signals can propagate.

    Also nerve pulses could induce flux tube bridges between neurons of the neuronal pathway by using neurotransmitters and learning as amplification of synaptic connections would be essentially the gradual stabilization of these flux tube bridges. Nerve pulse patterns need not serve as communications inside brain but could only make possible communications in much shorter time scales using dark photons. For 1 meter long axons about million forth and back signals are possible during millisecond.

    Nerve pulses would however frequency modulate Josephson radiation from the generalized Josephson junctions defined by membrane proteins serving as ion channels. This modulation would code nerve pulse patterns to signals to MB mediated by EEG: EEG could also have fractally scaled variants corresponding to various layers of MB. This would explain the function of EEG.

  4. Virtual sensory input need not always end up down to the sensory organs: there would be some kind of blocking stopping the virtual sensory input to higher level so that one would have only almost sensory percept: an imagined sensory experience. The virtual sensory input associated with imagination could proceed along different route than that associated with the buildup of percept. Also imagined motor actions would be halted motor actions. During REM sleep the blocking would not be present and the virtual sensory input would enter to sensory organs, in particular retina.
  5. Pineal gland represents a kind of photoreceptor, "third eye", which still serves as eye in some animals. Could the dark photons involved with imagination be received in pineal gland. Could they continue to travel to sensory organs during dreams and hallucinations? Pineal gland would be an organ of imagination besides serving as seat of soul! What is nice from the point of view of biological economy is that pineal gland would not be useless evolutionary remnant but would have found a new function.
Accepting this schematic view one can ask about the possible function of DMT.
  1. DMT molecules could make possible REM dreams by providing the bridges making possible the propagation of dark photons to the retina. Pineal gland would be the natural relay station. Same mechanism could work for other sensory modalities if dark photons mediate the virtual sensory input transformed to ordinary percept at sensory organs. Also hallucinations would rely on this mechanism.
  2. MB has very large layers, there is even evidence that galactic magnetic field is in contact with personal MB (personal MB could have flux tubes inside flux tubes of galactic magnetic field). Since magnetic field in Maxwellian world extends to infinity and since in TGD systems have field identity (field body/MB), one can even image that there are connections to distant civilizations with very weak magnetic field strengths at corresponding flux tubes carrying dark matter.

    These connections could make possible a genuine sharing of sensory experiences and the encounters with ETs and alike could be genuine remote meetings! We might have these encounters during sleep quite routinely but would not remember anything since the sensory information would stop at the third eye! Only during dreams situation might change but also now sensory input would be virtual and represent imaginations.

Remark: I have told many times that I am working intensely and close my eyes lightly, I see a dim flow consisting of points and resembling an incompressible hydrodynamic flow. There are vortices and the flow goes back and forth. The flow lines are mathematically equivalent with field lines of a magnetic field in Maxwell's theory and in TGD with flux tubes of MB in 1-1 correspondence with the points of the flow. Could this be seeing MB with the "third eye"?

See the chapter TGD inspired view about remote mental interactions and paranormal or the article Psychedelic induced experiences as key to the understanding of the connection between magnetic body and information molecules?.

Experimental support for the relative arrow of time

It is amazing how experimental findings pop up - almost one every day - to support TGD. Experimenters seem to work as if they knew about predictions of TGD and were systematically testing its predictions. Do they? Or does science make progress at the level of collective consciousness and are individual scientists like neutrons in brain? Certainly TGD is a curse word for the HEP-TH empire (high energy physics - theory). Last week I wrote about experiments giving support for TGD view about prebiotic forms of life. Now it is about arrow of time: the arrow of time is relative.

Remark: TGD is like the forbidden interval C-F# in music before times of Bach (the sound of ambulance by the way): it was regarded as something satanic by the church. You can find it oppoing up is the compositions of Bach again and again! Suddenly it became deeply spiritual!

It has been found that the arrow of time is relative (see this). Expressing this in more cautious terms, heat can flow from from system with temperature What has been found that heat flows from from system with temperature T1 to a system with temperature T2> T1 if there is correlation between the two systems meaning that the density matrix for the two nuclear systems (samples consisting of hydrogen atoms and carbon atoms) is not mere tensor product of density matrices but contains an additional term describing correlation. It must be emphasized that this finding is not in conflict with the standard view about second law which only says that heat flows from system with higher temperature to that with lower temperature provided that there are no correlations between the systems.

The argument runs as follows. The mutual information for the uncorrelated systems vanishes, and since it can only increase this implies flow of heat in the standard direction. If the mutual information is non-vanishing in the initial situation (due to the correlation) it can also decrease and this can give a heat flow in non-standard direction. This has been observed.

Although one can model the finding using standard thermodynamics, one can ask whether something deeper might be involved. Should one be cautious and talk only about the changing direction of heat flow due to the breaking of the basic assumptions of thermodynamics, and avoid speaking about direction of thermodynamical time? Or could a genuine change of the arrow of time take place? Going even deeper, one must ask what thermodynamical time, the time of physicist (geometric time), and the arrow of time do really mean? What is the relationship between these two times? This leads to ponder questions about the basics of quantum measurement theory and here I can only consider TGD based vision (see this).

  1. The basic prediction of zero energy ontology (ZEO) is that the arrow of geometric time can have both signs whereas the arrow of subjective time (relating closely to thermodynamic time) defined by experience created by sequence of state function reductions is always the same. The arrow of geometric time is indeed relative. The flow of geometric time corresponds to the increase of distance between tips of causal diamond (CD) and the increase in particular reduction is at either tip of CD and in this manner defines arrow of time. CD grows either "upwards" or "downwards". A geometric measure for experienced time is that distance between the tips of CD which always increases.

    Time reflection symmetry (T) with respect tot he center of CD is broken in TGD: the classical time evolutions of space-time surfaces are not T mirror images of each other. This is true also for the quantal evolutions defined by zero energy states essentially as quantum superpositions of classical evolutions. States and their time reversals obey the initial conditions at opposite boundaries of CD. Arrow of time is forced by the place (either boundary of CD), where initial conditions are posed, not by the initial conditions themselves.

  2. One must however remember that ZEO describes genuine quantum systems whereas thermodynamics decribes ensemble, which is a highly idealized notion. In ZEO arrow of geometric time would change in each "big" quantum jump and would remain the same during the sequence of "small" state function reductions defining the counterpart of Zeno effect or weak measurement.
  3. Initial conditions breaking the basic assumptions of thermodynamics induce correlations and the heat flow in "wrong" direction in the model for the finding. The arrow of time is claimed to be changed in time interval of length of order 2 millisecond. Interestingly, millisecond happens to characterize the time scale of nerve pulse and ZEO predicts that in living matter the change of the arrow of time takes place routinely. In ZEO based description the growth of the temporal distance between the tips of CD would be of order 2 milliseconds.

    It would be however the opposite boundary of CD in geometric past that would receide farther away. One can argue that it is not possible measure the position of the past boundary of CD directly. But is it possible to measure the distance between the tips of CD indirectly from the behavior of the ensemble? ZEO would suggest that the time appearing in the Hamiltonian modelling the system corresponds to the distance between tips of CD and never decreases. The change of the direction of heat flow would correspond to the reduction to the original boundary of CD in the experiment and the correlation would make ZEO visible.

    If the two descriptions are equivalent, the initial correlations for the ensemble force should correspond to posing initial conditions at the non-standard boundary of CD leading to the reversal of the arrow of time. The very act of posing the correlations would correspond to a "big" state function reduction to opposite boundary of CD. In standard quantum measurement theory state preparation indeed corresponds to this state function reduction so that the two descriptions might be consistent.

See the chapter Life and Death and Consciousness or the article Re-examination of the basic notions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness.

Model for the RNA era

Ulla gave a link to a very interesting paper about the possible mechanism giving life-like properties to RNA system during the conjectured RNA era. The title of the article is "The life story of hydrogen peroxide II: a periodic pH and thermochemical drive for the RNA world. "Life-like" would mean "breathing" realized as these oscillations and would require a metabolic energy source.

I try to interpret the proposal on basis of my own model bringing in the control of chemistry by magnetic body (MB). The idea is that MB adapts to the chemical dynamics and gets a control over it by driving forces realized in terms of dark cyclotron radiation form MB resonating with the chemical oscillations. "Breathing" would basically correspond to the periodic formation of flux tube network with high connectivity giving rise to crystal-like or gel-like state and subsequent decay to plasma-like state with low connectivity and would require metabolic energy feed.

