What's new inTGD BASED VIEW ABOUT LIVING MATTER AND REMOTE MENTAL INTERACTIONSNote: Newest contributions are at the top! 
Year 2016 
Noncommutative imbedding space and strong form of holography
The precise formulation of strong form of holography (SH) is one of the technical problems in TGD. A comment in FB page of Gareth Lee Meredith led to the observation that besides the purely number theoretical formulation based on commutativity also a symplectic formulation in the spirit of noncommutativity of imbedding space coordinates can be considered. One can however use only the notion of Lagrangian manifold and avoids making coordinates operators leading to a loss of General Coordinate Invariance (GCI). Quantum group theorists have studied the idea that spacetime coordinates are noncommutative and tried to construct quantum field theories with noncommutative spacetime coordinates (see this). My impression is that this approach has not been very successful. In Minkowski space one introduces antisymmetry tensor J_{kl} and uncertainty relation in linear M^{4} coordinates m^{k} would look something like [m^{k}, m^{l}] = l_{P}^{2}J^{kl}, where l_{P} is Planck length. This would be a direct generalization of noncommutativity for momenta and coordinates expressed in terms of symplectic form J^{kl}. 1+1D case serves as a simple example. The noncommutativity of p and q forces to use either p or q. Noncommutativity condition reads as [p,q]= hbar J^{pq} and is quantum counterpart for classical Poisson bracket. Noncommutativity forces the restriction of the wave function to be a function of p or of q but not both. More geometrically: one selects Lagrangian submanifold to which the projection of J_{pq} vanishes: coordinates become commutative in this submanifold. This condition can be formulated purely classically: wave function is defined in Lagrangian submanifolds to which the projection of J vanishes. Lagrangian manifolds are however not unique and this leads to problems in this kind of quantization. In TGD framework the notion of "World of Classical Worlds" (WCW) allows to circumvent this kind of problems and one can say that quantum theory is purely classical field theory for WCW spinor fields. "Quantization without quantization would have Wheeler stated it. GCI poses however a problem if one wants to generalize quantum group approach from M^{4} to general spacetime: linear M^{4} coordinates assignable to Liealgebra of translations as isometries do not generalize. In TGD spacetime is surface in imbedding space H=M^{4}× CP_{2}: this changes the situation since one can use 4 imbedding space coordinates (preferred by isometries of H) also as spacetime coordinates. The analog of symplectic structure J for M^{4} makes sense and number theoretic vision involving octonions and quaternions leads to its introduction. Note that CP_{2} has naturally symplectic form. Could it be that the coordinates for spacetime surface are in some sense analogous to symplectic coordinates (p_{1},p_{2},q_{1},q_{2}) so that one must use either (p_{1},p_{2}) or (q_{1},q_{2}) providing coordinates for a Lagrangian submanifold. This would mean selecting a Lagrangian submanifold of spacetime surface? Could one require that the sum J_{μν}(M^{4})+J_{μν}(CP_{2}) for the projections of symplectic forms vanishes and forces in the generic case localization to string world sheets and partonic 2surfaces. In special case also higherD surfaces  even 4D surfaces as products of Lagrangian 2manifolds for M^{4} and CP_{2} are possible: they would correspond to homologically trivial cosmic strings X^{2}× Y^{2}⊂ M^{4}× CP_{2}, which are not anymore vacuum extremals but minimal surfaces if the action contains besides Käction also volume term. But why this kind of restriction? In TGD one has strong form of holography (SH): 2D string world sheets and partonic 2surfaces code for data determining classical and quantum evolution. Could this projection of M^{4} × CP_{2} symplectic structure to spacetime surface allow an elegant mathematical realization of SH and bring in the Planck length l_{P} defining the radius of twistor sphere associated with the twistor space of M^{4} in twistor lift of TGD? Note that this can be done without introducing imbedding space coordinates as operators so that one avoids the problems with general coordinate invariance. Note also that the nonuniqueness would not be a problem as in quantization since it would correspond to the dynamics of 2D surfaces. The analog of brane hierarchy for the localization of spinors  spacetime surfaces; string world sheets and partonic 2surfaces; boundaries of string world sheets  is suggesetive. Could this hierarchy correspond to a hierarchy of Lagrangian submanifolds of spacetime in the sense that J(M^{4})+J(CP_{2})=0 is true at them? Boundaries of string world sheets would be trivially Lagrangian manifolds. String world sheets allowing spinor modes should have J(M^{4})+J(CP_{2})=0 at them. The vanishing of induced W boson fields is needed to guarantee welldefined em charge at string world sheets and that also this condition allow also 4D solutions besides 2D generic solutions. This condition is physically obvious but mathematically not wellunderstood: could the condition J(M^{4})+J(CP_{2})=0 force the vanishing of induced W boson fields? Lagrangian cosmic string type minimal surfaces X^{2}× Y^{2} would allow 4D spinor modes. If the lightlike 3surface defining boundary between Minkowskian and Euclidian spacetime regions is Lagrangian surface, the total induced Kähler form ChernSimons term would vanish. The 4D canonical momentum currents would however have nonvanishing normal component at these surfaces. I have considered the possibility that TGD counterparts of spacetime supersymmetries could be interpreted as addition of higherD righthanded neutrino modes to the 1fermion states assigned with the boundaries of string world sheets. An alternative  but of course not necessarily equivalent  attempt to formulate this picture would be in terms of number theoretic vision. Spacetime surfaces would be associative or coassociative depending on whether tangent space or normal space in imbedding space is associative  that is quaternionic. These two conditions would reduce spacetime dynamics to associativity and commutativity conditions. String world sheets and partonic 2surfaces would correspond to maximal commutative or cocommutative submanifolds of imbedding space. Commutativity (cocommutativity) would mean that tangent space (normal space as a submanifold of spacetime surface) has complex tangent space at each point and that these tangent spaces integrate to 2surface. SH would mean that data at these 2surfaces would be enough to construct quantum states. String world sheet boundaries would in turn correspond to real curves of the complex 2surfaces intersecting partonic 2surfaces at points so that the hierarchy of classical number fields would have nice realization at the level of the classical dynamics of quantum TGD. For background see the chapter Topological Geometrodynamics: Basic Visions. 
