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Year 2016

Non-commutative imbedding space and strong form of holography

The precise formulation of strong form of holography (SH) is one of the technical problems in TGD. A comment in FB page of Gareth Lee Meredith led to the observation that besides the purely number theoretical formulation based on commutativity also a symplectic formulation in the spirit of non-commutativity of imbedding space coordinates can be considered. One can however use only the notion of Lagrangian manifold and avoids making coordinates operators leading to a loss of General Coordinate Invariance (GCI).

Quantum group theorists have studied the idea that space-time coordinates are non-commutative and tried to construct quantum field theories with non-commutative space-time coordinates (see this). My impression is that this approach has not been very successful. In Minkowski space one introduces antisymmetry tensor Jkl and uncertainty relation in linear M4 coordinates mk would look something like [mk, ml] = lP2Jkl, where lP is Planck length. This would be a direct generalization of non-commutativity for momenta and coordinates expressed in terms of symplectic form Jkl.

1+1-D case serves as a simple example. The non-commutativity of p and q forces to use either p or q. Non-commutativity condition reads as [p,q]= hbar Jpq and is quantum counterpart for classical Poisson bracket. Non-commutativity forces the restriction of the wave function to be a function of p or of q but not both. More geometrically: one selects Lagrangian sub-manifold to which the projection of Jpq vanishes: coordinates become commutative in this sub-manifold. This condition can be formulated purely classically: wave function is defined in Lagrangian sub-manifolds to which the projection of J vanishes. Lagrangian manifolds are however not unique and this leads to problems in this kind of quantization. In TGD framework the notion of "World of Classical Worlds" (WCW) allows to circumvent this kind of problems and one can say that quantum theory is purely classical field theory for WCW spinor fields. "Quantization without quantization would have Wheeler stated it.

GCI poses however a problem if one wants to generalize quantum group approach from M4 to general space-time: linear M4 coordinates assignable to Lie-algebra of translations as isometries do not generalize. In TGD space-time is surface in imbedding space H=M4× CP2: this changes the situation since one can use 4 imbedding space coordinates (preferred by isometries of H) also as space-time coordinates. The analog of symplectic structure J for M4 makes sense and number theoretic vision involving octonions and quaternions leads to its introduction. Note that CP2 has naturally symplectic form.

Could it be that the coordinates for space-time surface are in some sense analogous to symplectic coordinates (p1,p2,q1,q2) so that one must use either (p1,p2) or (q1,q2) providing coordinates for a Lagrangian sub-manifold. This would mean selecting a Lagrangian sub-manifold of space-time surface? Could one require that the sum Jμν(M4)+Jμν(CP2) for the projections of symplectic forms vanishes and forces in the generic case localization to string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces. In special case also higher-D surfaces - even 4-D surfaces as products of Lagrangian 2-manifolds for M4 and CP2 are possible: they would correspond to homologically trivial cosmic strings X2× Y2⊂ M4× CP2, which are not anymore vacuum extremals but minimal surfaces if the action contains besides Käction also volume term.

But why this kind of restriction? In TGD one has strong form of holography (SH): 2-D string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces code for data determining classical and quantum evolution. Could this projection of M4 × CP2 symplectic structure to space-time surface allow an elegant mathematical realization of SH and bring in the Planck length lP defining the radius of twistor sphere associated with the twistor space of M4 in twistor lift of TGD? Note that this can be done without introducing imbedding space coordinates as operators so that one avoids the problems with general coordinate invariance. Note also that the non-uniqueness would not be a problem as in quantization since it would correspond to the dynamics of 2-D surfaces.

The analog of brane hierarchy for the localization of spinors - space-time surfaces; string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces; boundaries of string world sheets - is suggesetive. Could this hierarchy correspond to a hierarchy of Lagrangian sub-manifolds of space-time in the sense that J(M4)+J(CP2)=0 is true at them? Boundaries of string world sheets would be trivially Lagrangian manifolds. String world sheets allowing spinor modes should have J(M4)+J(CP2)=0 at them. The vanishing of induced W boson fields is needed to guarantee well-defined em charge at string world sheets and that also this condition allow also 4-D solutions besides 2-D generic solutions. This condition is physically obvious but mathematically not well-understood: could the condition J(M4)+J(CP2)=0 force the vanishing of induced W boson fields? Lagrangian cosmic string type minimal surfaces X2× Y2 would allow 4-D spinor modes. If the light-like 3-surface defining boundary between Minkowskian and Euclidian space-time regions is Lagrangian surface, the total induced Kähler form Chern-Simons term would vanish. The 4-D canonical momentum currents would however have non-vanishing normal component at these surfaces. I have considered the possibility that TGD counterparts of space-time super-symmetries could be interpreted as addition of higher-D right-handed neutrino modes to the 1-fermion states assigned with the boundaries of string world sheets.

An alternative - but of course not necessarily equivalent - attempt to formulate this picture would be in terms of number theoretic vision. Space-time surfaces would be associative or co-associative depending on whether tangent space or normal space in imbedding space is associative - that is quaternionic. These two conditions would reduce space-time dynamics to associativity and commutativity conditions. String world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces would correspond to maximal commutative or co-commutative sub-manifolds of imbedding space. Commutativity (co-commutativity) would mean that tangent space (normal space as a sub-manifold of space-time surface) has complex tangent space at each point and that these tangent spaces integrate to 2-surface. SH would mean that data at these 2-surfaces would be enough to construct quantum states. String world sheet boundaries would in turn correspond to real curves of the complex 2-surfaces intersecting partonic 2-surfaces at points so that the hierarchy of classical number fields would have nice realization at the level of the classical dynamics of quantum TGD.

For background see the chapter Topological Geometrodynamics: Basic Visions.

Brain and Mersenne integers

I received a link to an interesting the article "Brain Computation Is Organized via Power-of-Two-Based Permutation Logic" by Kun Xie et al in Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience (see this).

The proposed model is about how brain classifies neuronal inputs and suggests that the classification is based on Boolean algebra represents as subsets of n-element set for n inputs. The following represents my attempt to understand the model of the article.