  1. The periodic drive is central in TGD based model and gives rise to "breathing". Metabolic energy feed must be involved. In the model for life-like properties of plastic ball system it would be dark nucleosynthesis. In another experimental system acoustic wave feeds energy to the magnetic body (MB). The peroxide (H-O-O-H) bond between oxygens would be the source of the metabolic energy. Peroxide - usually regarded as a mere nuisance (highly Reactive Oxygen Species causing biological damage) - would serve as the "food" of the system. This is the new and radical idea. According to the article the primary energy source would be solar or geothermal. In TGD one can consider dark nucleosynthesis preceding ordinary nucleosynthesis as the source (it might have even given rise to Fe in the core of Earth!).
  2. Figure 1 in the article illustrates that peroxide H2O2 would produce in presence of S2O3-2 or S2O3-1 thermal and pH oscillations: "breathing". Peroxide is also told to produce oxidized sulfur species and oxidixe RNA nucleotides: this could also liberate metabolic energy stored in RNA. The outcome would be the replication of RNA. Oxidation of thiosulfate ion by H2O2 mentioned in the abstract would naively mean that S2O3-n, n=-1 or -2, gives 1 or 2 electrons to H2O2. Table 1 listing various reactions involved in oxidation is however rather complex. It begin to accept that I will never really understand what chemists mean with oxidation! In any case, also the oxidation reaction for S2O3-1 can happen in several steps.
Consider next the situation from quantum TGD point of view.
  1. Periodic oxidation would correspond to breathing generating repeatedly connected magnetic body with quantum coherence and larger heff - following the model for breathing plastic ball system as a periodic formation of crystal-like and plasma-like states.
  2. Cyclotron radiation from cyclotron condensates of some important ions would serve as clocks - breathing in several time scales. What are these ions? In plastic ball system protons and Argon ions. 300 Hz is the frequency for B=Bend=.2 Gauss and also the rate of ATP:s produced by ATPase: of course, it was not present at that time. Thiosulfate cyclotron frequency would be 5.4 Hz in Bend for charge of -2 units.

    The chemical oscillation periods emerging in the model of authors are measured in fraction of hour whereas the cyclotron periods for ions are fractions of second for ions for B=Bend. Therefore the strength of the magnetic field is much lower than that of Earth. Intergalactic magnetic fields are of order nanoTesla and this would bring scale factor of about 104 to cyclotron periods and they would be of same order of magnitude as the time scales coming from chemical kinetics. For proton the cyclotron period would be 33 seconds. For S2O3-2 cyclotron time scale would be scaled up by the atomic weight 112 giving roughly 40 minutes. This suggests that RNA era occurred in intergalactic space if it occurred at all. If it continues in recent biology, the dark matter must reside at the flux tubes of intergalactic magnetic field. This does not make sense in Maxwell's theory but makes sense in the many-sheeted space-time of TGD Universe.

  3. pH oscillation means that at least dark protons would be involved. pH could be quite generally a direct measure for the density of dark protons. The density of dark protons oscillating periodically meaning formation of cyclotron condensate and its decay could correspond to oscillating pH.
See the chapter Life-like properties observed in a very simple systems or the article with the same title.

About a model for the control of biological body by magnetic body

The recent work in TGD in attempts to understand various surprising findings (see this and this) about very simple self-organizing systems assuming that they are actually macroscopic quantum systems at the level of magnetic body (MB) leads to a rather concrete model for how MB carrying dark matter identified as heff/h=n phases controls the part of system consisting of ordinary matter - biological body (BB) in biological context. The key element is magnetic body (MB) involving flux tube network able to make heff=n× h changing phase transition changing its connectivity (the extreme corresponds to phase transition between crystal-like and plasma-like states).

The control is assumed to involve Alfwen waves with the frequencies of cyclotron transitions for the dark matter. Alfwen waves induce resonant forced oscillations of the particles at the nodes of the network. MB adapts to the dynamics of BB by using quantum criticality: if the length L and transversal area S of flux tube are scaled up by n, the ratio L/S is unaffected and the energetics of the system (cyclotron energies and the magnetic energies of the flux tubes ) remains un-affected but frequencies scale by n. By a suitable choice of n system and L/S ratio MB can gain control over BB.

If MB controls basic biological processes at BB then cyclotron frequencies for biologically important ions determine the time scales of basic bio-processes involving various kinds of molecular motors. In communications from BB to MB the difference Δ fc of cyclotron frequencies of ions associated with cell membrane at different sides of cell membrane and would determine the time scales of these communications. For large enough values of n membrane potential would add a small contribution Δ f = ZeV/heff to Δ fc and code nerve pulse patterns and therefore sensory information to the Josephson radiation.

See the chapter Life-like properties observed in a very simple systems or the article with the same title.

A system of particles able to self-assemble and self-heal in presence of acoustic wave

In previous posting (see also the article) I told about a system of charged plastic balls above electrode with same charge of sign imbedded in plasma of positively charged Argon ions. This system exhibits life-like properties, in particular a sequence of phase transitions between crystal-like with synchronous oscillations and gas-like states. This requires a feed of metabolic energy which is not present. To my view non-equilibrium thermodynamics with stochastic resonance feeding the energy is not enough to explain the finding.

One can develop a model for the system based on TGD inspired quantum biology. This involves the notion of magnetic body carrying dark matter identified as heff=n×h phases; a network of magnetic flux tubes (magnetic body) controlling biological body (now charged plastic balls) and responsible for coherence and synchrony (of the crystal-like phase now); the control of the oscillations of BB by cyclotron radiation (now the plastic ball system) resulting from decays of cyclotron condensates of charged particles (now protons and Ar ions). The source of metabolic energy would come from dark nucleosynthesis explaining nuclear transmutations occurring in living matter and "cold fusion" and serving as source of metabolic energy in prebiotic stage when the chemical energy storage had not yet emerged. Dark analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids are dark protons sequences realizing degeneracies of vertebrate genetic code are dark nuclei and can transform to ordinary nuclei and liberate nuclear binding energy so that the hen-egg question about which came first: metabolism or genetic code, is resolved: hen= egg.

Now I found a popular article "Sound waves direct particles to self-assemble, self-heal" telling about another particle system far from thermal equilibrium and exhibiting life like properties. Scientists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) demonstrated how particles, floating on top of a glycerin-water solution, synchronize in response to acoustic waves blasted from a computer speaker. The article "Emergence of an enslaved phononic bandgap in a non-equilibrium pseudo-crystal" telling about the study is published in the journal Nature Materials.

In this case there is an energy feed to the system realized as a monochromatic sound wave. The system responds to an incoming sound wave and gradually the average response of the system which is in the beginning of the experiment essentially constant as function of wavelength develops a wave length gap in the response below the wave length of the incoming sound wave. The emergence of forbidden wavelengths can be interpreted as a synchronous response modellable as a reaction of damped oscillation to a driving force at resonance frequency. The video of the popular article shows how the wave length gap emerges in time scale of 45 minutes. Also the theoretical prediction for the response is given as a curve and is agrees rather nicely with the outcome.

The comment of the co-lead author Chad Ropp, a postdoctoral researcher in Zhang's group is following. "We show that individually 'dumb' particles can self-organize far from equilibrium by dissipating energy and emerge with a collective trait that is dynamically adaptive to and reflective of their environment. In this case, the particles followed the 'beat' of a sound wave generated from a computer speaker."

To my opinion "beat" cannot however mean here what it means usually since this requires that input acoustic signal would be superposition of signals with nearly same frequencies and beat would occur with frequency which is difference of these. This unless one interprets the acoustic signal as beat signal associated with the frequency difference.

The abstract of the article gives a more technical description about what happens.

Material systems that reside far from thermodynamic equilibrium have the potential to exhibit dynamic properties and behaviours resembling those of living organisms. Here we realize a non-equilibrium material characterized by a bandgap whose edge is enslaved to the wavelength of an external coherent drive. The structure dynamically self-assembles into an unconventional pseudo-crystal geometry that equally distributes momentum across elements. The emergent bandgap is bestowed with lifelike properties, such as the ability to self-heal to perturbations and adapt to sudden changes in the drive. We derive an exact analytical solution for both the spatial organization and the bandgap features, revealing the mechanism for enslavement. This work presents a framework for conceiving lifelike non-equilibrium materials and emphasizes the potential for the dynamic imprinting of material properties through external degrees of freedom.

The system has energy feed as acoustic wave (from the left in the video) which gradually shifts the system to the right. Therefore the far from equilibrium thermodynamics without stochastic resonance works satisfactorily. TGD vision might provide a competing quantum description.

Also now the system involves materials appearing in living matter. Glycerin relates closely to glycerol and (glycerol backbone appears in lipids serving as basic building bricks of cell membrane). Glycerin is dissolved in water, which is in a key role in TGD inspired quantum biology. Since I have only access to the abstract of the article, I do not know what is whether the particle are organic material too.

Can one apply the general quantum description to explain the frequency gap?