Brain and Mersenne integersI received a link to an interesting the article "Brain Computation Is Organized via PowerofTwoBased Permutation Logic" by Kun Xie et al in Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience (see this). The proposed model is about how brain classifies neuronal inputs and suggests that the classification is based on Boolean algebra represents as subsets of nelement set for n inputs. The following represents my attempt to understand the model of the article.
See the article Why Mersenne Primes Are So Special? or the chapter TGD Inspired Comments about Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness. 
Do conscious entities with different time arrows interact?Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) predicts conscious entities with both arrows of geometric time. I find that forcing myself to think and write about this is difficult. The fear is that the whole nice scenario falls down by predicting something totally absurd. The questions that I try to avoid are following. What could these ghostly timereversed entities be? Do they interact with those with standard time orientation? How could they do so? In ZEO self corresponds to a generalized Zeno effect that is sequence of state function reductions leaving the passive boundary of CD unaffected as also the members of state pairs associated with 3surfaces at it. At active boundary the members of state pairs change and the active boundary drifts reduction by reduction farther away from passive boundary. The temporal distance between the tips of CD increases gradually and corresponds to the experience about flow of time. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) forces eventually self to die by making the first reduction to the passive boundary of its causal diamond (CD), which now becomes the active boundary: a new time reversed self is born. This option is forced because it produces more negentropy. For this self the arrow of geometric time would be opposite since now the formerly passive boundary would be active and shift in opposite direction of time: in this manner CD would steadily increase in size. Also the timereversed self would eventually die and make the first reduction to the opposite  the original  boundary of CD. The position of the boundary of active boundary in first reduction would be shifted to the geometric future from the original position. The first and  as will be found  probably wrong guess for the size of shift towards geometric future from the position at the moment of previous death would be as the average increase of the temporal distance between tips of CD during Zeno period. This increment could be rather small as compared to the size of CD itself. This picture raises questions.

The anomalies in rotating magnetic systems as a key to the understanding of morphogenesis?During almost two decades I have returned repeatedly to the fascinating but unfortunately unrecognized work of Roschin and Godin about rotating magnetic systems. With the recent advances in TGD it has become clear that the reported strange effects such as the change of weight proportional to the rotation velocity of rollers taking place above 3.3 Hz rotation frequency and rapid acceleration above 9.2 Hz up to frequency 10 Hz could provide clues for developing a general vision about morphogenesis of magnetic body, whose flux quanta can carry BoseEinstein condensates of dark charged ions with given mass and charge if the hypothesis h_{eff}=n× h=h_{gr} identifying dark matter as phases with nonstandard value of Planck constant holds true. The generalization of Chladni mechanism would provide a general model for how magnetic flux tubes carrying charged particles with given mass at given flux tube drift to the nodal surfaces giving rise to magnetic walls in the field of standing or even propagating waves assignable to "topological light rays" (MEs). Ordinary matter would in turn condense around these dark magnetic structures so that Chladni mechanism would serve as a general mechanism of morphogenesis. This mechanism could be universal and work even in astrophysical systems (formation of planets). The change of weight correlating with the direction of rotation (parity breaking) and rapid acceleration could be understood in terms of momentum and angular momentum transfer by dark photons liberated in the quantum phase transition of manyparticle states of dark charged particles to from cyclotron BoseEinstein condensates giving rise to analogs of superconductivity and spontaneous magnetization There is also evidence that the presence of light source below massive object affects its weight by about .1 per cent. This effect could be explained along the same lines. Zero Energy Ontology and the proposed mechanism remote metabolism at the level of dark matter is however needed and this would force to modify dramatically the views about basic interactions at the level of dark matter. An increase of weight Δ g/g≈ 2× 10^{4} is observed for electrets: this number has appeared in TGD already earlier and in TGD framework could have interpretatation in terms of dark matter layer with mass M_{D}≈ 2× 10^{4} M_{E} at distance of Moon. In fact, quite generally the magnetic body could have this mass portion. Amusingly, this change of weight happens to consistent with the "weight of soul" claimed to be 21 g. See the new chapter The anomalies in rotating magnetic systems as a key to the understanding of morphogenesis? or the article article with the same title. 