  1. One can consider a situation in which one has n inputs identifiable as bits: bit could correspond to neuron firing or not. The question is however to classify various input combinations. The obvious criterion is how many bits are equal to 1 (corresponding neuron fires). The input combinations in the same class have same number of firing neurons and the number of subsets with k elements is given by the binomial coefficient B(n,k)= n!/k!(n-k)!. There are clearly n-1 different classes in the classification since no neurons firing is not a possible observation. The conceptualization would tell how many neurons fire but would not specify which of them.
  2. To represent these bit combinations one needs 2n-1 neuron groups acting as unit representing one particular firing combination. These subsets with k elements would be mapped to neuron cliques with k firing neutrons. For given input individual firing neurons (k=1) would represent features, lowest level information. The n cliques with k=2 neurons would represent a more general classification of input. One obtains Mn=2n-1 combinations of firing neurons since the situations in which no neurons are firing is not counted as an input.
  3. If all neurons are firing then all the however level cliques are also activated. Set theoretically the subsets of set partially ordered by the number of elements form an inclusion hierarchy, which in Boolean algebra corresponds to the hierarchy of implications in opposite direction. The clique with all neurons firing correspond to the most general statement implying all the lower level statements. At k:th level of hierarchy the statements are inconsistent so that one has B(n,k) disjoint classes.
The Mn=2n-1 (Mersenne number) labelling the algorithm is more than familiar to me.
  1. For instance, electron's p-adic prime corresponds to Mersenne prime M127 =2127-1, the largest not completely super-astrophysical Mersenne prime for which the mass of particle would be extremely small. Hadron physics corresponds to M107 and M89 to weak bosons and possible scaled up variant of hadron physics with mass scale scaled up by a factor 512 (=2(107-89)/2). Also Gaussian Mersennes seem to be physically important: for instance, muon and also nuclear physics corresponds to MG,n= (1+i)n-1, n=113.
  2. In biology the Mersenne prime M7= 27-1 is especially interesting. The number of statements in Boolean algebra of 7 bits is 128 and the number of statements that are consistent with given atomic statement (one bit fixed) is 26= 64. This is the number of genetic codons which suggests that the letters of code represent 2 bits. As a matter of fact, the so called Combinatorial Hierarchy M(n)= MM(n-1) consists of Mersenne primes n=3,7,127, 2127-1 and would have an interpretation as a hierarchy of statements about statements about ... It is now known whether the hierarchy continues beyond M127 and what it means if it does not continue. One can ask whether M127 defines a higher level code - memetic code as I have called it - and realizable in terms of DNA codon sequences of 21 codons (see this).
  3. The Gaussian Mersennes MG,n n=151,157,163,167, can be regarded as a number theoretical miracles since the these primes are so near to each other. They correspond to p-adic length scales varying between cell membrane thickness 10 nm and cell nucleus size 2.5 μm and should be of fundamental importance in biology. I have proposed that p-adically scaled down variants of hadron physics and perhaps also weak interaction physics are associated with them.
I have made attempts to understand why Mersenne primes Mn and more generally primes near powers of 2 seem to be so important physically in TGD Universe.
  1. The states formed from n fermions form a Boolean algebra with 2n elements, but one of the elements is vacuum state and could be argued to be non-realizable. Hence Mersenne number Mn=2n-1. The realization as algebra of subsets contains empty set, which is also physically non-realizable. Mersenne primes are especially interesting as sine the reduction of statements to prime nearest to Mn corresponds to the number Mn-1 of physically representable Boolean statements.
  2. Quantum information theory suggests itself as explanation for the importance of Mersenne primes since Mn would correspond the number of physically representable Boolean statements of a Boolean algebra with n-elements. The prime p≤ Mn could represent the number of elements of Boolean algebra representable p-adically (see this).
  3. In TGD Fermion Fock states basis has interpretation as elements of quantum Boolean algebra and fermionic zero energy states in ZEO expressible as superpositions of pairs of states with same net fermion numbers can be interpreted as logical implications. WCW spinor structure would define quantum Boolean logic as "square root of Kähler geometry". This Boolean algebra would be infinite-dimensional and the above classification for the abstractness of concept by the number of elements in subset would correspond to similar classification by fermion number. One could say that bosonic degrees of freedom (the geometry of 3-surfaces) represent sensory world and spinor structure (many-fermion states) represent that logical thought in quantum sense.
  4. Fermion number conservation would seem to represent an obstacle but in ZEO it can circumvented since zero energy states can be superpositions of pair of states with opposite fermion number F at opposite boundaries of causal diamond (CD) in such a manner that F varies. In state function reduction however localization to single value of F is expected to happen usually. If superconductors carry coherent states of Cooper pairs, fermion number for them is ill defined and this makes sense in ZEO but not in standard ontology unless one gives up the super-selection rule that fermion number of quantum states is well-defined.
One can of course ask whether primes n defining Mersenne primes (see this) could define preferred numbers of inputs for subsystems of neurons. This would predict n=2, 3, 5, 7, 13, 17, 19, 31, 67, 127, 257,.. define favoured numbers of inputs. n=127 would correspond to memetic code.

See the article Why Mersenne Primes Are So Special? or the chapter TGD Inspired Comments about Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness.

Do conscious entities with different time arrows interact?

Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) predicts conscious entities with both arrows of geometric time. I find that forcing myself to think and write about this is difficult. The fear is that the whole nice scenario falls down by predicting something totally absurd. The questions that I try to avoid are following. What could these ghostly time-reversed entities be? Do they interact with those with standard time orientation? How could they do so?

In ZEO self corresponds to a generalized Zeno effect that is sequence of state function reductions leaving the passive boundary of CD unaffected as also the members of state pairs associated with 3-surfaces at it. At active boundary the members of state pairs change and the active boundary drifts reduction by reduction farther away from passive boundary. The temporal distance between the tips of CD increases gradually and corresponds to the experience about flow of time.

Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) forces eventually self to die by making the first reduction to the passive boundary of its causal diamond (CD), which now becomes the active boundary: a new time reversed self is born. This option is forced because it produces more negentropy. For this self the arrow of geometric time would be opposite since now the formerly passive boundary would be active and shift in opposite direction of time: in this manner CD would steadily increase in size.

Also the time-reversed self would eventually die and make the first reduction to the opposite - the original - boundary of CD. The position of the boundary of active boundary in first reduction would be shifted to the geometric future from the original position. The first and - as will be found - probably wrong guess for the size of shift towards geometric future from the position at the moment of previous death would be as the average increase of the temporal distance between tips of CD during Zeno period. This increment could be rather small as compared to the size of CD itself.

This picture raises questions.

  1. Do we make this kind jump to time-reverse life at some level of our personal self hierarchy as we fall sleep? If wake-up period corresponds to re-incarnation in the original time direction, time increment of CD from its previous value would be the duration of sleeping period as seen by a larger conscious system. This is much longer than the subjective chronon for sensory mental images about .1 seconds.

    Remark: Note that EEG splits to pieces of duration about 300 ms as found by Fingelkurz brothers (see this) and it might be possible to identify in EEG periods, which correspond to mental images and their time reversals. These periods could differ by a phase conjugation although the power spectrum would have the same typical behavior (sound wave and its phase conjugate have same power spectrum but we can distinguish sound and its time-reversal from each other).

    Could the first big reduction correspond to a time increment, which is of the same order of magnitude as the total time duration of life-cycle of the time-reversed self? The size of 3-surfaces at the boundary of time-reversed CD has increased by about life-time. Could the first reduction to the opposite boundary increase the size of the 3-surface at this boundary by the same amount? If so, the re-incarnations for human life cycles would take roughly life-time after the death.

    Could one identify negative energy time reversed signal as time-reversed self at some level of hierarchy? If so then the selves associated with CDs could gradually increase their energy by dying and re-incarnating repeatedly since the opposite boundary would increase also the magnitude of the negative energy at the opposite boundary. This is in principle possible since conservation laws hold true by the very definition of zero energy states as well as for classical time evolutions appearing in their quantum superposition. The average energy for a given member of pair defining zero energy state would increase gradually. The size of the CD associated with re-incarnating self could become arbitrary large and gain an arbitrary high total energy: the wildest speculation is that cosmologies correspond to very large selves (see this).

  2. Could selves/systems living in opposite directions of time have direct interactions? If the vision that motor actions are realized as negative energy signals travelling to brain of the geometric past and induce neural activity fraction of second earlier than the conscious decision was made (Libet's finding), this could be the case. Motor action could correspond to a death of sensory self, reincarnation as time-reversed motor-self, and a re-incarnation as sensory self in time scale of .1 seconds. Sensory-motor cycle would correspond to a sequence of re-incarnations as time reversed sub-self.
  3. How the time reversed selves could reveal themselves? If their presence can be indeed detected, a key signature would be the opposite direction of the thermodynamical arrow of time for them. Heat would be apparently transferred in wrong direction: from cold to hot. This kind of apparent breakings of second law have been observed: phase conjugate laser waves and acoustic signals represent examples of this. Fantappie suggested that they occur routinely in living matter and introduce the notion of syntropy as time reverse counterpart of entropy. The strange cooling of the air at magnetic walls associated with the rotating magnetic systems (see this) provides second example.
  4. Good music is claimed to send cold shivers in spine and sensations of cold are assigned also with the perception of ghosts. Could the claims about encounters of ghosts be due to a perception of time reversed selves? I remember that in my personal great experience for three decades ago the entire body went into a state analogous to that created by a good music. Did I interact with a time reversed conscious entity? My experience indeed was that I was in contact with what I called Great Mind. This is of course just a subjective experience and the skeptic scientist knows that I was in a psychotic state since it is completely obvious from my scientific work even without reading it that I am a madman;-).
See the chapter Life and death and consciousness.