  1. The metabolic energy feed is now by acoustic oscillations and should induce the phase transition generating magnetic flux tube network containing dark particles having heff= n× h responsible for the synchronous oscillations.
  2. Quantum criticality at the level of the MB could make adaptation possible. The flux tubes with same ratio of L/S of length L and transversal area S scaling like heff/h=n so that L/S remains invariant under scalings of heff correspond to same magnetic energy and cyclotron energies. Adaptation would mean that cyclotron frequency for BE condensate of say protons at magnetic body becomes nearly equal to the frequency of sound wave by a suitable choice of n if the value of magnetic field strength is in reasonable range: this means that flux tubes tune their length and thickness by magnetic motor actions. Note that in pseudo-crystal phase exhibiting life-like aspects it would be MB which drives rather than sound wave. Cyclotron radiation from BE condensates at MB would drive the synchronous oscillations of particles at the nodes of flux tube network performing oscillations (generalization of Alfwen waves to oscillations of flux tube analogous to string vibrations).
  3. The wavelength distribution of the response evolves from an asynchoronous response of the particles to acoustic wave to that corresponding to pseudo-crystal and dictated by the response of MB to acoustic wave. In the initial situation the response does not depend on λ. The response of MB affects the particle system only in a narrow band of wavelengths below λ=&lambda0 and "freezes" it in this range.
  4. The quantum model for the plastic ball system would suggests an analog of entrainment with the acoustic frequency occurring also in brain. Flux tube network would "freeze" the acoustic oscillations of the system of balls in the wavelength gap forcing them to oscillate in phase but with reduced amplitude. The energy would go to the Alfwen waves of MB analogous to lattice oscillations and having a wavelength band around the acoustic wavelength. Due to the "freezing" the amplitude of the oscillations becomes small in the gap. The energy distribution in the wavelength region outside the gap would not be affected.

    The analogs of Alfwen waves are realized as stringy oscillations of magnetic flux tubes at MB. Alfwen waves have a wavelength band around the acoustic wavelength. The wavelength band is analogous to energy bands associated with energy levels of atoms in solids.

  5. The healing of the system would mean a regeneration of the MB under metabolic energy feed. The ability to react to sudden changes in environment might be understood in terms of the ability of MB to adapt in the proposed manner. It would be interesting to see how the system reacts to the change of the acoustic frequency. The model would require change of the value of n.
To sum up, essentially the same quantum model could describe both the system of plastic balls and the recent system. Now acoustic wave would serve as the source of metabolic energy and metabolic energy would be fed to MB.

See the chapter Life-like properties observed in a very simple systems or the article with the same title.

Consciousness is more like sequence of flashes than continuous stream

It has become clear that brain consciousness is not a continuous stream but more like a sequence of flashes (see this). This is one of the basic predictions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness based on what I call zero energy ontology (ZEO). One can say that the subself (mental image) is a life-cycle of a conscious entity and that one has sequences of this kind of periods with opposite arrows of time: self dies and reincarnates with opposite arrow of time. Consciousness would have sleep-awake cycles in all time scales. This would give rise to various bio-rhythms. In EEG this would show itself as a decomposition to portions of duration of order .3 seconds.

In ZEO this could be interpreted in terms of a sequence of lifecycles in which time increases in opposite directions: first at (call it) "upper" boundary of CD, which shifts towards geometric future, then at "lower" boundary, which shifts to geometric past, and so on... . Note that the birth at given boundary is only slightly later than the latest death at it so that also our wake-up period at level to which EEG is associated could be repeated births and reincarnations forming an approximate continuum at given boundary of CD. Also wake-up-sleep cycle could be like this. Strobing character is predicted to be a universal feature of consciousness.

In TGD inspired quantum biology the strobing character of consciousness can be related to the nature of metabolism, which does not take place as continuous feed of energy but as doses with some average rate.

An extremely simple example of strobing character corresponds to a recently discovered system of charged plastic balls in plasma of Argon ions exhibing life-like properties for critical values of parameters (see this) (I tend to see this accidental discovery as one of the epoch changing experimental findings). The system makes transitions crystal-like → gas-like → crystal-like →... . This is like breathing or sleep-awake cycle. On basis of standard physics one would expect only single transition and stable state after that and this is what indeed happens outside criticality.

There must be a source of metabolic energy feeding the plastic balls system and located in the system itself. TGD suggests dark nucleosynthesis explaining also "cold fusion" (see this). The metabolic events occur randomly with some average frequency (rate). Crystal-like state has larger value of heff/h= n and emerges, when the system has received a dose of metabolic energy. Gas-like like state with smaller value of n corresponds to the sleep period. In living matter gel-sol phase transition and protein folding would be analogous fundamental processes. I have called protein unfolding period induced by energy feed as "cellular summer" and folding period "cellular winter".

Dark nucleosynthesis would serve as source of metabolic energy during the pre-biotic period when bio-chemical energy was not yet available and solve the hen-egg problem about which came first, metabolism or genes. The sequences of dark protons at magnetic flux tubes would give rise to analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids with degeneracies of vertebrate genetic code (see this). Genes are dark nuclei, whose transformations to ordinary nuclei liberate nuclear binding energy as metabolic energy. Hen= egg!

See the chapter Life-like properties observed in a very simple system or the article with the same title.

Life-like properties observed in a very simple system

I encountered in FB a link to a rather interesting article by physicists working in Emory University. The title of the popular article was " Physicists show how lifeless particles can become 'life-like' by switching behaviors" (see this). The article " Emergent bi-stability and Switching in a Nonequilibrium Crystal by Guram Gogia and Justin Burton is published in PRL and can be found in ArXiv (see this). Justin Burton leads a physics group working at Emory University. Guram Gogia who made the discovery is her student.

The very simple system studied exhibits what authors call self-organized bi-stability making phase transitions between crystal-like and gas-like phases. The expectation was that only single stable state would appear. Neuron groups can also have collective bi-stability (periodic synchronous firing). Neurons are however themselves bi-stable systems: now the particles are plastic balls and are not bi-stable. One could say that the system exhibits life-like properties. The most remarkable life-like property is metabolism required by the sequence of phase transitions involving dissipation.

Where does the metabolic energy come from? The proposal that stochastic resonance feeds the needed metabolic energy leaves open its source. The resemblance with living cells suggests that the attempt to interpret the findings solely in terms of non-equilibrium thermodynamics might miss something essential - the metabolism.

TGD provides a general model for living systems relying on the notion of magnetic body (MB), hierarchy of Planck constants heff=n× h labelling phases of ordinary matter identifiable as dark matter, and the realization of control and communication signals between MB and biological body using dark photons. Bio-photons would result in the transformation of dark photons to ordinary photons and EEG would rely on dark cyclotron photons and generalized Josephson photons from cell membrane (also bio-photons would relate to them). Bose Einstein condensates of dark variants of biologically important ions or their Cooper pairs are also in a central role. The assumption hgr=heff, where hgr is so called gravitational Planck constant, implies that the energy spectrum of dark cyclotron photons is universal (no dependence on the mass of ion) and naturally in visible and UV range characterizing molecular transition energies.

One can develop a detailed TGD inspired model for the findings leading to an identification of new control tools of MB (MB). Quantum criticality makes it possible for MB can adapt to the biological body (BB) so that it can generated cyclotron frequencies, which correspond to the characteristic frequencies of BB: forced oscillations serve as a control tool of MB. Also the analogs of Alfwen waves identifiable as analogs of string vibrations allow to control the systems at the nodes of the flux tube network.

In the system studied the crystal-like phase corresponds to a connected flux tube network associated having plastic balls as nodes, and gas-like phase to a totally disconnected network with connecting flux tube pairs split into flux loops. That freezing would require energy (going to the magnetic energy of flux tube network in heff increasing phase transition) does not conform with the thermodynamics of classical systems. That superfluid Helium has similar strange feature at low enough temperatures suggests that the system is indeed quantal. Cyclotron Bose-Einstein (BE) condensates of Cooper pairs of Ar+ ions, protons, and electrons are proposed to be relevant. Encouragingly, the ratio of frequencies for horizontal and vertical oscillations frequencies of crystal-like structure is equal to the ratio of cyclotron frequencies for Ar+ and proton.

One of the key challenges is to identify the the prebiotic source of metabolic energy. The sequences of dark protons identifiable as dark nuclei give in TGD framework rise to analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids. The model predicts the degeneracies of vertebrate genetic code correctly. In TGD based model for "cold fusion" as dark nucleosynthesis (DNS) serving as a predecessor of ordinary nucleosynthesis dark nuclei transform to ordinary nuclei liberating almost all nuclear binding energy. Dark analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids would therefore provide also the sought for prebiotic source of metabolic energy in the system studied: the egg-or-hen problem about whether the genes or metabolism came first, would be resolved.

See the chapter Life-like properties observed in a very simple system or the article with the same title.

About the double-slit experiment of Dean Radin

Dean Radin and his team have done a very interesting experiment (see this and this) testing the idea that observer induces state function reduction.