Can quantum biology really do without new physics?Quantum biology is now taken rather seriously. Photosynthesis and avian navigation are two key applications of quantum biology. The basic problem in both cases is posed by the fact that the magnetic interaction energy in Earth's magnetic field is roughly million times smaller than thermal energy. The so called radicalpair mechanism (RPM) was proposed already at 60's as a possible solution to the problem posed by anomalously large effect in EPR and NMR experiments. According to RPM, a radical pair is accompanied by electron pair, which is in a superposition of spin triplet and singlet states and behaves as quantum coherent system for a time sufficiently long to induce chemical effects. The hyperfine interaction of the members of the electron pair with the nuclei of radicals would amplify the effect. The neutralization of radical pair puts an end to the coherence interaction period. The proposal is that RPM gives rise to chemical compass making possible avian navigation. There is however a problem. RPM has been observed in laboratory only for magnetic fields in the range 1 mT 10 T. Earth's magnetic field is only 2 per cent of the lower bound so that it is quite possible that RPM is not at work. This opens up the door for new quantum physics proposed by TGD based model of quantum biology. In this approach magnetic body acts as as intentional agent using biological body as a sensory receptor and motor instrument. Macroscopic quantum coherence is made possible by dark matter realized as a hierarchy of h_{eff}=n× h phases. In the article Can quantum biology really do without new physics? RMP is summarized and compared with the TGD based vision. Also the possible connection between avian navigation and circadian clock suggested by the fact that both involve photoreceptor known as cryptocrome and a possible connection with gravitaxis are considered in TGD framework. See the new chapter Can quantum biology really do without new physics? or the article article with the same title. 
pAdic physics as physics of cognition and imagination and counterparts of recursive functionsIn TGD Universe padic physics is physics of cognition and imagination and real physics also carries signatures about the presence of padic physics as padic fractality: this would explain the unexpected success of padic mass calculations. The outcome would be a fusion of real and various padic number fields to form adeles. Each extension of rationals giving rise to a finitedimensional extension of padic numbers defines an adele, and there is hierarchy of adeles defining an evolutionary hierarchy. The better the simulation padic spacetime sheet is for real spacetime sheet, the larger the number of common algebraic points is. This intuitive idea leads to the notion of monadic geometry in which the discretization of the imbedding space causal diamond is central for the definition of monadic spacetime surfaces. They are smooth both in real and padic sense but involve discretization by algebraic points common to real and padic spacetime surfaces for some algebraic extension of rationals inducing corresponding extension of padics. How this could relate to computation? In the classical theory of computation recursive functions play a key role. Recursive functions are defined for integers. Can one define them for padic integers? At the first glance the only generalization of reals seems to be the allowance of padic integers containing infinite number of powers of p so that they are infinite as real integers. All functions defined for real integers having finite number of pinary digits make sense padically. What is something compeletely new that padic integers form a continuum in a welldefined sense and one can speak of differential calculus. This would make possible to pose additional conditions coming from the padic continuity and smoothness of recursive functions for given prime p. This would pose strong constraints also in the real sector for integers large in the real sense since the values f(x) and f(x+ kp^{n}) would be near to each other padically by padic continuity and padic smoothness would pose additional strong conditions. How could one map padic recursive function to its real counterpart? Does one just identify padic arguments and values as real integers or should one perform something more complex? The problem is that this correspondence is not continuous. Canonical identification for which the simplest form is I: x_{p}=∑_{n} x_{n}p^{n}→ ∑_{n} x_{n}p^{n}=x_{R} would however relate padic to real arguments continuously. Canonical identification has several variants typically mapping small enough real integers to padic integers as such and large enough integers in the same manner as I. In the following let us restrict the consideration to I. Basically, one would have padic valued recursive function f_{p}(x_{p}) with a padic valued argument x_{p}. One can assign to f_{p} a real valued function of real argument  call it f_{R}  by mapping the padic argument x_{p} to its real counterpart x_{R} and its value y_{p}=f_{p}(x) to its real counterpart y_{R}: f_{R}(x_{R}) = I(f(x_{p})=y_{R}. I have called the functions in this manner padic fractals: fractality reflects directly to padic continuity. f_{R} could be 2valued. The reason is that padic numbers x_{p}=1 and x_{p} =(p1)(p+p^{2}+..) are both mapped to real unit and one can have f_{p}(1)≠ f_{p}((p1)(p+p^{2}+..)). This is a direct analog for 1=.999... for decimal expansion. This generalizes to all padic integers finite as real integers: padic arguments (x_{0}, x_{1},...x_{n}, 0, 0,...) and (x_{0},x_{1},...x_{n}1,(p1),(p1),...) are mapped to the same real argument x_{R}. Using finite pinary cutoff for x_{p} this ceases to be a problem. Recursion plays a key role in the theory of computation and it would be nice if it would generalize in a non trivial manner to the realm of padic integers (or general padic numbers).
See the chapter TGD Inspired Comments about Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness or the article article with the same title. 
Life and Death and ConsciousnessLife and death belong to the greatest mysteries of science. The development of quantum theories of consciousness has made possible to say something nontrivial also about life and death. In this article I describe TGD inspired theory of consciousness and the view that it provides about life and death. There are several notions which are new from the point of view of standard physics. From the point of view of TGD inspired theory of consciousness the most important ones are Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO), Causal Diamond (CD), Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP). One can say that self as conscious entity is a sequence of repeated state function reductions at the same boundary of CD and not affecting or states at it  Zeno effect and that self dies as the first reduction to the opposite boundary of CD is forced by NMP and means reincarnation of self as timereversed self. From the point of view of TGD inspired quantum biology the identification of dark matter has $h_{eff}/h=n$ phases of ordinary matter having nonstandard value of Planck constant is central: these phases allow to understand living matter as macroscopically quantum coherent phases. Second key notion is that of field body, in particular magnetic body. This is implied by TGD view about spacetime as 4D surface of certain 8D spacetime and means that physical systems have besides ordinary identify also field identity so that one can talk about magnetic body (MB). MB takes the role of intentional agent using biological body as motor instrument and sensory receptor: this for instance explains EEG as a communications and control tool. For background see the chapter Life and Death and Consciousness.