The anomalies in rotating magnetic systems as a key to the understanding of morphogenesis?

During almost two decades I have returned repeatedly to the fascinating but unfortunately un-recognized work of Roschin and Godin about rotating magnetic systems. With the recent advances in TGD it has become clear that the reported strange effects such as the change of weight proportional to the rotation velocity of rollers taking place above 3.3 Hz rotation frequency and rapid acceleration above 9.2 Hz up to frequency 10 Hz could provide clues for developing a general vision about morphogenesis of magnetic body, whose flux quanta can carry Bose-Einstein condensates of dark charged ions with given mass and charge if the hypothesis heff=n× h=hgr identifying dark matter as phases with non-standard value of Planck constant holds true.

The generalization of Chladni mechanism would provide a general model for how magnetic flux tubes carrying charged particles with given mass at given flux tube drift to the nodal surfaces giving rise to magnetic walls in the field of standing or even propagating waves assignable to "topological light rays" (MEs). Ordinary matter would in turn condense around these dark magnetic structures so that Chladni mechanism would serve as a general mechanism of morphogenesis. This mechanism could be universal and work even in astrophysical systems (formation of planets).

The change of weight correlating with the direction of rotation (parity breaking) and rapid acceleration could be understood in terms of momentum and angular momentum transfer by dark photons liberated in the quantum phase transition of many-particle states of dark charged particles to from cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates giving rise to analogs of superconductivity and spontaneous magnetization

There is also evidence that the presence of light source below massive object affects its weight by about .1 per cent. This effect could be explained along the same lines. Zero Energy Ontology and the proposed mechanism remote metabolism at the level of dark matter is however needed and this would force to modify dramatically the views about basic interactions at the level of dark matter.

An increase of weight Δ g/g≈ 2× 10-4 is observed for electrets: this number has appeared in TGD already earlier and in TGD framework could have interpretatation in terms of dark matter layer with mass MD≈ 2× 10-4 ME at distance of Moon. In fact, quite generally the magnetic body could have this mass portion. Amusingly, this change of weight happens to consistent with the "weight of soul" claimed to be 21 g.

See the new chapter The anomalies in rotating magnetic systems as a key to the understanding of morphogenesis? or the article article with the same title.

Can quantum biology really do without new physics?

Quantum biology is now taken rather seriously. Photosynthesis and avian navigation are two key applications of quantum biology. The basic problem in both cases is posed by the fact that the magnetic interaction energy in Earth's magnetic field is roughly million times smaller than thermal energy. The so called radical-pair mechanism (RPM) was proposed already at 60's as a possible solution to the problem posed by anomalously large effect in EPR and NMR experiments. According to RPM, a radical pair is accompanied by electron pair, which is in a superposition of spin triplet and singlet states and behaves as quantum coherent system for a time sufficiently long to induce chemical effects. The hyperfine interaction of the members of the electron pair with the nuclei of radicals would amplify the effect. The neutralization of radical pair puts an end to the coherence interaction period.

The proposal is that RPM gives rise to chemical compass making possible avian navigation. There is however a problem. RPM has been observed in laboratory only for magnetic fields in the range 1 mT- 10 T. Earth's magnetic field is only 2 per cent of the lower bound so that it is quite possible that RPM is not at work.

This opens up the door for new quantum physics proposed by TGD based model of quantum biology. In this approach magnetic body acts as as intentional agent using biological body as a sensory receptor and motor instrument. Macroscopic quantum coherence is made possible by dark matter realized as a hierarchy of heff=n× h phases.

In the article Can quantum biology really do without new physics? RMP is summarized and compared with the TGD based vision. Also the possible connection between avian navigation and circadian clock suggested by the fact that both involve photoreceptor known as cryptocrome and a possible connection with gravitaxis are considered in TGD framework.

See the new chapter Can quantum biology really do without new physics? or the article article with the same title.

p-Adic physics as physics of cognition and imagination and counterparts of recursive functions

In TGD Universe p-adic physics is physics of cognition and imagination and real physics also carries signatures about the presence of p-adic physics as p-adic fractality: this would explain the unexpected success of p-adic mass calculations. The outcome would be a fusion of real and various p-adic number fields to form adeles. Each extension of rationals giving rise to a finite-dimensional extension of p-adic numbers defines an adele, and there is hierarchy of adeles defining an evolutionary hierarchy. The better the simulation p-adic space-time sheet is for real space-time sheet, the larger the number of common algebraic points is. This intuitive idea leads to the notion of monadic geometry in which the discretization of the imbedding space causal diamond is central for the definition of monadic space-time surfaces. They are smooth both in real and p-adic sense but involve discretization by algebraic points common to real and p-adic space-time surfaces for some algebraic extension of rationals inducing corresponding extension of p-adics.

How this could relate to computation? In the classical theory of computation recursive functions play a key role. Recursive functions are defined for integers. Can one define them for p-adic integers? At the first glance the only generalization of reals seems to be the allowance of p-adic integers containing infinite number of powers of p so that they are infinite as real integers. All functions defined for real integers having finite number of pinary digits make sense p-adically.

What is something compeletely new that p-adic integers form a continuum in a well-defined sense and one can speak of differential calculus. This would make possible to pose additional conditions coming from the p-adic continuity and smoothness of recursive functions for given prime p. This would pose strong constraints also in the real sector for integers large in the real sense since the values f(x) and f(x+ kpn) would be near to each other p-adically by p-adic continuity and p-adic smoothness would pose additional strong conditions.

How could one map p-adic recursive function to its real counterpart? Does one just identify p-adic arguments and values as real integers or should one perform something more complex? The problem is that this correspondence is not continuous. Canonical identification for which the simplest form is I: xp=∑n xnpn→ ∑n xnp-n=xR would however relate p-adic to real arguments continuously. Canonical identification has several variants typically mapping small enough real integers to p-adic integers as such and large enough integers in the same manner as I. In the following let us restrict the consideration to I.

Basically, one would have p-adic valued recursive function fp(xp) with a p-adic valued argument xp. One can assign to fp a real valued function of real argument - call it fR - by mapping the p-adic argument xp to its real counterpart xR and its value yp=fp(x) to its real counterpart yR: fR(xR) = I(f(xp)=yR. I have called the functions in this manner p-adic fractals: fractality reflects directly to p-adic continuity.

fR could be 2-valued. The reason is that p-adic numbers xp=1 and xp =(p-1)(p+p2+..) are both mapped to real unit and one can have fp(1)≠ fp((p-1)(p+p2+..)). This is a direct analog for 1=.999... for decimal expansion. This generalizes to all p-adic integers finite as real integers: p-adic arguments (x0, x1,...xn, 0, 0,...) and (x0,x1,...xn-1,(p-1),(p-1),...) are mapped to the same real argument xR. Using finite pinary cutoff for xp this ceases to be a problem.

Recursion plays a key role in the theory of computation and it would be nice if it would generalize in a non -trivial manner to the realm of p-adic integers (or general p-adic numbers).

  1. From Wikipedia one finds a nice article about primitive recursive functions. Primitive recursive functions are very simple. Constant function, successor function, projection function. From these more complex recursive functions are obtained by composition and primitive recursion. These functions are trivially recursive also in p-adic context and satisfy the conditions of p-adic continuity and smoothness. Composition respects these properties tool. I would guess that same holds also for primitive recursion.