The experiment is a modified double slit experiment. In double slit experiment a laser beam arrives to the screen via two slits and interference pattern is generated as if photons would behave like waves localized at screen. If one adds detectors at the slits, either detector fires and detects the passing-by by photon, and interference pattern disappears with optimal detection efficiency.

The idea is to add a subject person (S) at distance of two meters. S imagines of measuring that electron passes through either slit. One can say that S intends to add a "detector" to either slit or both of them so that a state function reduction selecting either slit occurs. This experiment differs from experiments in which S tries to affect the ratio of frequencies of 0:s and 1:s in random series of bits: S does not try to force the electrons to pass by either slit. There is a feedback represented as sound/yellow light whose height/intensity coded for the amount of the reduction of the height of the peak. There are two kinds of participants: meditators and those who have no experience in meditation.

The results of the experiment are thoroughly discussed in the Youtube lecture or Radin (see this). To my opinion the results are amazing. In one experiment it was found that the height of the peak of the Fourier transform of the intensity distribution of the diffraction pattern is reduced. In second experiment the depth of bottom of the through of distribution was reduced. As if the intention would induce with some probability to perform the measurement selecting the photon path. The effect was small but appeared systematically for a group consisting of meditators. For persons without experience in meditation the effect averaged out also in this case it was present in the beginning of the experiment when subject person were not bored by the repetitive character of the experiment. The longer attention span of meditators could partially explain this.

Even more amazing finding was that in a variant of the experiment realized in internet the results were also positive although the persons intending to induce the experiment.

Arguments of different skeptic

The standard argument of skeptic is that statistics is poor, that the experiment is even fraud, etc... One can however consider more refined and more imaginative objections. Let us make a digress from the usual behavior of skeptic and assume that the effect was real.

If the meditators could induce the measurement by intention, one expects that also the experimenter could have done it. To how high degree the outcome was due to the experimenters and how much due to the meditators? Experimenter also had the theoretical expectation that meditators are better in inducing the slit detection. Could the wish that the theory is correct have caused subconscious intention about performing the detection in the case of meditators or not doing it in the case of non-meditating subject persons?

In the case of net experiment situation becomes even more problematic. One can imagine that also in this case the intention of experimenter could induce the detection - at least if experimenter is near to the system. Should experimenters have spent the period of experiments in Mars or at least in a distant holiday resort! Experimenters studying remote mental interactions are usually not rich people and presumably they did not do this.

The experimenter effect is well-known in parapsychology. Some experimenters are extremely successful. Could one think that they have strong intentional powers? Ironically, this would demonstrate the reality of paranormal effects of this kind but in a manner that can never convince the skeptics. There is evidence for this kind of effect in the testing of new medicines. Good results are obtained when the testers are enthusiastic and dream of a positive result. When they do same tests after some years, the results are worse.

TGD based model

The challenge is to understand how the S imagining a measurement telling that photon went through either slit could realize this intention. What does the detection mean and what it demands?

  1. The measurement should involve a state function reduction selecting between the slits entangled with observer. In principle it is enough to have an interaction of photon in either slit localing the path of the photon to that slit. It is enough that photon interacts with charged particles in either slit with some probability. This measurement is of course not optimal since the interference diagram is only partially changed. Only some fraction of these measurements take place and produce single slit pattern so that the observer pattern is a weighted average of double slit and single slit patterns. In principle one can estimate the probability for single slit pattern from the data.
  2. Quantum classical correspondence requires that in order that the intention to detect could be realized, one must have a physical connection from the S to both slits or at least either of them. Also charged particles assignable to the connection should be involved to make scattering of photon possible. Also entanglement entangling detector fires/does not fire with corresponding states of some other system, say the S would be needed.

How could one realize these connections in TGD?

  1. In TGD framework the magnetic flux tubes serve as correlates of entanglement and directed attention. To direct attention to a system means to connected with it by flux tubes. Flux tubes carry dark charged particles essential for TGD view about quantum biology.
  2. Every system has U-shaped flux tubes emanating from it and acting as kind of tentacles scanning the environment. As a U-shaped flux tube from system A encounters another similar flux tube from system B, a reconnection takes place if the quantized fluxes are same. The outcome is a pair of flux tubes connection A and B. The flux tube pair can carry Cooper pairs with members of the pair at the flux tubes. The photons from laser could scatter from the charged particles.
  3. The dark particles the flux tube are dark with heff/h=n satisfying an additional condition implying that n is proportional to the mass of the charged particle in turn implying that cyclotron energies Ec= hbareff eB/m are universal and assumed to correspond energies in the range of visible and UV.

    In order that photon scatters from the charged particles it must have the same value of heff as the particles at magnetic flux tubes emanating from the S. Some fraction of laser photons could satisfy this condition. Note that if perturbative quantum theory applies, the classical predictions are same as lowest order quantum predictions so that heff makes it visible only in higher orders assuming that perturbation theory works when heff/h=n holds true. Unfortunately, it is not possible to estimate the probability that photon enters to the flux tube. Note that the probability depends also on the density of the flux tubes.

The effect is reported in net experiments for which distances can be long and there is no visual contact. Can one understand this?
  1. If there quantum entanglement between A and B already exists one can increase the distance without spoiling the entanglement. But how to achieve the entanglement if n the systems are at large distance from beginning?
  2. The length of the magnetic flux tubes is not a problem. The size scale for the layers of magnetic flux tube corresponding to EEG frequency 7.8 Hz is circumference of Earth. The condition that the size of the flux tube is at least of the order of the cyclotron wavelength λ for cyclotron photons at the flux tube implies that length of the flux tube of of the order of the size scale of Earth for EEG frequencies.

    In fact, our MBs could have much larger layers if biological rhythms have cyclotron frequencies as counterparts. The size scales could be of order light-life-time or even longer. This changes totally the view about the role of length scales in biology and consciousness. There is some evidence that galactic day defines the natural rhythm for precognitive phenomena: precognitive phenomena tend to occur at galactic midday. Galactic cyclotron frequencies (the galactic magnetic field is of order nT) could correspond to bio-rhythms up to 12 hours.

In net experiment the problem is how to generate the connection to a correct target. The same problem is encountered in the attempts to explain the claimed results of remote viewing experiments. Could the density of flux tubes of personal magnetic body (MB) be so high that the connection is generated with high enough probability. S receives data through the web. Could this help to build the desired connection.
  1. Skeptic would explain the reported positive result in web experiments by saying that the results were actually induced by the intention of the experimenter who was near to the system. This might of course be the case.
  2. The first possibility is that an entanglement is generated between the camera monitoring the system and slits involving flux tubes. The communication of the image from the camera to computer builds another flux tube bridge. The radiation reflected in satellite to the computer at Earth involves propagation along flux tubes. At the receiver ends similar bridges are build. There is therefore a flux tube connection with the computer of used by S, who generates the last piece of the connection. This kind of flux tube connection would be between all communicating systems. Also the experiments would belong to this entanglement network.
  3. MB has layers with size scale of order Earth size. Could it be able to meet the challenge by using the information coming from web. Could the U-shaped flux tubes be so dense as to be able to build a contact with the experimental arrangement with high enough probability? If they are to represent Maxwellian magnetic field in good approximation, they should be dense. What is important that these flux tubes correspond do different space-time sheets for distinct observers: this is actually the basic distinction between the field concepts of Maxwell and TGD.

    Could it be that the feedback from S at her computer via the net to the computer at the other end generates quantum correlated events and this correlation has as correlates magnetic flux tubes connecting the distant systems.

  4. The hyper-imaginative option is that S can delegate the problem with collective consciousness assignable to the magnetosphere of Earth and having all the engineering knowledge that Earth has! Could we be neurons of a gigantic brain of Mother Gaia, which would help S to realize their intention. Can single neuron realize its intention on a distant neuron in brain in the similar manner? Could some kind of resonance mechanism be involved? Could MB detect correlations between distant events and generate flux tube connection and entanglement between these places? Could brain do the same for neutrons?

See the chapter TGD inspired view about remote mental interactions and paranormal.

NMP and self

The preparation of an article about number theoretic aspects of TGD forced to go through various related ideas and led to a considerable integration of the ideas. In this note ideas related directly to consciousness and cognition are discussed.

  1. Adelic approach strongly suggests the reduction of NMP to number theoretic physics somewhat like second law reduces to probability theory. The dimension of extension rationals characterizing the hierarchy level of physics and defined an observable measured in state function reductions is positive and can only increase in statistical sense. Therefore the maximal value of entanglement negentropy increases as new entangling number theoretic degrees of freedom emerge. heff/h=n identifiable as factor of Galois group of extension characterizes the number of these degrees of freedom for given space-time surfaces as number of its sheets.
  2. State function reduction is hitherto assumed to correspond always to a measurement of density matrix which can be seen as a reaction of subsystem to its environment. This makes perfect sense at space-time level. Higher level measurements occur however at the level of WCW and correspond to a localization to some sector of WCW determining for instance the quantization axes of various quantum numbers. Even the measurement of heff/h=n would measure the dimension of Galois group and force a localization to an extension with Galois group with this dimension. These measurements cannot correspond to measurements of density matrix since different WCW sectors cannot entangle by WCW locality. This finding will be discuss in the following.
1. Evolution of NMP

The view about Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) has co-evolved with the notion of self and I have considered many variants of NMP.