Why deep learning neutral networks are so effective?The good news of this morning! Neural networks (one speaks of deep learning) model the world much better than one might expect on basis of mathematical arguments alone. This is a real mystery. Deep learning means AI systems with large number of hierarchy levels: programs calling programs calling... is the first intuitive idea of AI outsider like me. The solution of the puzzle proposed by physicists is elegant. The physical world is much much simpler than mathematicians  wanting to be as general as possible  assume! Simplicity means among other things holography and hierarchical structures and deep learning relies on hierarchical structures. It would be amazing if AI and physics finally could meet each other! For more details see the article of Lin and Tegmark . See also the remarks of Ben Goertzel. Holography and its strong form The Universe is indeed very simple according to hololographic theories. For instance, in TGD not only holography but strong form of holography holds true. The quantum and classical data assignable to string world sheets and partonic 2surfaces dictates the dynamics of 4D spacetime surface. This effective 2dimensionality of dynamics means enormous simplification of the quantum physical world from what it could be. For instance, preferred extremals defining spacetime surfaces satisfy infinite number of conditions stating vanishing of certain Noether charges. This extreme simplicity is lost when the sheets of the manysheeted are lumped together to obtain the spacetime of general relativity and standard model and effective classical fields are sums over geometrizes classical fields associated with the sheets. In biological systems however the dynamics of manysheetedness comes manifest and the actions of single sheet need not be masked: things get simple in this kind of situation.
Various fractal hierarchies Holography need not the only reason for the simplicity. The possibly physical world of TGD has hierarchical fractal structure: length scale reductionism is replaced with fractality. Dynamics looks more or less similar in all zooms and this simplifies the situation of mimicker enormously. There are hierarchies of spacetime sheets topologically condensed on larger spacetime sheets, hierarchy of padic length scales defined by primes near powers of two (or more general small prime), hierarchy of Planck constants, self hierarchy. pAdic length scale hierarchy allows extremely simple model for elementary particle masses: one might perhaps say that one does not model the mass of "real" particle but its cognitive representation about itself in terms of padic thermodynamics relying on conformal invariance. The hierarchy of Planck constants means fractal hierarchy of zoomups of system: dark matter phases assignable to quantum criticality would be crucial for the understanding of living systems. These hierarchies also define hierarchies of measurement resolutions making possible abstraction, getting rid of details at the level of conscious experience and behavior. The hierarchical structure would be especially important for conscious mind. Self has subselves which it experiences as mental images and is mental image of higher level self. Goal hierarchies mean a lot of structural restrictions making it easier for artificial intelligence to mimick conscious systems. Quantum states realize finite measurement resolution themselves Conceptualization means hierarchies and one can say that TGD Universe performs this conceptualization for us! In fact, one can say that quantum state provides its own description. This implies that finite measurement resolution is not a property of description of quantum state but of quantum state itself! For instance, the larger the number of partonic 2surfaces and string world sheets is, the better the "halfdiscretization" of 4D spacetime surface by these 2surfaces is, and the more precise is the conscious experience of system about itself. For instance, magnetic flux tube networks with flux tubes accompanied by strings and with maximally entangled at the ends of nodes would give rise to a universal proprioception. The experience about 3space would emerge from entanglement rather, not the 3space as some colleagues fashionably argue. Simplicity in cosmology This extreme simplicity is most dramatic in cosmology. The microwave temperature is essentially constant. This cannot be due to the causal interactions but reflects something deeper. Inflationary scenarios are one attempt to explain this but have not led to a breakthrough. A more radical explanation is that macroscopic quantum coherence even in cosmological scales is possible at the spacetime sheets of cosmic size scale with large value of Planck constant characterizing phases of ordinary matter behaving like dark matter. The key idea is generalization of pointlike particle to 3surface: particle and 3space are one and same thing. Particles as 3surfaces can have even cosmological size. See the chapter TGD Inspired Comments about Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness. 
Biophotons and intelligenceIt is gradually becoming clear that biophotons have a role in brain function. An interesting claim is that the biophoton spectrum is shifted towards infrared as the intelligence of the species develops (see the article published in Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of USA). The idea is that biophotons are involved with the communications between parts of brain and biophotons with lower frequencies are favored: one reason could be metabolic economy since biophotons have energies in visible and UV range mostly and in humans the extends to near infrared. The observation is that glutamateinduced biophotonic activities and transmission in brain slices represent a spectral redshift feature from animals to humans. Could TGD based model for biophotons as decay products of dark cyclotron photons help to understand this? In TGD framework dark photons would be involved with communications of biological body with personal magnetic body (MB). Biophotons would result from dark cyclotron photons with h_{eff}=n× h= h_{gr}= GMm/v_{0} (see the explanation of the formula above) in energy conserving transformation to ordinary photons reducing the value of h_{eff} to h. Both dark cyclotron photons from MB to brain and analogs of Josephson photons from cell membranes to MB would be involved. When dark photons transform to ordinary photons they can induce molecular transitions. MB would control biomatter by inducing these molecular transitions. This explains the range of biophoton energies. Also EEG would consist of dark photons in this energy range but frequencies in EEG range and wavelengths of astrophysical size (7.8 Hz corresponds to circumference of Earth). Dark cyclotron photons have cyclotron energy h_{eff}× eB_{end}/m = (GM/v_{0})*(eB_{end}) independent of the mass of charged particle mass, which is essential for the universality of biophoton spectrum. The value B_{end} of the "endogenous" magnetic field introduced by Blackman should vary by say two orders of magnitude to explain the range of biophoton energies. The value of h_{eff} should be rather high. The redshift of biophoton energy spectrum for humans as compared to lower animals could mean that the spectrum for the values of B_{end} extends to lower values. Cyclotron periods would be also longer at lower end for the spectrum. Could the higher intelligence could be achieved by better metabolic energy economy? Or could the presence of flux tubes with lower value of B_{end} extend the spectrum of biophoton energies and bring in molecules with lower transitions energies (down to near infrared)? It should be possible to identify the molecules in question. They should be involved with the "glutamateinduced biophotonic activities". The communications between brain slices could be also indirect: first sensory signal to MB is sent and response comes as control signal to other part of brain. B_{end} in Blackman's experiments (I have identified it as lower end for the spectrum of the values of B_{end}) for vertebrates was 2/5 of Earth's magnetic field B_{E}. Why 2/5 rather than 1? Could this reflect that gradual reduction of B_{end} from B_{E} during evolution? Should one repeat the experiments of Blackman and other pioneers for nonvertebrates to find whether B_{E} is higher for them? See the chapter Are dark photons behind biophotons?. 