    It would seem that there is nothing new to be expected in the realm of natural numbers if one identifies p-adic integers as real integers as such. Situation changes if one uses canonical identification mapping p-adic integers to real numbers (for instance, 1+2+22→> 1+1/2+1/4= 7/4 for 2-adic numbers). One could think of doing computations using p-adic integers and mapping the results to real numbers so that one could do computations with real numbers using p-adic integers and perhaps p-adic differential calculus so that computation using analytic computations would become possible instead of pure numerics. This could be very powerful tool.

  2. One can consider also real valued recursive functions and functions having values in (not only) algebraic extensions of rationals. Exponent function is an interesting primitive recursive function in real context: in p-adic context exp(x) exists p-adically if x has p-adic norm smaller than 1). exp(x+1) does not exist as p-adic number unless one introduces extension of p-adic numbers containing e: this is necessary in physically interesting p-adic group theory. exp(x+kp) however exists as p-adic number. The composition of exp restricted to p-adic numbers with norm smaller than 1 with successor function does not exist. Extension of rationals containing e is needed if one wants successor axiom and exponential function.
  3. The fact that most p-adic integers are infinite as real numbers might pose problems since one cannot perform infinite sums numerically. p-Adic continuity would of course allow approximations using finite number of pinary digits. The real counterparts of functions involved using canonical identification would be p-adic fractals: this is something highly non-trivial physically.

    One could also code the calculations at higher level of abstraction by performing operations for functions rather than numbers. The finite arithmetics would be for the labels of functions using tables expression the rules for various operations for functions (such as multiplication). Build a function bases and form tables for various operations between them like multiplication table of algebra, computerize the operations using these tables and perform pinary cutoff at end. The rounding error would emerge only at this last step.

The unexpected success of deep learning is conjectured to reflect the simplicity of the physical world: only a small subset of recursive functions is needed in computer simulation. The real reason could be p-adic physics posing for each value of p very strong additional constraints on recursive functions coming from p-adic continuity and differentiability. p-Adic differential calculus would be possible for the p-adic completions of integers and could profoundly simplify the classical theory of computation.

See the chapter TGD Inspired Comments about Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness or the article article with the same title.

Life and Death and Consciousness

Life and death belong to the greatest mysteries of science. The development of quantum theories of consciousness has made possible to say something non-trivial also about life and death. In this article I describe TGD inspired theory of consciousness and the view that it provides about life and death. There are several notions which are new from the point of view of standard physics. From the point of view of TGD inspired theory of consciousness the most important ones are Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO), Causal Diamond (CD), Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP). One can say that self as conscious entity is a sequence of repeated state function reductions at the same boundary of CD and not affecting or states at it - Zeno effect- and that self dies as the first reduction to the opposite boundary of CD is forced by NMP and means reincarnation of self as time-reversed self.

From the point of view of TGD inspired quantum biology the identification of dark matter has $h_{eff}/h=n$ phases of ordinary matter having non-standard value of Planck constant is central: these phases allow to understand living matter as macroscopically quantum coherent phases. Second key notion is that of field body, in particular magnetic body. This is implied by TGD view about space-time as 4-D surface of certain 8-D space-time and means that physical systems have besides ordinary identify also field identity so that one can talk about magnetic body (MB). MB takes the role of intentional agent using biological body as motor instrument and sensory receptor: this for instance explains EEG as a communications and control tool.

For background see the chapter Life and Death and Consciousness.

Why deep learning neutral networks are so effective?

The good news of this morning! Neural networks (one speaks of deep learning) model the world much better than one might expect on basis of mathematical arguments alone. This is a real mystery. Deep learning means AI systems with large number of hierarchy levels: programs calling programs calling... is the first intuitive idea of AI outsider like me.

The solution of the puzzle proposed by physicists is elegant. The physical world is much much simpler than mathematicians - wanting to be as general as possible - assume! Simplicity means among other things holography and hierarchical structures and deep learning relies on hierarchical structures. It would be amazing if AI and physics finally could meet each other! For more details see the article of Lin and Tegmark . See also the remarks of Ben Goertzel.

Holography and its strong form

The Universe is indeed very simple according to hololographic theories. For instance, in TGD not only holography but strong form of holography holds true. The quantum and classical data assignable to string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces dictates the dynamics of 4-D space-time surface. This effective 2-dimensionality of dynamics means enormous simplification of the quantum physical world from what it could be. For instance, preferred extremals defining space-time surfaces satisfy infinite number of conditions stating vanishing of certain Noether charges.

This extreme simplicity is lost when the sheets of the many-sheeted are lumped together to obtain the space-time of general relativity and standard model and effective classical fields are sums over geometrizes classical fields associated with the sheets. In biological systems however the dynamics of many-sheetedness comes manifest and the actions of single sheet need not be masked: things get simple in this kind of situation.

Various fractal hierarchies

Holography need not the only reason for the simplicity. The possibly physical world of TGD has hierarchical fractal structure: length scale reductionism is replaced with fractality. Dynamics looks more or less similar in all zooms and this simplifies the situation of mimicker enormously. There are hierarchies of space-time sheets topologically condensed on larger space-time sheets, hierarchy of p-adic length scales defined by primes near powers of two (or more general small prime), hierarchy of Planck constants, self hierarchy. p-Adic length scale hierarchy allows extremely simple model for elementary particle masses: one might perhaps say that one does not model the mass of "real" particle but its cognitive representation about itself in terms of p-adic thermodynamics relying on conformal invariance. The hierarchy of Planck constants means fractal hierarchy of zoom-ups of system: dark matter phases assignable to quantum criticality would be crucial for the understanding of living systems.

These hierarchies also define hierarchies of measurement resolutions making possible abstraction, getting rid of details at the level of conscious experience and behavior. The hierarchical structure would be especially important for conscious mind. Self has subselves which it experiences as mental images and is mental image of higher level self. Goal hierarchies mean a lot of structural restrictions making it easier for artificial intelligence to mimick conscious systems.

Quantum states realize finite measurement resolution themselves

Conceptualization means hierarchies and one can say that TGD Universe performs this conceptualization for us! In fact, one can say that quantum state provides its own description. This implies that finite measurement resolution is not a property of description of quantum state but of quantum state itself! For instance, the larger the number of partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets is, the better the "half-discretization" of 4-D space-time surface by these 2-surfaces is, and the more precise is the conscious experience of system about itself. For instance, magnetic flux tube networks with flux tubes accompanied by strings and with maximally entangled at the ends of nodes would give rise to a universal proprioception. The experience about 3-space would emerge from entanglement rather, not the 3-space as some colleagues fashionably argue.

Simplicity in cosmology

This extreme simplicity is most dramatic in cosmology. The microwave temperature is essentially constant. This cannot be due to the causal interactions but reflects something deeper. Inflationary scenarios are one attempt to explain this but have not led to a breakthrough. A more radical explanation is that macroscopic quantum coherence even in cosmological scales is possible at the space-time sheets of cosmic size scale with large value of Planck constant characterizing phases of ordinary matter behaving like dark matter. The key idea is generalization of point-like particle to 3-surface: particle and 3-space are one and same thing. Particles as 3-surfaces can have even cosmological size.

See the chapter TGD Inspired Comments about Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness.

Biophotons and intelligence

It is gradually becoming clear that bio-photons have a role in brain function. An interesting claim is that the biophoton spectrum is shifted towards infrared as the intelligence of the species develops (see the article published in Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of USA). The idea is that biophotons are involved with the communications between parts of brain and biophotons with lower frequencies are favored: one reason could be metabolic economy since biophotons have energies in visible and UV range mostly and in humans the extends to near infrared. The observation is that glutamate-induced biophotonic activities and transmission in brain slices represent a spectral redshift feature from animals to humans.