  1. The original formulation of NMP was in positive energy ontology and made same predictions as standard quantum measurement theory. The new element was that the density matrix of sub-system defines the fundamental observable and the system goes to its eigenstate in state function reduction. As found, the localizations at to WCW sectors define what might be called self-measurements and identifiable as active volitions rather than reactions.
  2. In p-adic physics one can assign with rational and even algebraic entanglement probabilities number theoretical entanglement negentropy (NEN) satisfying the same basic axioms as the ordinary Shannon entropy but having negative values and therefore having interpretation as information. The definition of p-adic negentropy (real valued) reads as Sp= -∑ Pklog(|Pk|p), where | . |p denotes p-adic norm. The news is that Np= -Sp can be positive and is positive for rational entanglement probabilities. Real entanglement entropy S is always non-negative.

    NMP would force the generation of negentropic entanglement (NE) and stabilize it. NE resources of the Universe - one might call them Akashic records- would steadily increase.

  3. A decisive step of progress was the realization is that NTU forces all states in adelic physics to have entanglement coefficients in some extension of rationals inducing finite-D extension of p-adic numbers. The same entanglement can be characterized by real entropy S and p-adic negentropies Np, which can be positive. One can define also total p-adic negentropy: N= ∑p Np for all p and total negentropy Ntot=N-S.

    For rational entanglement probabilities it is easy to demonstrate that the generalization of adelic theorem holds true: Ntot=N-S=0. NMP based on Ntot rather than N would not say anything about rational entanglement. For extensions of rationals it is easy to find that N-S>0 is possible if entanglement probabilities are of form Xi/n with |Xi|p=1 and n integer. Should one identify the total negentropy as difference Ntot=N-S or as Ntot=N?

    Irrespective of answer, large p-adic negentropy seems to force large real entropy: this nicely correlates with the paradoxical finding that living systems tend to be entropic although one would expect just the opposite: this relates in very interesting manner to the work of biologists Jeremy England \citebbio/England1. The negentropy would be cognitive negentropy and not visible for ordinary physics.

  4. The latest step in the evolution of ideas NMP was the question whether NMP follows from number theory alone just as second law follows form probability theory! This irritates theoretician's ego but is victory for theory. The dimension n of extension is positive integer and cannot but grow in statistical sense in evolution! Since one expects that the maximal value of negentropy (define as N-S) must increase with n. Negentropy must increase in long run.
2. Number theoretic entanglement can be stable

Number theoretical Shannon entropy can serve as a measure for genuine information assignable to a pair of entanglement systems. Entanglement with coefficients in the extension is always negentropic if entanglement negentropy comes from p-adic sectors only. It can be negentropic if negentropy is defined as the difference of p-adic negentropy and real entropy.

The diagonalized density matrix need not belong to the algebraic extension since the probabilities defining its diagonal elements are eigenvalues of the density matrix as roots of N:th order polynomial, which in the generic case requires n-dimensional algebraic extension of rationals. One can argue that since diagonalization is not possible, also state function reduction selecting one of the eigenstates is impossible unless a phase transition increasing the dimension of algebraic extension used occurs simultaneously. This kind of NE could give rise to cognitive entanglement.

There is also a special kind of NE, which can result if one requires that density matrix serves a universal observable in state function reduction. The outcome of reduction must be an eigen space of density matrix, which is projector to this subspace acting as identity matrix inside it. This kind NE allows all unitarily related basis as eigenstate basis (unitary transformations must belong to the algebraic extension). This kind of NE could serve as a correlate for "enlightened" states of consciousness. Schrödingers cat is in this kind of state stably in superposition of dead and alive and state basis obtained by unitary rotation from this basis is equally good. One can say that there are no discriminations in this state, and this is what is claimed about "enlightened" states too.

The vision about number theoretical evolution suggests that NMP forces the generation of NE resources as NE assignable to the "passive boundary of CD for which no changes occur during sequence of state function reductions defining self. It would define the unchanging self as negentropy resources, which could be regarded as kind of Akashic records. During the next "re-incarnation after the first reduction to opposite boundary of CD the NE associated with the reduced state would serve as new Akashic records for the time reversed self. If NMP reduces to the statistical increase of heff/h=n the consciousness information contents of the Universe increases in statistical sense. In the best possible world of SNMP it would increase steadily.

3. Does NMP reduce to number theory?

The heretic question that emerged quite recently is whether NMP is actually needed at all! Is NMP a separate principle or could NMP reduced to mere number theory? Consider first the possibility that NMP is not needed at all as a separate principle.

  1. The value of heff/h=n should increase in the evolution by the phase transitions increasing the dimension of the extension of rationals. heff/h=n has been identified as the number of sheets of some kind of covering space. The Galois group of extension acts on number theoretic discretizations of the monadic surface and the orbit defines a covering space. Suppose n is the number of sheets of this covering and thus the dimension of the Galois group for the extension of rationals or factor of it.
  2. It has been already noticed that the "big" state function reductions giving rise to death and reincarnation of self could correspond to a measurement of n=heff implied by the measurement of the extension of the rationals defining the adeles. The statistical increase of n follows automatically and implies statistical increase of maximal entanglement negentropy. Entanglement negentropy increases in statistical sense.

    The resulting world would not be the best possible one unlike for a strong form of NMP demanding that negentropy does increaes in "big" state function reductions. n also decrease temporarily and they seem to be needed. In TGD inspired model of bio-catalysis the phase transition reducing the value of n for the magnetic flux tubes connecting reacting bio-molecules allows them to find each other in the molecular soup. This would be crucial for understanding processes like DNA replication and transcription.

  3. State function reduction corresponding to the measurement of density matrix could occur to an eigenstate/eigenspace of density matrix only if the corresponding eigenvalue and eigenstate/eigenspace is expressible using numbers in the extension of rationals defining the adele considered. In the generic case these numbers belong to N-dimensional extension of the original extension. This can make the entanglement stable with respect to state the measurements of density matrix.

    A phase transition to an extension of an extension containing these coefficients would be required to make possible reduction. A step in number theoretic evolution would occur. Also an entanglement of measured state pairs with those of measuring system in containing the extension of extension would make possible the reduction. Negentropy could be reduced but higher-D extension would provide potential for more negentropic entanglement and NMP would hold true in the statistical sense.

  4. If one has higher-D eigen space of density matrix, p-adic negentropy is largest for the entire subspace and the sum of real and p-adic negentropies vanishes for all of them. For negentropy identified as total p-adic negentropy SNMP would select the entire sub-space and NMP would indeed say something explicit about negentropy.
4. Or is NMP needed as a separate principle?

Hitherto I have postulated NMP as a separate principle. Strong form of NMP (SNMP) states that Negentropy does not decrease in "big" state function reductions corresponding to death and re-incarnations of self.

One can however argue that SNMP is not realistic. SNMP would force the Universe to be the best possible one, and this does not seem to be the case. Also ethically responsible free will would be very restricted since self would be forced always to do the best deed that is increase maximally the negentropy serving as information resources of the Universe. Giving up separate NMP altogether would allow to have also "Good" and "Evil".

This forces to consider what I christened weak form of NMP (WNMP). Instead of maximal dimension corresponding to N-dimensional projector self can choose also lower-dimensional sub-spaces and 1-D sub-space corresponds to the vanishing entanglement and negentropy assumed in standard quantum measurement theory. As a matter fact, this can also lead to larger negentropy gain since negentropy depends strongly on what is the large power of p in the dimension of the resulting eigen sub-space of density matrix. This could apply also to the purely number theoretical reduction of NMP.

WNMP suggests how to understand the notions of Good and Evil. Various choices in the state function reduction would correspond to Boolean algebra, which suggests an interpretation in terms of what might be called emotional intelligence . Also it turns out that one can understand how p-adic length scale hypothesis - actually its generalization - emerges from WNMP.

  1. One can start from ordinary quantum entanglement. It corresponds to a superposition of pairs of states. Second state corresponds to the internal state of the self and second state to a state of external world or biological body of self. In negentropic quantum entanglement each is replaced with a pair of sub-spaces of state spaces of self and external world. The dimension of the sub-space depends on which pair is in question. In state function reduction one of these pairs is selected and deed is done. How to make some of these deeds good and some bad? Recall that WNMP allows only the possibility to generate NNE but does not force it. WNMP would be like God allowing the possibility to do good but not forcing good deeds.

    Self can choose any sub-space of the subspace defined by k≤ N-dimensional projector and 1-D subspace corresponds to the standard quantum measurement. For k=1 the state function reduction leads to vanishing negentropy, and separation of self and the target of the action. Negentropy does not increase in this action and self is isolated from the target: kind of price for sin.