Details related to adelic NMPWhat happens in state function reduction and what NMP really says is still far from being completely clear. The basic condition is that standard measurement theory emerges as a special case and is forced by NMP. This does not however fix the NMP completely. 1. Adelic NMP as the only reasonable option During years I have considered two options for NMP.
2. Variants of the adelic NMP The adelic option allows to consider several variants.
3. Could quantum measurement involve also adelic localization? For option B) there is still one possible refinement involved. pAdic mass calculations lead to the conclusion that elementary particles are characterized by padic primes and that padic length scale hypothesis p≈ 2^{k} holds true: a more general form of hypothesis allows also to consider primes near powers q^{n} of some small prime such as q=3. Could state function reduction imply also adelic/cognitive localization in the sense that the negentropy is nonzero and positive for only single padic prime in the final state? The reduction would occur to p^{k}dimensional eigenspace with p^{k} dividing N: any divisor would be allowed. Note that Hilbert spaces with prime dimension are prime with respect to the decomposition to tensor product so that reduction would select prime power factor of the eigenspace. The information theoretic meaning would be that primedimensional Hilbert spaces are stable against decomposition to tensor products so that the notion of entanglement would not make sense and therefore also the change of the state by the reduction of entanglement would be impossible. I have considered the possibility that primedimensional state spaces could make possible stable storage of quantum information. The primedimensional state when imbedded to higherdimensional space could be seen as an entangled state. This hypothesis would provide considerable insights to the origin of padic length scale hypothesis. To get a contact with physics consider electron as an example.

Magnetic body, biophotons, and prediction of scaled variant of EEGThe model for quantum biology relying on the notions of MB and dark matter as hierarchy of phases with h_{eff} =nh, and biophotons identified as decay produces of dark photons. The assumption h_{gr} ∝ m becomes highly predictable since cyclotron frequencies would be independent of the mass of the ion.
The problem is following. If one wants biophoton spectrum to be in visibleUV range assuming that biophotons correspond to cyclotron photons, one must reduce the value of r=h_{gr}B_{end}/mv_{0} for Earth particle system by a factor of order k=2× 10^{4}. r does not depend on the mass of the charged particle. One can replace B_{end} with some other magnetic field having value which is considerably smaller. One can also increase the value of v_{0}.
See the new chapter Nonlocality in quantum theory, in biology and neuroscience, and in remote mental interactions: TGD perspective or article with the same title. 
Nonlocality in quantum theory, in biology and neuroscience, and in remote mental interactions: TGD perspective
Nonlocality seems to be a basic aspect of what it is to be living. Living system is elementary particle like coherent unit. The phenomenon of memory suggests temporal nonlocality. Also remote mental interactions  if real  suggest nonlocality. In fact, nonlocality  both spatial and temporal  is the basic element of entire quantum TGD, and in particular, of its applications to quantum biology, neuroscience, theory of consciousness, and also of remote mental interactions. In the sequel I make kind of pseudo deduction of the picture provided by Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD) by starting from empirical findings loosely related to nonlocality rather than problems of General Relativity or of particle physics. The hope is that this could make the basic ideas of TGD easier to grasp. Also the mathematical framework and its interpretation as they are now are briefly discussed and the some applications to TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology are discussed. See the new chapter Nonlocality in quantum theory, in biology and neuroscience, and in remote mental interactions: TGD perspective or article with the same title. 
Gut cells without mitochondria can survive: proof for the notion of remote metabolism?
Gut cells can survive without mitochondria (see this)! There are many other strange findings. Visible and IR light energize human skin cells transferring energy for the cells the analog of photosynthesis. Some spiritual groups and also traditionally the people called saints are reported to survive by using only sunlight as their source of metabolic energy. NASA has studied sleigh dogs able to run for days without eating and showing no signs of getting tired. Could photosynthesis work also in animal mitochondrial cells? The basic mechanism could be essentially the same: electron transfer chain providing energy to pump protons through cell membrane against potential gradient. This is the key step of both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. After that protons flow spontaneously back through ATP synthase and liberate energy to build ATP from ADP. This is like power plant. In plants solar photons provide the energy for electrons. In the animal cells dark photons with large h_{eff}=n×h (transforming now and then to biophotons) could do it. In the case of IR lmetabolism electrons could send to the energy source dark negative energy IR photons, which decay to ordinary IR photons. This would be an active variant of metabolism and time reversal of the usual mechanism: I have called it quantum credit card mechanism or remote metabolism. I wrote about this a blog posting some time ago. Now even mitochondria are missing! Could remote metabolism work also without mitochondria? ADP→ ATP transformation should occur since ATP is the universal energy currency. Could it take place as remote metabolism by sending negative energy photons to the cells having the mitochondria. The electron transfer chain is preceded by Krebs cycle extracting the energy from nutriens: could the absorption of negative energy photons induce the decay of nutrient without transfer of energy to electron chain of the mitochondria. The hungry gut cell without mitochondria would be allowed to eat in the table of the luckier ones. Again one quantum objection against vulgar darwinism. This would be like kicking laser from population reversed state to ground state by phase conjugate negative energy irradiation. For background see the chapter TGD About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism. 