Could TGD based model for biophotons as decay products of dark cyclotron photons help to understand this? In TGD framework dark photons would be involved with communications of biological body with personal magnetic body (MB). Bio-photons would result from dark cyclotron photons with heff=n× h= hgr= GMm/v0 (see the explanation of the formula above) in energy conserving transformation to ordinary photons reducing the value of heff to h. Both dark cyclotron photons from MB to brain and analogs of Josephson photons from cell membranes to MB would be involved. When dark photons transform to ordinary photons they can induce molecular transitions. MB would control biomatter by inducing these molecular transitions. This explains the range of biophoton energies. Also EEG would consist of dark photons in this energy range but frequencies in EEG range and wavelengths of astrophysical size (7.8 Hz corresponds to circumference of Earth).

Dark cyclotron photons have cyclotron energy heff× eBend/m = (GM/v0)*(eBend) independent of the mass of charged particle mass, which is essential for the universality of bio-photon spectrum. The value Bend of the "endogenous" magnetic field introduced by Blackman should vary by say two orders of magnitude to explain the range of biophoton energies. The value of heff should be rather high.

The redshift of biophoton energy spectrum for humans as compared to lower animals could mean that the spectrum for the values of Bend extends to lower values. Cyclotron periods would be also longer at lower end for the spectrum. Could the higher intelligence could be achieved by better metabolic energy economy? Or could the presence of flux tubes with lower value of Bend extend the spectrum of biophoton energies and bring in molecules with lower transitions energies (down to near infrared)? It should be possible to identify the molecules in question. They should be involved with the "glutamate-induced biophotonic activities". The communications between brain slices could be also indirect: first sensory signal to MB is sent and response comes as control signal to other part of brain.

Bend in Blackman's experiments (I have identified it as lower end for the spectrum of the values of Bend) for vertebrates was 2/5 of Earth's magnetic field BE. Why 2/5 rather than 1? Could this reflect that gradual reduction of Bend from BE during evolution? Should one repeat the experiments of Blackman and other pioneers for non-vertebrates to find whether BE is higher for them?

See the chapter Are dark photons behind biophotons?.

Details related to adelic NMP

What happens in state function reduction and what NMP really says is still far from being completely clear. The basic condition is that standard measurement theory emerges as a special case and is forced by NMP. This does not however fix the NMP completely.

1. Adelic NMP as the only reasonable option

During years I have considered two options for NMP.

  1. In the original approach to NMP it was assumed that both generic entanglement with real entanglement probabilities and entanglement with algebraic entanglement probabilities are possible. Real entanglement is entropic and demands standard measurement theory leading to a 1-D eigen-space of the density matrix. Algebraic entanglement can be negentropic in number theoretic sense for some p-adic primes, and in this case state function reduction occurs only if it increases negentropy. It takes place to N-dimensional eigen-space of the density matrix. The basic objection is that real entanglement is transcendental in the generic case reducing to algebraic entanglement only as a special case. Algebraic entanglement is also extremely rare without additional physical assumptions.
  2. In the adelic approach entanglement coefficients and therefore also entanglement probabilities are always algebraic numbers from the condition that the notion of p-adic Hilbert space makes sense. Also extensions of rationals defining finite-dimensional extension of p-adic numbers (roots of e can appear in extension) must be allowed. Same entanglement can be seen from both real (sensory) and p-adic perspectives (cognitive). The entanglement is always entropic in the real sector but can be negentropic in some p-adic sectors. It is now clear that the adelic option is the only sensible one.

2. Variants of the adelic NMP

The adelic option allows to consider several variants.

  1. Negentropy could correspond a) to the sum N= NR+∑p Np of real and various p-adic negentropies or b) to the sum N=∑ Np of only p-adic negentropies. Np is non-vanishing for a finite number of p-adic primes only as is easy to find. In both cases ∑p Np could be interpreted as negentropy assignable to cognition. NR might have interpretation as a measure of ignorance of one of the entangled systems about the state of other.
  2. NMP implies that state function reduction (measurement of density matrix leading to its eigen-space) occurs if negentropy 1) is not reduced or 2) increases. This means that negentropic entanglement is stable against NMP.
Can one select between these options?
  1. For option a) NMP becomes trivial for rational entanglement probabilities as is easy to find: one has N= NR+∑p Np=0. NMP does not force state function reduction to occur but it could occur and imply ordinary state function reduction as a special case for option 1) (when eigen-spaces are 1-dimensional). Therefore one would have option 1a).
  2. If option 1a) is unrealistic, only the options 1b) and 2b) with N= ∑p Np are left. For option 2b) state function necessarily occurs for N=∑p Np<0 but not for N=0 - not even in rational case. For option 2b) the state function reduction could occur also for N=0. However, since Np is proportional to log(p) and the numbers log(p) are algebraically independent, N=0 is not actually possible so that 1b) and 2b) are equivalent. Therefore NMP states that N=∑p Np must increase for N<0: this forces state function reduction to an eigen-space of density matrix.

    But is it really possible to have ∑ Np<0 making possible ordinary state function reduction? For rational entanglement probabilities this is not possible by SR= ∑p Np and one might even speculate that for algebraic extensions one as ∑p Np≥ SR. Mathematician could probably check the situation. ∑p Np≥ SR holds true, entanglement is stable against NMP and ordinary state function reduction is not possible. This would leave only the option 1a) and negentropic entanglement with N>0 would be stable also now. N=0 entanglement (possibly rational always) would allow ordinary state function reduction.

This leaves still two options. Negentropy gain is A) maximal or B) non-negative but not necessarily maximal: I have considered the latter option earlier. For option 1a) reduction is possible only for N=0 and in this case negentropy gain is zero for all possible eigen-spaces of density matrix and maximality condition does not say anything.
  1. For option 1a) reduction is possible only for N=0 and in this case negentropy gain is zero for all possible eigen-spaces of density matrix and A) and B) are equivalent. One obtains ordinary state function reductions.
  2. Consider next the equivalent options 1b) and 2b) making sense if ∑p Np<0 is possible. For option A) negentropy gain is maximal and the reduction occurs to an eigen-space with maximum dimension N=Nmax. There can be several eigen-spaces with the same maximal dimension. As a special case one obtains ordinary state function reduction. The reduction probability is same as in standard quantum measurement theory.

    For option B) the reduction could occur also to any N-dimensional eigen-space or its sub-space. The idea would be that NMP allows something analogous to a choice between good and evil: the negentropy gain could in this case be also smaller than the maximal one corresponding to log(Nmax). This would conform with the intuition that we do not seem to live in best possible world. On the other hand, negentropy transfer between systems could be also seen as stealing in some situations and metabolism identified as negentropy transfer could be seen as the fundamental "crime" to which all other forms of reduce.

3. Could quantum measurement involve also adelic localization?

For option B) there is still one possible refinement involved. p-Adic mass calculations lead to the conclusion that elementary particles are characterized by p-adic primes and that p-adic length scale hypothesis p≈ 2k holds true: a more general form of hypothesis allows also to consider primes near powers qn of some small prime such as q=3.

Could state function reduction imply also adelic/cognitive localization in the sense that the negentropy is nonzero and positive for only single p-adic prime in the final state? The reduction would occur to pk-dimensional eigen-space with pk dividing N: any divisor would be allowed. Note that Hilbert spaces with prime dimension are prime with respect to the decomposition to tensor product so that reduction would select prime power factor of the eigen-space.

The information theoretic meaning would be that prime-dimensional Hilbert spaces are stable against decomposition to tensor products so that the notion of entanglement would not make sense and therefore also the change of the state by the reduction of entanglement would be impossible. I have considered the possibility that prime-dimensional state spaces could make possible stable storage of quantum information. The prime-dimensional state when imbedded to higher-dimensional space could be seen as an entangled state.

This hypothesis would provide considerable insights to the origin of p-adic length scale hypothesis. To get a contact with physics consider electron as an example.