    For the maximal dimension of this sub-space the negentropy gain is maximal. This deed would be good and by the proposed criterion NE corresponds to conscious experience with positive emotional coloring. Interestingly, there are 2k-1 possible choices, which is almost the dimension of Boolean algebra consisting of k independent bits. The excluded option corresponds to 0-dimensional sub-space - empty set in set theoretic realization of Boolean algebra. This could relate directly to fermionic oscillator operators defining basis of Boolean algebra - here Fock vacuum would be the excluded state. The deed in this sense would be a choice of how loving the attention towards system of external world is.

  2. A map of different choices of k-dimensional sub-spaces to k-fermion states is suggestive. The realization of logic in terms of emotions of different degrees of positivity would be mapped to many-fermion states - perhaps zero energy states with vanishing total fermion number. State function reductions to k-dimensional spaces would be mapped to k-fermion states: quantum jumps to quantum states!

    The problem brings in mind quantum classical correspondence in quantum measurement theory. The direction of the pointer of the measurement apparatus (in very metaphorical sense) corresponds to the outcome of state function reduction, which is now 1-D subspace. For ordinary measurement the pointer has k positions. Now it must have 2k-1 positions. To the discrete space of k pointer positions one must assign fermionic Clifford algebra of second quantized fermionic oscillator operators. The hierarchy of Planck constants and dark matter suggests the realization. Replace the pointer with its space-time k-sheeted covering and consider zero energy energy states made of pairs of k-fermion states at the sheets of the n-sheeted covering? Dark matter would be therefore necessary for cognition. The role of fermions would be to "mark" the k space-time sheets in the covering.

The cautious conclusion is that NMP as a separate principle is not necessary and follows in statistical sense from the unavoidable increase of n=heff/h identified as dimension of extension of rationals define the adeles if this extension or at least the dimension of its Galois group is observable.

See the chapter Life and Death and Consciousness.

Are all quantum jumps measurements of density matrix?

The preparation of an article about number theoretic aspects of TGD forced to go through various related ideas and led to a considerable integration of the ideas. In this note ideas related directly to consciousness and cognition are discussed.

  1. Adelic approach strongly suggests the reduction of NMP to number theoretic physics somewhat like second law reduces to probability theory. The dimension of extension rationals characterizing the hierarchy level of physics and defined an observable measured in state function reductions is positive and can only increase in statistical sense. Therefore the maximal value of entanglement negentropy increases as new entangling number theoretic degrees of freedom emerge. heff/h=n identifiable as factor of Galois group of extension characterizes the number of these degrees of freedom for given space-time surfaces as number of its sheets.
  2. State function reduction is hitherto assumed to correspond always to a measurement of density matrix which can be seen as a reaction of subsystem to its environment. This makes perfect sense at space-time level. Higher level measurements occur however at the level of WCW and correspond to a localization to some sector of WCW determining for instance the quantization axes of various quantum numbers. Even the measurement of heff/h=n would measure the dimension of Galois group and force a localization to an extension with Galois group with this dimension. These measurements cannot correspond to measurements of density matrix since different WCW sectors cannot entangle by WCW locality. This finding will be discuss in the following.
The notion of self can be seen as a generalization of the poorly defined definition of the notion of observer in quantum physics. In the following I take the role of skeptic trying to be as critical as possible.

The original definition of self was as a subsystem able to remain unentangled under state function reductions associated with subsequent quantum jumps. The density matrix was assumed to define the universal observable. Note that a density matrix, which is power series of a product of matrices representing commuting observables has in the generic case eigenstates, which are simultaneous eigenstates of all observables. Second aspect of self was assumed to be the integration of subsequent quantum jumps to coherent whole giving rise to the experienced flow of time.

The precise identification of self allowing to understand both of these aspects turned out to be difficult problem. I became aware the solution of the problem in terms of ZEO (ZEO) only rather recently (2014).

  1. Self corresponds to a sequence of quantum jumps integrating to single unit as in the original proposal, but these quantum jumps correspond to state function reductions to a fixed boundary of causal diamond CD leaving the corresponding parts of zero energy states invariant - "small" state function reductions. The parts of zero energy states at second boundary of CD change and even the position of the tip of the opposite boundary changes: one actually has wave function over positions of second boundary (CD sizes roughly) and this wave function changes. In positive energy ontology these repeated state function reductions would have no effect on the state (Zeno effect) but in TGD framework there occurs a change for the second boundary and gives rise to the experienced flow of time and its arrow and self: self is generalized Zeno effect.
  2. The first quantum jump to the opposite boundary corresponds to the act of "free will" or birth of re-incarnated self. Hence the act of "free will" changes the arrow of psychological time at some level of hierarchy of CDs. The first reduction to the opposite boundary of CD means "death" of self and "re-incarnation" of time-reversed self at opposite boundary at which the the temporal distance between the tips of CD increases in opposite direction. The sequence of selves and time reversed selves is analogous to a cosmic expansion for CD. The repeated birth and death of mental images could correspond to this sequence at the level of sub-selves.
  3. This allows to understand the relationship between subjective and geometric time and how the arrow of and flow of clock time (psychological time) emerge. The average distance between the tips of CD increases on the average as along as state function functions occur repeatedly at the fixed boundary: situation is analogous to that in diffusion. The localization of contents of conscious experience to boundary of CD gives rise to the illusion that universe is 3-dimensional. The possibility of memories made possibly by hierarchy of CDs demonstrates that this is not the case. Self is simply the sequence of state function reductions at same boundary of CD remaining fixed and the lifetime of self is the total growth of the average temporal distance between the tips of CD.
One can identify several rather abstract state function reductions selecting a sector of WCW.
  1. There are quantum measurements inducing localization in the moduli space of CDs with passive boundary and states at it fixed. In particular, a localization in the moduli characterizing the Lorentz transform of the upper tip of CD would be measured. The measured moduli characterize also the analog of symplectic form in M4 strongly suggested by twistor lift of TGD - that is the rest system (time axis) and spin quantization axes. Of course, also other kinds of reductions are possible.
  2. Also a localization to an extension of rationals defining the adeles should occur. Could the value of n=heff/h be observable? The value of n for given space-time surface at the active boundary of CD could be identified as the order of the smallest Galois group containing all Galois groups assignable to 3-surfaces at the boundary. The superposition of space-time surface would not be eigenstate of n at active boundary unless localization occurs. It is not obvious whether this is consistent with a fixe value of n at passive boundary.

    The measured value of n could be larger or smaller than the value of n at the passive boundary of CD but in statistical sense n would increase by the analogy with diffusion on half line defined by non-negative integers. The distance from the origin unavoidably increases in statistical sense. This would imply evolution as increase of maximal value of negentropy and generation of quantum coherence in increasingly longer scales.

  3. A further abstract choice corresponds to the the replacement of the roles of active and passive boundary of CD changing the arrow of clock time and correspond to a death of self and re-incarnation as time-reversed self.
Can one assume that these measurements reduce to measurements of a density matrix of either entangled system as assumed in the earlier formulation of NMP, or should one allow both options. This question actually applies to all quantum measurements and leads to a fundamental philosophical questions unavoidable in all consciousness theories.
  1. Do all measurements involve entanglement between the moduli or extensions of two CDs reduced in the measurement of the density matrix? Non-diagonal entanglement would allow final states states, which are not eigenstates of moduli or of n: this looks strange. This could also lead to an infinite regress since it seems that one must assume endless hierarchy of entangled CDs so that the reduction sequence would proceed from top to bottom. It looks natural to regard single CD as a sub-Universe.

    For instance, if a selection of quantization axis of color hypercharge and isospin (localization in the twistor space of CP2) is involved, one would have an outcome corresponding to a quantum superposition of measurements with different color quantization axis!

    Going philosophical, one can also argue, that the measurement of density matrix is only a reaction to environment and does not allow intentional free will.

  2. Can one assume that a mere localization in the moduli space or for the extension of rationals (producing an eigenstate of n) takes place for a fixed CD - a kind of self measurement possible for even unentangled system? If there is entanglement in these degrees of freedom between two systems (say CDs), it would be reduced in these self measurements but the outcome would not be an eigenstate of density matrix. An interpretation as a realization of intention would be approriate.
  3. If one allows both options, the interpretation would be that state function reduction as a measurement of density matrix is only a reaction to environment and self-measurement represents a realization of intention.
  4. Self measurements would occur at higher level say as a selection of quantization axis, localization in the moduli space of CD, or selection of extension of rationals. A possible general rule is that measurements at space-time level are reactions as measurements of density matrix whereas a selection of a sector of WCW would be an intentional action. This because formally the quantum states at the level of WCW are as modes of classical WCW spinor field single particle states. Entanglement between different sectors of WCW is not possible.
  5. If the selections of sectors of WCW at active boundary of CD commute with observables, whose eigenstates appear at passive boundary (briefly passive observables) meaning that time reversal commutes with them - they can occur repeatedly during the reduction sequence and self as a generalized Zeno effect makes sense.