TGD Evidence for the notion of magnetic body from brain synchrony without corpus callosum
I received a link to a rather baffling finding about brain. Neuroscientists have believed that the two hemispheres communicate via the neural pathways associated with corpus callosum: kind of communication cables would be in question. Many areas of brain behave synchronously, which has led to the notion of resting state network. The team led by Michael Tyszka, associate director of Caltech Brain Imaging Center, has however discovered that the resting state network seems to work normally in people born without corpus callosum! As if brain hemispheres were communicating by some other means than neural signalling! This finding challenges not only the views about the origin of brain synchrony as being created by neural circuits but also the models of autism and schizophrenia explaining them in terms of impaired communications between hemispheres. One can for instance speculate with the possibility that there is electromagnetic communication between brain hemispheres. This does not look a bad idea at all: nowadays it is possible to extract information about EEG so that pilots are able to control the flight of tiny flying object by imagining what the object should do. Technological applications will probably appear in the market soon so that anyone can have robots controllable by thoughts. This mechanism is consistent with the TGD inspired view about brain. This view however encourages to consider also a more imaginative explanation. In TGD Universe living system involves besides organism and environment also magnetic body (MB) acting as an intentional agent receiving sensory input from organism and controlling it. MB has hierarchical onionlike structure. For instance, brain hemispheres have their own MBs, and entire brain its own MB serving as a "boss" for the MBs of hemispheres. Communications between magnetic body and part of organism take place using dark photons having nonstandard value h_{eff}=n×h of Planck constant and thus energy E= h_{eff}f, which should correspond to ordinary photons with energies above thermal energy: otherwise quantal effects are masked by thermal fluctuations. Biophotons in the visible and UV range could result in the transformation of dark photons to ordinary photons. The frequency range of dark photons depends on the level of the layer of MB characterized by h_{eff} and wavelength corresponds to the size scale of the layer. In the case of brain the transfer of sensory information to MB would be realized as EEG  wavelength of 7.8 Hz radiation is order of the circumference of Earth so that MBs for brain would be really large. In Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) control signals would be realized as negative energy signals propagating backwards in geometric time and having phase conjugate laser light as a counterpart in ordinary physics. This explains Libet's finding that neural activity precedes conscious decision. Coordination by using EEG rhythms would be part of control analogous to work songs. The MB of entire brain controls it and could naturally do this via the intermediate control of brain hemispheres forcing them to operate in the same rhythm. Brain synchrony and resting network would not be produced by resonant neurocircuits as usually believed but by the spatiotemporal coherence of the EEG radiation from the MB of entire brain forcing brain hemisphere MBs to oscillate in the same rhythm and in turning synchronizing the brain hemispheres. This would be like forcing soldiers to march in the same pace and brain hemispheres could cooperate without any neural communication between hemispheres. The communication between hemispheres would be needed for more refined collaboration involving "discussion" between hemispheres: hemispheres of a person without corpus callosum would be like soldiers obeying blindly the orders. This might be also an essential element of autism and schizophrenia. For background see the chapter Quantum Mind and Neuro Science. 
Confirmation of Santilli's detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with concave lenses: really?
I encountered in Facebook a really bizarre sounding title reading The incredible pictures scientists say prove invisible alien entities ARE here on Earth (see this) and just for curiosity decided to add one click to the web page in question (means higher income from ads) knowing that this is just what they want me to do! The story involves aliens spying us so that that the street credibility index of the story reduced zero. The tool to detect the spies would be Santilli's telescope using concave lenses. Santilli, who is familiar to me, also talks about two types of invisible terrestrials detected by his telescope. It would be easy to ridicule but let us be patient. An earlier article with title Apparent detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with convex lenses (see this) reports a detection of antimatter galaxies. There is also an article with title "Confirmation of Santilli’s detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with concave lenses" published in American Journal of Modern Physics claiming an independent observation of antimatter galaxies, antimater asteroids, and antimatter cosmic rays by Santilli's telescope (see this). These articles say nothing about aliens spying us. Since I suffer from a pathological trait of taking halfseriously even the weirdest stories, I decided to learn what Santilli's telescope using concave lenses might mean. Ordinary telescope uses convex lenses (see this). The light rays coming from the other side converge to form a picture of the source. For concave lense the light rays coming from the other side diverge so that concave lense does not sound like a good idea for detecting light coming from distant objects. It is however claimed that Santilli's telescope detects light sources in darkness. This is only possible if the index of refraction n=c/v characterizing the medium via the ratio of light velocity in vacuum to the velocity of light in medium changes sign. From Snell's law n_{1}sin(θ_{1})= n_{2}sin(θ_{2}) follow the basic facts about lenses (see this). It is possible to construct lenses which have negative index of refraction so that concave lense behaves like convex one. Presumably this is not be the case now since according to the existing theory, ordinary light would have the negative index of reflection (unless it is somehow transformed when arriving to the lense). Concerning the theoretical arguments Santilli makes several claims, which do not make sense to me.
Zero energy ontology (ZEO) is one of the cornerstones of TGD and could indeed explain the claims of Santilli and colleagues. In ZEO zero energy states are pairs of positive and negative energy states at opposite lightlike boundaries of causal diamonds (CD) forming a scale hierarchy. Zero energy states are counterparts of physical events in standard ontology.