  1. In the case of electron one would have p=M127=2127-1∼ 1038. Could electron decompose to two entangled subsystems with density matrix equal to p× p identity matrix? The dimension of eigen-space would be huge and electron would carry negentropy of 127 bits: also p-adic mass calculations combined with a generalization of Hawking-Bekenstein formula suggest that electron carries entropy of 127 bits: in adelic picture these views are mutually consistent.

    The recent view indeed is that all elementary particles correspond to closed monopole magnetic flux tubes with a shape of highly flattened rectangles with short sides identifiable as extremely short wormhole contacts (CP2 size) and long sides with length of order Compton length. Magnetic monopole flux traverses along first space-time sheet between wormhole throats, goes through wormhole contact, and returns back along second space-time sheet. Many-fermion states are assigned with the throats and are located at the ends of strings traversing along the flux tubes.

    Could this structure be in the case of electron a 127-sheeted structure such that the two wormhole contacts carry a superposition of pairs formed by states containing n ∈{1,...,127} fermions at second contact and n antifermions with opposite charges at second contact so that 2127-1 dimensional eigen-space would be obtained for a fermion with given spin and isospin. For instance, n=0 state with no fermion-pairs could be excluded.

  2. Right-handed neutrinos and antineutrinos are candidates for the generators of N=2 supersymmetry in TGD framework. It however seems that SUSY is not manifested at LHC energies, and one can wonder whether right-handed neutrinos might be realized in some other manner. Also the mathematics involved remains still somewhat unclear. For right-handed neutrinos, which are not covariantly constant transformation to left-handed neutrinos is possible and leads to the mixing and massivation of neutrinos. For covariantly constant right handed neutrino spinors this does not happen but they can included into the spectrum only if they have non-vanishing norm.

    This might be the case with a proper definition of norm with Ψbar pkγkΨ replaced by Ψbar; nkγkΨ: here nk defines normal of the light-like boundary of CD. Covariantly constant right-handed neutrinos have neither electro-weak, color, nor gravitational interactions so that their negentropic entanglement would be highly stable. Unfortunately, the situation is still unclear and this leaves open the idea that right-handed neutrinos might play fundamental role in cognition and negentropy storage. Amusingly, I proposed the notion of cognitive neutrino long time ago but based on arguments which turned out to be wrong.

    One could indeed consider the possibility that each sheet of the 127-sheeted structure contains at most one νR at the neutrino end of the flux tube accompanied by νbarR at anti-neutrino end. One would have a superposition p=2127-1 states formed by many-neutrino states and their CP conjugates at opposite "ends" of the flux tube. It is also possible that νbarRR pairs are spin singlets so that one has superposition over many-particle states formed from these analogous to coherent state.

    This is not the only possibility. The proposal for how the finite range of weak interactions emerges suggests a possible realization for how the number of states in superposition reduces from 2127 to 2127-1. The left weak isospin of fermion at wormhole throat is compensated by the opposite weak isospin of neutrino/antineutrino plus νbarRR or cancelling its fermion number: therefore weak charges vanish in scales longer than the flux tube length of order of the Compton length. The physical picture is that massless weak boson exchanges occur inside the flux tube which therefore defines the range of weak interactions. Same mechanism could be at work for both wormhole throat pairs and therefore also for fermion and anti-fermion at opposite wormhole throats defining building bricks of bosons. The state νbarRR would be excluded from the superposition of pairs of many-particle states and superposition would contain p=2127-1 states.
  3. Could this relate to heff=n× h hypothesis? It has been assumed that heff/h=n corresponds to space-time surfaces representable as n-fold singular coverings, whose sheets co-incide at the 3-D ends of the space-time surface at opposite boundaries of CD. There is of course no need to assume that the covering considered above corresponds to singular covering and the vision that only particles with same value of n appear in same vertices suggests that n=1 holds true for visible matter.

    One can still ask whether the elementary particle characterized by p ≈ 2k could corresponds to k-fold singular covering and to heff/h= k? This would require that phase transitions changing the value of k take place at the lines of scattering diagrams to guarantee that all particles have the same value of k in given vertex. These phase transitions are a key element of TGD inspired quantum biology.

    In the first order of perturbation theory this would not mean any deviations from standard quantum theory for given k and the general vision that loop corrections from the functional integration over WCW vanish suggests that there are no effects in perturbation theory for given k. p-Adic coupling constant evolution would be discrete and make itself visible by the phase transitions at the lines of scattering diagrams (not identifiable as Feynman diagrams). The different values of heff/h=n be also seen through non-perturbative effects assignable to the bound states and also via the proportionality of p-adic mass scales to p-1/2≈ 2-k/2 predicted by p-adic mass calculations.

See the new chapter Non-locality in quantum theory, in biology and neuroscience, and in remote mental interactions: TGD perspective or article with the same title.

Magnetic body, biophotons, and prediction of scaled variant of EEG

The model for quantum biology relying on the notions of MB and dark matter as hierarchy of phases with heff =nh, and biophotons identified as decay produces of dark photons. The assumption hgr ∝ m becomes highly predictable since cyclotron frequencies would be independent of the mass of the ion.

  1. If dark photons with cyclotron frequencies decay to biophotons, one can conclude that biophoton spectrum reflects the spectrum of endogenous magnetic field strengths. In the model of EEG it has been indeed assumed that this kind spectrum is there: the inspiration came from music metaphors suggesting that musical scales are realized in terms of values of magnetic field strength. The new quantum physics associated with gravitation would also become key part of quantum biophysics in TGD Universe.
  2. For the proposed value of hgr 1 Hz cyclotron frequency associated to DNA sequences would correspond to ordinary photon frequency f=3.6× 1014 Hz and energy 1.2 eV just at the lower limit of visible frequencies. For 10 Hz alpha band the energy would be 12 eV in UV. This plus the fact that molecular energies are in eV range suggests very simple realization of biochemical control by MB. Each ion has its own cyclotron frequency but same energy for the corresponding biophoton.
  3. Biophoton with a given energy would activate transitions in specific bio-molecules or atoms: ionization energies for atoms except hydrogen have lower bound about 5 eV (see this ). The energies of molecular bonds are in the range 2-10 eV (see this ). If one replaces v0 with 2v0 in the estimate, DNA corresponds to .62 eV photon with energy of order metabolic energy currency and alpha band corresponds to 6 eV energy in the molecular region and also in the region of ionization energies.

    Each ion at its specific magnetic flux tubes with characteristic palette of magnetic field strengths would resonantly excite some set of biomolecules.This conforms with the earlier vision about dark photon frequencies as passwords.

    It could be also that biologically important ions take care of their ionization self. This would be achieved if the magnetic field strength associated with their flux tubes is such that dark cyclotron energy equals to ionization energy. EEG bands labelled by magnetic field strengths could reflect ionization energies for these ions.

It must be made clear that TGD has had an interpretational problem related to the identification of biophotons as decay product of dark protons. The resolution of this problem leads to conclusion that both Earth's and galactic MBs control living matter with EEG related by scaling. This would be rather dramatic realization of non-locality.

The problem is following. If one wants bio-photon spectrum to be in visible-UV range assuming that bio-photons correspond to cyclotron photons, one must reduce the value of r=hgrBend/mv0 for Earth particle system by a factor of order k=2× 10-4. r does not depend on the mass of the charged particle. One can replace Bend with some other magnetic field having value which is considerably smaller. One can also increase the value of v0.

  1. For hgr determined by Earth's mass and v0=vrot, where vrot≈ 1.55× 10-6c is the rotation velocity of Earth around its axis and for Bend→ Bgal= 1 nT, where Bgal is typical strength of galactic magnetic field, the energy of dark cyclotron energy is 45 eV (UV extends to 124 eV). This is roughly by a factor 50 higher than the lower bound for the range of bio-photon energies. One possibility is that Bgal defines the upper limit of the dark photon energies and has variation range of at least 7 octaves with lower limit roughly 1/50 nT.