    If the selections of WCW sectors at active boundary do not commute with passive observables then volition as a choice of sector of WCW must change the arrow of time. Libet's findings show that conscious choice induces neural activity for a fraction of second before the conscious choice. This would imply the correspondences "big" measurement changing the arrow of time - self-measurement at the level of WCW - intentional action and "small" measurement - measurement at space-time level - reaction.

    Self as a generalized Zeno effect makes sense only if there are active commuting with passive observables. If the passive observables form a maximal set, the new active observables commuting with them must emerge. The increase of the size of extension of rationals might generate them by expanding the state space so that self would survive only as long at it evolves. Self would die and re-incarnate when it could not generate any new observables communicating with those assignable to active boundary to be measured. From personal experience I can say that ageing is basically the loss of the ability to make new choices. When all possible choices are made, all observables are measured or self-measured, it is time to start again.

    Otherwise there would be only single unitary time evolution followed by a reduction to opposite boundary. This makes sense only if the sequence of "big" reductions for sub-selves can give rise to the time flow experienced by self: the birth and death of mental images would give rise to flow of time of self.

The overall conclusion is that the notion of WCW is necessary to understand intentional free will. One must distinguish between measurements at WCW level as localizations, which do not involved measurement of density matrix and measurements space-time level reducible to measurements of density matrix (taking the density matrix to be function of product of commuting observables one can measure all these observables simultaneously by measuring density matrix. WCW localizations correspond to intentional actions - say decision fixing quantization axis for spin and space-time reductions correspond to state function reductions at the level of matter. By reading Krishnamurti I learned that eastern philosophies make a sharp distinction between behavior as mere reactivity and behavior as intentional actions which are not reactions. Furthermore, death and reincarnation happen when self has made all choices.

For details see the chapter Negentropy Maximization Principle or the article Re-examination of the basic notions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness.

See the chapter Life and Death and Consciousness.

Adelic physics, imagination, and dark matter

An important step in the progress has been the discovery of Strong Form of Holography (SH). 2-dimensional surfaces (string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces) are fundamental objects and 4-D physics is a kind of algebraic continuation from this intersection of reality and various p-adicities in both real and p-adic sectors of the adelic Universe. 4-D space-time surfaces are preferred extremals of Kähler action making them effectively 2-D in the sense that the 2-D surfaces serve as "space-time genes". Also the quantum states assignable to the 2-D surfaces can be algebraically continued to the entire 4-D space-time.

It is however quite possible that the continuation in the real sector to a preferred extremal of Kähler action fails. In p-adic sectors the possibility of p-adic pseudo constants, which are piecewise constant functions with vanishing derivative, makes the continuation much easier. This inspires the idea that imagination corresponds to these p-adic continuations. p-Adic continuation might be possible whereas real continuation could fail: one would have imagined world, which cannot be realized as often happens!

This argument becomes more precise as one realizes that SH is slightly broken: even information theoretically one has only effective 2-dimensionality. This means that 4-surfaces as preferred extremals are dictated by the data at string world sheets and possibly also partonic 2-surfaces and by data discrete set of points with preferred imbedding space coordinates in the extension of rationals defining the adele structure by inducing the extensions of p-adic number fields. For p-adic number fields pseudo-constants make it easy to construct the algebraic continuation to a preferred extremal containing the discretization. For reals this is possible only in special cases. These discretizations correspond to realizable imaginations.

Note that Galois group acts as symmetries in the space of space-time discretizations and under certain conditions gives rise to a space-time surface, which is a covering space with n sheets, n a factor of the order of Galois group. The identification heff/h=n is natural and reduces the hierarchy of Planck constants and dark matter to adelic physics. Ramified primes for the extension of rationals involved are preferred for extension and if the extension allows especially many realizable imaginations, it is surviver in the number theoretic fight for survival. Ramified primes for these extensions should be winners in the number theoretic evolution. Whether p-adic length scale hypothesis and its generalization follow from this conjecture, remains an open question.

See the chapter Life and Death and Consciousness.

Why metabolism is needed?

The simplest and at the same time most difficult question that innocent student can make about biology class is simple: "Why we must eat?". Or using more physics oriented language: "Why we must get metabolic energy?". The answer of the teacher might be that we do not eat to get energy but to get order. The stuff that we eat contains ordered energy: we eat order. But order in standard physics is lack of entropy, lack of disorder. Student could get nosy and argue that excretion produces the same outcome as eating but is not enough to survive.

We could go to a deeper level and ask why metabolic energy is needed in biochemistry. Suppose we do this in TGD Universe with dark matter identified as phases characterized by heff/h=n. At deeper level metabolic energy should closely relate to negentropic entanglement (NE) and thus information. Identification of these two is however not possible. I have considered several answers to the question why metabolic energy is needed. Here two answers will be discussed.

  1. Conscious information could be the basic currency and the transfer of metabolic energy and metabolites would make possible transfer of NE. Is the transfer of metabolic energy essentially transfer of NE? Could the transfer of NE require metabolic energy? NE transfer could be transfer of systems consisting of negentropically entangled parts or it could be transfer of NE with larger system, even Earth. NMP would force the systems to fight for NE and this would lead to the fight for metabolic resources. The transfer of entanglement is the basic mechanism in quantum computation and would mean in biology stealing of NE, the fundamental crime!
  2. Could metabolic energy needed to generate NE from scratch? For this option the molecules providing the metabolic energy contain dark atoms. Of course, the nutrients could already contain the negentropic entanglement and photosynthesis could serve as fundamental generator of NE. The following naive model for dark atoms obtained by replacing h with heff supports this view.
    1. The binding energy spectrum of dark hydrogen atom is scaled by 1/n2, n=heff/h (do not confuse this n with the integer n labelling the states of hydrogen atom!) so that generation of dark hydrogen atoms would require energy. Dark atoms have smaller binding energies and their creation by a phase transition increasing the value of n demands a feed of energy - metabolic energy! If the metabolic energy feed stops, n is gradually reduced. System gets tired, loses consciousness, and eventually dies. Also in case of cyclotron energies the positive cyclotron energy is proportional to $h_{eff}$ so that metabolic energy is needed to generate larger heff and prerequisites for negentropy.
    2. The analogy of weak form of NMP following from mere adelic physics makes it analogous to second law. Could one consider the purely formal generalization of dE=TdS-.. to dE= -TdN-... where E refers to metabolic energy and N refers to entanglement negentropy? No: the situation is different. The system is not closed system; N is not the negative of thermodynamical entropy S; and E is the metabolic energy feeded to the system, not the system's internal energy. dE= TdN - ... might however make sense for a system to which metabolic energy is feeded.

      The identification of N is still open: N could be identified as N= ∑pNp -S where one has sum of p-adic entanglement negentropies and real entanglement entropy S or as N = ∑pNp. For the first option one would have N=0 for rational entanglement and N>0. for extensions of rationals. Could rational entanglement be interpreted as that associated with dead matter?

    3. Bio-catalysis and ATP→ ADP$ process need not require metabolic energy. A transfer of negentropy from nutrients to ATP to acceptor molecule would be in question. Metabolic energy would be needed to reload ADP with negentropy to give ATP by using ATP synthase as a mitochondrial power plant. Metabolites could be carriers of dark atoms of this kind possibly carrying also NE. They could also carry NE associated with the dark cyclotron states as suggested earlier and in this case the value of heff=hgr would be much larger than in the case of dark atoms.

      What is remarkable that the scale of atomic binding energies decreases with n only in dimension D=3. In other dimensions it increases and in D=4 one cannot even speak of bound states! This can be easily found by a study of Schrödinger equation for the analog of hydrogen atom in various dimensions. Life based on atomic metabolism seems to make sense only in spatial dimension D=3. Note however that there are also other quantum states than atomic states with different dependence of energy on heff.

See the chapter Life and Death and Consciousness.

What happens in bio-catalysis?

Bio-catalysis is a key mechanism of biology and its extreme efficacy remains to be understood. Enzymes are proteins and ribozymes RNA sequences acting as biocatalysts.

1. Conditions on bio-catalysis

What catalysis demands?