For background see the chapter TGD About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism. 
TGD and TeslaphoresisThe title of the popular article is "Reconfigured Tesla coil aligns, electrifies materials from a distance" tells about the effects involved. The research group is led by Paul Churukuri and there is also an abstract about the work in ADS Nano journal. This article contains also an excellent illustration allowing to understand both the Tesla coil and the magnetic and electric fields involved. The abstract of the paper provides a summary about the results. This paper introduces Teslaphoresis, the directed motion and selfassembly of matter by a Tesla coil, and studies this electrokinetic phenomenon using singlewalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Conventional directed selfassembly of matter using electric fields has been restricted to small scale structures, but with Teslaphoresis, we exceed this limitation by using the Tesla coil’s antenna to create a gradient highvoltage force field that projects into free space. CNTs placed within the Teslaphoretic (TEP) field polarize and selfassemble into wires that span from the nanoscale to the macroscale, the longest thus far being 15 cm. We show that the TEP field not only directs the selfassembly of long nanotube wires at remote distances (≥ 30 cm) but can also wirelessly power nanotubebased LED circuits. Furthermore, individualized CNTs selforganize to form long parallel arrays with high fidelity alignment to the TEP field. Thus, Teslaphoresis is effective for directed selfassembly from the bottomup to the macroscale. Concisely: what is found that singlewalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) polarise and selfassemble along the electric fields created by capacitor in much longer length scales than expected. Biological applications (involving linear molecules like microtubules) come in mind. CNTs tend to also move towards the capacitance of the secondary coil of the Tesla coil (TC). It is interesting to understand the TGD counterparts for the Maxwellian em fields involved with Tesla coils and it is found that manysheetedness of spacetime is necessary to understand the standing waves also involved. The fact that massless extremals (MEs) can carry lightlike currents is essential for modelling currents classically using manysheeted spacetime. The presence of magnetic monopole flux tubes distinguishing TGD from Maxwellian theory is suggestive and could explain why Teslaphoresis occurs in so long length scales and why it induces selforganization phenomena for CNTs. The situation can be seen as a special case of more general situation encountered in TGD based model of living matter. For background see the chapter About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism or the article Teslaphoresis and TGD. 
TGD Inspired Comments about Integrated Information Theory of ConsciousnessI received from Lian Sidoroff a link to a very interesting article by John Horgan in Scientific American with title "Can Integrated Information Theory Explain Consciousness?". Originally IIT is a theoretical construct of neuroscientst Giulio Tononi (just Tononi in the sequel). Christof Koch is one of the coworkers of Tononi. IIT can be regarded as heavily neuroscience based nonquantum approach to consciousness and the goal is to identify the axioms about consciousness, which should hold true also in physics based theories. The article of Horgan was excellent and touched the essentials and it was relatively easy to grasp what is common with my own approach to consciousness and comment also what I see as weaknesses of IIT approach. To my opinion, the basic weakness is the lack of formulation in terms of fundamental physics. As such quantum physics based formulation is certainly not enough since the recent quantum physics is plagued by paradoxes, which are due the lack of theory of consciousness needed to understand what the notion of observer means. The question is not only about what fundamental physics can give to consciousness but also about what consciousness can give to fundamental physics. The article Consciousness: here, there and everywhere of Tononi and Koch gives a more detailed summary about IIT. The article From the Phenomenology to the Mechanisms of Consciousness: Integrated Information Theory gives a more techanical description of IIT. Also the article of Scott Aaronson was very helpful in providing computer scientific view about IIT and representing also mathematical objections. Tononi and Koch emphasize that IIT is a work in progress. This applies also to TGD and TGD inspired theory of consciousness. Personally I take writing of TGD inspired commentary about IIT as a highly interesting interaction, which might help to learn new ideas and spot the weaknesses and imperfections in the basic definitions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness. If TGD survives from this interaction as such, the writing of these commentaries have been waste of time. The key questions relate to the notion of information more or less identified as consciousness.