    One can also consider the possibility Bgal defines lower bound for the magnetic field strengths involved and one has v0>vrot. For sun the rotation velocity at Equator is vrot= 2× 10-5 m/s and v0 is v0≈ 5.8× 10-4c. One has v0/vrot≈ 29.0. If same is true in case of Earth, the value of the energy comes down from 25 eV to 1.6 eV which corresponds to visible wave length.

    The assignment of Bgal to gravitational flux tubes is very natural. Now however the frequencies of dark variants of bio-photons would not be in EEG range: 10 Hz frequency would correspond to 5× -4 Hz with period of 42 min. The time scale of 42 min is however very natural concerning consciousness and could be involved with longer bio-rhythms. Scaled EEG spectrum with alpha band around 46 min naturally assignable to diurnal sub-rhythms could be a testable prediction. Natural time would be sidereal (galactic) time with slightly different length of day and this allows a clear test. Recall the mysterious looking finding of Spottiswoode that precognition seems to be enhanced at certain time of sidereal day. Cyclotron frequency 1 Hz would correspond to 7 hours. One can ask whether 12 hours (25) is the natural counterpart for the cyclotron frequency 1 Hz assignable to DNA. This would correspond to lower bound Bgal→ 7Bgal/12 ≈ .58 nT or to v0→ 1.7v0.

  2. The idea has been that it is dark EEG photons, which correspond to bio-photons. Could one assign bio-photons also to dark EEG so that magnetic fields of Earth and galaxy would correspond to two different control levels? If Bend=.2 Gauss is assumed to determine the scale of the magnetic field associated with the flux tubes carrying gravitational flux tubes, one must reduce hgr. The reduction could be due to M→ MD=kM and due to the change of v0. k could characterize the dark matter portion of Earth but this assumption is not necessary.

    This would require k=Mdark, E/ME≈ 5× 10-5 if one does not change the value of v0. This value of k equals to the ratio of Bgal/Bend and would be 1/4:th of k=2× 10-4. One might argue that it is indeed dark matter to which the gravitational flux tubes with large value of Planck constant connect biomatter.

  3. Suppose that one does not give up the idea that also Earth mass gives rise to hgr and scaled analog of EEG. Then MD must correspond to some mass distinguishable from and thus outside Earth. The simplest hypothesis is that a spherical layer around Earth is in question. TGD based model for spherical objects indeed predict layered structures. There are two separate anomalies in the solar system supporting the existence of a spherical layer consisting of dark mass and with radius equal to the distance of Moon from Earth equal to 60.3 Earth radii. The first anomaly is so called Flyby anomaly and second one involves a periodic variation of both the value of the measured Newton's constant at the surface of Earth and of the length of the day. The period is about 6 years and TGD predicts it correctly.

    One can imagine that dark particles reside at the flux tubes connecting diametrically opposite points of the spherical layer. Particles would experience the sum of gravitational forces summing up to zero in the center of Earth. Although the layer would be almost invisible (or completely invisible by argument utilizing the analogy with conducting shell) gravitationally in its interior, hgr=MDm/v0 would make itself visible in the dynamics of dark particles! This layer could represent magnetic Mother Gaia and EEG would take care of communications to this layer.

    The rotation velocity vrot,M≈ 2.1× vrot,E of Moon around its axis is the first guess for the parameter v0 identifiable perhaps as rotation velocity of the spherical layer. A better guess is that the ratio r=v0/vrot,M is the same as for Sun and as assumed above for Earth. This would give for the ratio of cyclotron frequency scales r= (Bend/Bgal)× 2.1. 66.7 min, which corresponds to Bgal= .63 nT, would correspond to .1 s. For this choice 1 Hz DNA cyclotron frequency would correspond 11.7 h rather near to 12 h. This encourages the hypothesis that 72 min is the counterpart of .1 s cyclotron time. The cyclotron time of DNA (very weakly dependent on the length of DNA double strand) in Bgal (or its minimum value) would be 12 h.

Magnetic body of Earth controlling bio-dynamics would be a dramatic manifestation of non-locality to say nothing about the control performed by galactic magnetic body. MD would be associated with the magnetic Mother Gaia making life possible at Earth together with magnetic Mother Galactica. Both MBs would be in continual contact with biomolecules like ATP and the molecules for which ATP attaches or provides the phospate. Metabolic energy would be used to this process. These MBs would be Goddesses directing its attention to tiny bio-molecules. If this picture is correct, the ideas about consciousness independent on material substrate and assignable to a running computer program can be safely forgotten.

See the new chapter Non-locality in quantum theory, in biology and neuroscience, and in remote mental interactions: TGD perspective or article with the same title.

Non-locality in quantum theory, in biology and neuroscience, and in remote mental interactions: TGD perspective

Non-locality seems to be a basic aspect of what it is to be living. Living system is elementary particle like coherent unit. The phenomenon of memory suggests temporal non-locality. Also remote mental interactions - if real - suggest non-locality. In fact, non-locality - both spatial and temporal - is the basic element of entire quantum TGD, and in particular, of its applications to quantum biology, neuroscience, theory of consciousness, and also of remote mental interactions.

In the sequel I make kind of pseudo deduction of the picture provided by Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD) by starting from empirical findings loosely related to non-locality rather than problems of General Relativity or of particle physics. The hope is that this could make the basic ideas of TGD easier to grasp. Also the mathematical framework and its interpretation as they are now are briefly discussed and the some applications to TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology are discussed.

See the new chapter Non-locality in quantum theory, in biology and neuroscience, and in remote mental interactions: TGD perspective or article with the same title.

Gut cells without mitochondria can survive: proof for the notion of remote metabolism?

Gut cells can survive without mitochondria (see this)! There are many other strange findings. Visible and IR light energize human skin cells transferring energy for the cells- the analog of photosynthesis. Some spiritual groups and also traditionally the people called saints are reported to survive by using only sunlight as their source of metabolic energy. NASA has studied sleigh dogs able to run for days without eating and showing no signs of getting tired.

Could photosynthesis work also in animal mitochondrial cells? The basic mechanism could be essentially the same: electron transfer chain providing energy to pump protons through cell membrane against potential gradient. This is the key step of both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. After that protons flow spontaneously back through ATP synthase and liberate energy to build ATP from ADP. This is like power plant. In plants solar photons provide the energy for electrons. In the animal cells dark photons with large heff=n×h (transforming now and then to biophotons) could do it. In the case of IR lmetabolism electrons could send to the energy source dark negative energy IR photons, which decay to ordinary IR photons. This would be an active variant of metabolism and time reversal of the usual mechanism: I have called it quantum credit card mechanism or remote metabolism. I wrote about this a blog posting some time ago.

Now even mitochondria are missing! Could remote metabolism work also without mitochondria? ADP→ ATP transformation should occur since ATP is the universal energy currency. Could it take place as remote metabolism by sending negative energy photons to the cells having the mitochondria. The electron transfer chain is preceded by Krebs cycle extracting the energy from nutriens: could the absorption of negative energy photons induce the decay of nutrient without transfer of energy to electron chain of the mitochondria. The hungry gut cell without mitochondria would be allowed to eat in the table of the luckier ones. Again one quantum objection against vulgar darwinism. This would be like kicking laser from population reversed state to ground state by phase conjugate negative energy irradiation.

For background see the chapter TGD About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism.

TGD Evidence for the notion of magnetic body from brain synchrony without corpus callosum

I received a link to a rather baffling finding about brain. Neuroscientists have believed that the two hemispheres communicate via the neural pathways associated with corpus callosum: kind of communication cables would be in question. Many areas of brain behave synchronously, which has led to the notion of resting state network.