  1. Catalyst and reactants must find each other. How this could happen is very difficult to understand in standard biochemistry in which living matter is seen as soup of biomolecules. I have already already considered the mechanisms making it possible for the reactants to find each other. For instance, in the translation of mRNA to protein tRNA molecules must find their way to mRNA at ribosome. The proposal is that reconnection allowing U-shaped magnetic flux tubes to reconnect to a pair of flux tube connecting mRNA and tRNA molecule and reduction of the value of heff=n× h inducing reduction of the length of magnetic flux tube takes care of this step. This applies also to DNA transcription and DNA replication and bio-chemical reactions in general.
  2. Catalyst must provide energy for the reactants (their number is typically two) to overcome the potential wall making the reaction rate very slow for energies around thermal energy. The TGD based model for the hydrino atom having larger binding energy than hydrogen atom claimed by Randell Mills suggests a solution . Some hydrogen atom in catalyst goes from (dark) hydrogen atom state to hydrino state (state with smaller heff/h and liberates the excess binding energy kicking the either reactant over the potential wall so that reaction can process. After the reaction the catalyst returns to the normal state and absorbs the binding energy.
  3. In the reaction volume catalyst and reactants must be guided to correct places. The simplest model of catalysis relies on lock-and-key mechanism. The generalized Chladni mechanism forcing the reactants to a two-dimensional closed nodal surface is a natural candidate to consider. There are also additional conditions. For instance, the reactants must have correct orientation. For instance, the reactants must have correct orientation and this could be forced by the interaction with the em field of ME involved with Chladni mechanism.
  4. One must have also a coherence of chemical reactions meaning that the reaction can occur in a large volume - say in different cell interiors - simultaneously. Here MB would induce the coherence by using MEs. Chladni mechanism might explain this if there is there is interference of forces caused by periodic standing waves themselves represented as pairs of MEs.
2. Phase transition reducing the value of heff/h=n as a basic step in bio-catalysis

Hydrogen atom allows also large heff/h=n variants with n>6 with the scale of energy spectrum behaving as (6/n)2 if the n=4 holds true for visible matter. The reduction of n as the flux tube contracts would reduce n and liberate binding energy, which could be used to promote the catalysis.

The notion of high energy phosphate bond is somewhat mysterious concept. There are claims that there is no such bond. I have spent considerable amount of time to ponder this problem. Could phosphate contain (dark) hydrogen atom able to go to the a state with a smaller value of heff/h and liberate the excess binding energy? Could the phosphorylation of acceptor molecule transfer this dark atom associated with the phosphate of ATP to the acceptor molecule? Could the mysterious high energy phosphate bond correspond to the dark atom state. Metabolic energy would be needed to transform ADP to ATP and would generate dark atom.

Could solar light kick atoms into dark states and in this manner store metabolic energy? Could nutrients carry these dark atoms? Could this energy be liberated as the dark atoms return to ordinary states and be used to drive protons against potential gradient through ATP synthase analogous to a turbine of a power plant transforming ADP to ATP and reproducing the dark atom and thus the "high energy phosphate bond" in ATP? Can one see metabolism as transfer of dark atoms? Could possible negentropic entanglement disappear and emerge again after ADP→ATP.

Here it is essential that the energies of the hydrogen atom depend on hbareff=n× h in as hbareffm, m=-2<0. Hydrogen atoms in dimension D have Coulomb potential behaving as 1/rD-2 from Gauss law and the Schrödinger equation predicts for D≠ 4 that the energies satisfy En∝ (heff/h)m, m=2+4/(D-4). For D=4 the formula breaks since in this case the dependence on hbar is not given by power law. m is negative only for D=3 and one has m=-2. There D=3 would be unique dimension in allowing the hydrino-like states making possible bio-catalysis and life in the proposed scenario.

It is also essential that the flux tubes are radial flux tubes in the Coulomb field of charged particle. This makes sense in many-sheeted space-time: electrons would be associated with a pair formed by flux tube and 3-D atom so that only part of electric flux would interact with the electron touching both space-time sheets. This would give the analog of Schrödinger equation in Coulomb potential restricted to the interior of the flux tube. The dimensional analysis for the 1-D Schrödinger equation with Coulomb potential would give also in this case 1/n2 dependence. Same applies to states localized to 2-D sheets with charged ion in the center. This kind of states bring in mind Rydberg states of ordinary atom with large value of n.

The condition that the dark binding energy is above the thermal energy gives a condition on the value of heff/h=n as n≤ 32. The size scale of the dark largest allowed dark atom would be about 100 nm, 10 times the thickness of the cell membrane.

See the chapter Life and Death and Consciousness.

Symplectic structure for M4, CP breaking, matter-antimatter asymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking

The preparation of an article about number theoretic aspects of TGD forced to go through various related ideas and led to a considerable integration of the ideas. In this note idea about the symplectic structure of M4 is discussed although it is not directly related to number theoretic aspects of TGD.

  1. Twistor lift of TGD suggests strongly a symmetry between M4 and CP2. In particular, M4 should have the analog of symplectic structure.
  2. It has been already noticed that this structure could allow to understand both CP breaking and matter-antimatter asymmetry from first principles. A further study showed that it can also allow to understand electroweak symmetry breaking.
Consider now the delicacies of this picture.
  1. Should assign also to M4 the analog of symplectic structure giving an additional contribution to the induced Kähler form? The symmetry between M4 and CP2 suggests this, and this term could be highly relevant for the understanding of the observed CP breaking and matter antimatter asymmetry. Poincare invariance is not lost since the needed moduli space for M4 Kähler forms would be the moduli space of CDs forced by ZEO in any case, and M4 Kähler form would serve as the correlate for fixing rest system and spin quantization axis in quantum measurement.
  2. Also induced spinor fields are present. The well-definedness of electro-magnetic charge for the spinor modes forces in the generic case the localization of the modes of induced spinor fields at string world sheets (and possibly to partonic 2-surfaces) at which the induced charged weak gauge fields and possibly also neutral Z0 gauge field vanish. The analogy with branes and super-symmetry force to consider two options.

    Option I: The fundamental action principle for space-time surfaces contains besides 4-D action also 2-D action assignable to string world sheets, whose topological part (magnetic flux) gives rise to a coupling term to Kähler gauge potentials assignable to the 1-D boundaries of string world sheets containing also geodesic length part. Super-symplectic symmetry demands that modified Dirac action has 1-, 2-, and 4-D parts: spinor modes would exist at both string boundaries, string world sheets, and space-time interior. A possible interpretation for the interior modes would be as generators of space-time super-symmetries.

    This option is not quite in the spirit of SH and string tension appears as an additional parameter. Also the conservation of em charge forces 2-D string world sheets carrying vanishing induced W fields and this is in conflict with the existence of 4-D spinor modes unless they satisfy the same condition. This looks strange.

    Option II: Stringy action and its fermionic counterpart are effective actions only and justified by SH. In this case there are no problems of interpretation. SH requires only that the induced spinor fields at string world sheets determine them in the interior much like the values of analytic function at curve determine it in an open set of complex plane. At the level of quantum theory the scattering amplitudes should be determined by the data at string world sheets. If induced W fields at string world sheets are vanishing, the mixing of different charge states in the interior of X4 would not make itself visible at the level of scattering amplitudes! In this case 4-D spinor modes do not define space-time super-symmetries.

    This option seems to be the only logical one. It is also simplest and means that quantum TGD would reduce to string model apart from number theoretical discretization of space-time surface bringing in dark matter as heff/h=n phases with n identifiable as factor of the order of the Galois group of extension of rationals. This would also lead to adelic physics, predict preferred extensions and identify corresponding ramified primes as preferred p-adic primes.

  3. Why the string world sheets coding for effective action should carry vanishing weak gauge fields? If M4 has the analog of Kähler structure, one can speak about Lagrangian sub-manifolds in the sense that the sum of the symplectic forms of M4 and CP2 projected to Lagrangian sub-manifold vanishes. Could the induced spinor fields for effective action be localized to generalized Lagrangian sub-manifolds? This would allow both string world sheets and 4-D space-time surfaces but SH would select 2-D Lagrangian manifolds. At the level of effective action the theory would be incredibly simple.

    Induced spinor fields at string world sheets could obey the "dynamics of avoidance" in the sense that both the induced weak gauge fields W,Z0 and induced Kähler form (to achieve this U(1) gauge potential must be sum of M4 and CP2 parts) would vanish for the regions carrying induced spinor fields. They would coupleonly to the induced em field (!) given by the vectorial R12 part of CP2 spinor curvature for D=2,4. For D=1 at boundaries of string world sheets the coupling to gauge potentials would be non-trivial since gauge potentials need not vanish there. Spinorial dynamics would be extremely simple and would conform with the vision about symmetry breaking of weak group to electromagnetic gauge group.

    The projections of canonical currents of Kähler action to string world sheets would vanish, and the projections of the 4-D modified gamma matrices would define just the induced 2-D metric. If the induced metric of space-time surface reduces to an orthogonal direct sum of string world sheet metric and metric acting in normal space, the flow defined by 4-D canonical momentum currents is parallel to string world sheet. These conditions could define the "boundary" conditions at string world sheets for SH.

To sum up, the notion M4 symplectic structure is now on rather firm basis both physically and mathematically.

See the chapter Topological Geometrodynamics: Basic Visions or the article Some questions related to the twistor lift of TGD.

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