The comparison of IIT with TGD was very useful. I glue below the abstract of the article comparing IIT with TGD inspired theory of consciousness. Abstract Integrated Information Theory (IIT) is a theory of consciousness originally proposed by Giulio Tononi. The basic goal of IIT is to abstract from neuroscience axioms about consciousness hoped to provide constraints on physical models. IIT relies strongly on information theory. The basic problem is that the very definition of information is not possible without introducing conscious observer so that circularity cannot be avoided. IIT identifies a collection of few basic concepts and axioms such as the notions of mechanism (computer program is one analog for mechanism), information, integration and maximally integrated information (maximal interdependence of parts of the system), and exclusion. Also the composition of mechanisms as kind of engineering principle of consciousness is assumed and leads to the notion of conceptual structure, which should allow to understand not only cognition but entire conscious experience. A measure for integrated information (called Φ) assignable to any partition of system to two parts is introduced in terms of relative entropies. Consciousness is identified with a maximally integrated decomposition of the system to two parts (Φ is maximum). The existence of this preferred decomposition of the system to two parts besides computer and program running in it distinguishes IIT from the computational approach to consciousness. Personally I am however afraid that bringing in physics could bring in physicalism and reduce consciousness to an epiphenomenon. Qualia are assigned to the links of network. IIT can be criticized for this assignment as also for the fact that it does not say much about free will nor about the notion of time. Also the principle fixing the dynamics of consciousness is missing unless one interprets mechanisms as such. In this article IIT is compared to the TGD vision relying on physics and on general vision about consciousness strongly guided by the new physics predicted by TGD. At classical level this new physics involves a new view about spacetime and fields (in particular the notion of magnetic body central in TGD inspired quantum biology and quantum neuroscience). At quantum level it involves Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) and the notion of causal diamond (CD) defining 4D perceptive field of self; padic physics as physics of cognition and imagination and the fusion of real and various padic physics to adelic physics; strong form of holography (SH) implying that 2D string world sheets and partonic surfaces serve as "spacetime genes"; and the hierarchy of Planck constants making possible macroscopic quantum coherence. Number theoretic entanglement entropy (EE) makes sense as number theoretic variant of Shannon entropy in the padic sectors of the adelic Universe. Number theoretic EE can be negative and corresponds in this case to genuine information: one has negentropic entanglement (NE). TGD inspired theory of consciousness reduces to quantum measurement theory in ZEO. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) serves as the variational principle of consciousness and implies that NE can can only increase  this implies evolution. By SH real and padic 4D systems are algebraic continuations of 2D systems ("spacetime genes") characterized by algebraic extensions of rationals labelling evolutionary levels with increasing algebraic complexity. Real and padic sectors have common Hilbert space with coefficients in algebraic extension of rationals so that the state function reduction at this level can be said to induce real and padic 4D reductions as its shadows. NE in the padic sectors stabilizes the entanglement also in real sector (the sum of real (ordinary) and various padic negentropies tends to increase)  the randomness of the ordinary state function reduction is tamed by cognition and mind can be said to rule over matter. Quale corresponds in IIT to a link of a network like structure. In TGD quale corresponds to the eigenvalues of observables measured repeatedly as long as corresponding subself (mental image, quale) remains conscious. In ZEO self can be seen as a generalized Zeno effect. What happens in death of a conscious entity (self) can be understood and it accompanies reincarnation of time reversed self in turn making possible reincarnation also in the more conventional sense of the word. The death of mental image (subself) can be also interpreted as motor action involving signal to geometric past: this in accordance with Libet's findings. There is much common between IIT and TGD at general structural level but also profound differences. Also TGD predicts restricted panpsychism. NE is the TGD counterpart for the integrated information. The combinatiorial structure of NE gives rise to quantal complexity. Mechanisms correspond to 4D selforganization patterns with selforganization interpreted in 4D sense in ZEO. The decomposition of system to two parts such that this decomposition can give rise to a maximal negentropy gain in state function reduction is also involved but yields two independent selves. Engineering of conscious systems from simpler basic building blocks is predicted. Indeed, TGD predicts infinite self hierarchy with subselves identifiable as mental images. Exclusion postulate is not needed in TGD framework. Also network like structures emerge naturally as padic systems for which all decompositions are negentropically entangled inducing in turn corresponding real systems. For background see the new chapter TGD Inspired Comments about Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness or the with the same title. 
Chi Energy  master gets animals to sleepIn Thinking Allowed there was an interesting link from Jeff Hall to a video with title Chi Energy  master gets animals to sleep. The video was very impressive and I recommend seeing it. Below I propose an explanation for the feats of the master. I have constructed a theory of remote mental interactions but always said that I do not believe in them  I just take their possibility very seriously. To be honest, the only reason for this attitude is that they emerge naturally from TGD inspired theory of consciousness. This video made me a believer. I know that skeptic "knows" that the video is hoax and demands 10 sigma statistical proof that every chi master in every corner of the Universe can put animals to sleep under controlled laboratory conditions by weaving his hands. It does not matter: we can laugh together to my gullibility if this helps skeptic to avoid despair in his intellectual isolation. We had a long discussion about the video and Ulla noticed the similarity with hypnosis: even the word "hypnosis" originally means some kind of sleep like state. In TGD framework hypnosis could be seen as a particular example of remote mental interactions. Simplifying: hypnotizer would in some sense hijack some part of brain of the subject by quantum entangling with it so that it becomes part of hypnotizer and obeys his commands. Note that the social explanation of hypnosis as the desire of subject ot please the hypnotiser does not explain what happens to the animals. In the discussion consciousness was of course mentioned and consciousness was compared to field. As a philosophically oriented physicist I get worried when one says "consciousness is a field" or something like that. I would prefer to speak about field patterns as correlates for contents of consciousness. To me consciousness itself is an independent form of existence not reducing to a property of physical system as materialist believes. This looks like pedantry but becomes absolutely crucial if one really wants to understand consciousness. Real progress is science is mostly getting rid of sloppy language implying sloppy thinking. I have explained so many times the basic ideas of TGD inspired theory of consciousness (call it TTC for short) and I am afraid that most readers have not got the message. I think that independently rediscovering TTC is the only manner to realize what I am trying to say. Therefore only few paragraphs. One needs a new ontology  a vision about what exists. This ontology is neither materialistic nor dualistic and in which consciousness is not a property of physical state as "ness" would suggest but resides in the nowherenowhenland between two quantum states replaced with analogs of quantum evolutions of Schrödinger equation. I call the new ontology Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) and it leads to a new view about quantum measurement theory and state function reduction giving theory of consciousness as byproduct by transforming observer from an outsider to the Universe a part of quantum physics. Conscious entity is the outcome of Zeno effect  a sequence of state function reductions which would not change the state in standard ontology at all but gives rise to the experienced flow of time in ZEO. A lot of unexpected predictions follow. Mention only the possibility of exotic unexpected phenomena such as time reversed consciousness, the reincarnation of conscious entity in different time after biological death, and the predicted hierarchy of conscious entities with mental images identifiable as subselves  conscious entities. Also a detailed view about quantum biology and about remote mental interactions emerges. Quantum biology involves a generalization of both classical physics and quantum physics.