The team led by Michael Tyszka, associate director of Caltech Brain Imaging Center, has however discovered that the resting state network seems to work normally in people born without corpus callosum! As if brain hemispheres were communicating by some other means than neural signalling! This finding challenges not only the views about the origin of brain synchrony as being created by neural circuits but also the models of autism and schizophrenia explaining them in terms of impaired communications between hemispheres.

One can for instance speculate with the possibility that there is electromagnetic communication between brain hemispheres. This does not look a bad idea at all: nowadays it is possible to extract information about EEG so that pilots are able to control the flight of tiny flying object by imagining what the object should do. Technological applications will probably appear in the market soon so that anyone can have robots controllable by thoughts.

This mechanism is consistent with the TGD inspired view about brain. This view however encourages to consider also a more imaginative explanation. In TGD Universe living system involves besides organism and environment also magnetic body (MB) acting as an intentional agent receiving sensory input from organism and controlling it. MB has hierarchical onion-like structure. For instance, brain hemispheres have their own MBs, and entire brain its own MB serving as a "boss" for the MBs of hemispheres.

Communications between magnetic body and part of organism take place using dark photons having non-standard value heff=n×h of Planck constant and thus energy E= hefff, which should correspond to ordinary photons with energies above thermal energy: otherwise quantal effects are masked by thermal fluctuations. Bio-photons in the visible and UV range could result in the transformation of dark photons to ordinary photons. The frequency range of dark photons depends on the level of the layer of MB characterized by heff and wavelength corresponds to the size scale of the layer.

In the case of brain the transfer of sensory information to MB would be realized as EEG - wavelength of 7.8 Hz radiation is order of the circumference of Earth so that MBs for brain would be really large. In Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) control signals would be realized as negative energy signals propagating backwards in geometric time and having phase conjugate laser light as a counterpart in ordinary physics. This explains Libet's finding that neural activity precedes conscious decision. Coordination by using EEG rhythms would be part of control analogous to work songs.

The MB of entire brain controls it and could naturally do this via the intermediate control of brain hemispheres forcing them to operate in the same rhythm. Brain synchrony and resting network would not be produced by resonant neuro-circuits as usually believed but by the spatiotemporal coherence of the EEG radiation from the MB of entire brain forcing brain hemisphere MBs to oscillate in the same rhythm and in turning synchronizing the brain hemispheres. This would be like forcing soldiers to march in the same pace and brain hemispheres could co-operate without any neural communication between hemispheres. The communication between hemispheres would be needed for more refined collaboration involving "discussion" between hemispheres: hemispheres of a person without corpus callosum would be like soldiers obeying blindly the orders. This might be also an essential element of autism and schizophrenia.

For background see the chapter Quantum Mind and Neuro Science.

Confirmation of Santilli's detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with concave lenses: really?

I encountered in Facebook a really bizarre sounding title reading The incredible pictures scientists say prove invisible alien entities ARE here on Earth (see this) and just for curiosity decided to add one click to the web page in question (means higher income from ads) knowing that this is just what they want me to do! The story involves aliens spying us so that that the street credibility index of the story reduced zero. The tool to detect the spies would be Santilli's telescope using concave lenses. Santilli, who is familiar to me, also talks about two types of invisible terrestrials detected by his telescope. It would be easy to ridicule but let us be patient.

An earlier article with title Apparent detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with convex lenses (see this) reports a detection of antimatter galaxies. There is also an article with title "Confirmation of Santilli’s detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with concave lenses" published in American Journal of Modern Physics claiming an independent observation of antimatter galaxies, antimater asteroids, and antimatter cosmic rays by Santilli's telescope (see this). These articles say nothing about aliens spying us.

Since I suffer from a pathological trait of taking half-seriously even the weirdest stories, I decided to learn what Santilli's telescope using concave lenses might mean. Ordinary telescope uses convex lenses (see this). The light rays coming from the other side converge to form a picture of the source. For concave lense the light rays coming from the other side diverge so that concave lense does not sound like a good idea for detecting light coming from distant objects.

It is however claimed that Santilli's telescope detects light sources in darkness. This is only possible if the index of refraction n=c/v characterizing the medium via the ratio of light velocity in vacuum to the velocity of light in medium changes sign. From Snell's law n1sin(θ1)= n2sin(θ2) follow the basic facts about lenses (see this). It is possible to construct lenses which have negative index of refraction so that concave lense behaves like convex one. Presumably this is not be the case now since according to the existing theory, ordinary light would have the negative index of reflection (unless it is somehow transformed when arriving to the lense).

Concerning the theoretical arguments Santilli makes several claims, which do not make sense to me.

  1. The photons are identified as antimatter photons assumed to have negative energies. These antimatter photons are assumed to have repulsive gravitational interaction with ordinary matter. The claim is that this implies negative index of refraction. This does not make sense since gravitational interaction is quite too weak to cause refraction. Electromagnetic interaction must be in question. Antimatter photons are claimed to propagate with superluminal speeds and arrive instantaneously from remote galaxies. The assumption is in dramatic conflict with what we know about antimatter.
  2. Refractive index is claimed to be a property of light. This does not make sense: refractive index characterizes medium. Its sign however changes when the energy of photon changes sign. From Snell's law the sign of refractive index must change sign as the light enters to the concave lense. This would require that Santilli's antimatter photons transform to ordinary photons.
These arguments are more than enough for dooming the claims of Santilli as pseudoscience but what if there is something in it? The experimental finding is so simple that if it is not an artefact of poor experimentation, some interesting - possibly new - physics could be involved. So let us looks the situation from different point of view forgetting the theory behind it and taking seriously the claimed observations. Could one explain the findings in TGD framework?

Zero energy ontology (ZEO) is one of the cornerstones of TGD and could indeed explain the claims of Santilli and colleagues. In ZEO zero energy states are pairs of positive and negative energy states at opposite light-like boundaries of causal diamonds (CD) forming a scale hierarchy. Zero energy states are counterparts of physical events in standard ontology.

  1. ZEO predicts that the arrow of time can have both directions. In ZEO based quantum measurement theory state function reductions occur at either boundary of CD. Conscious entities correspond to sequences of reductions leaving everything unaffected at the boundary (Zeno effect) but changing the situation at the opposite boundary, in particular increasing its distance from the fixed boundary, which gives rise to the experienced flow of time. The first reduction to opposite boundary replaces the zero energy state with time reversed one. This can happen also for photons.
  2. The particles with non-standard arrow of time are not antimatter (I have considered also this possibility since it might explain the experimental absence of antimatter) but propagate in reverse time direction and have negative energies. There is a considerable evidence for this notion. Phase conjugate laser beams known to obey second law in reverse time direction would be one example. There are also old observations of Akimov and Kozyrev claiming that the instrument of Akimov gives three images of distant astrophysical objects: one would be from past, one from recent, and one from future. I do not know about the construction of Kozyrev's instrument but one can ask whether it involved concave lenses. Also the notion of syntropy introduced by the Italian physicists Fantappie conforms with this picture. In biology syntropy is in central role since in biology time reversed radiation would play a key role.
  3. Since the sign of the energy is negative for phase conjugate photons, their refractive index is negative. n2 for concave lense and n1 for the medium behind lense must have opposite signs to explain the claims of Santilli and colleagues. This happens if the incoming negative energy photons from the geometric future are transformed to positive energy photons photons at the surface of the lense. This process would represent time reflection of the incoming negative energy photons to ordinary positive energy photons propagating inside lense.
The claimed results could be an outcome of a bad experimentation. What however remains is a test of ZEO - or more precisely, the notion of time reversed photons - using telescopes with convex lenses. The implication would be possibility to see to the geometric future using telescopes with concave lenses! An entire geometric future of the Universe would be open to us! This possibility is a good enough reason for seeing the trouble of proving experimentally that Santilli is (and I am) wrong! Negative index of refraction as a function of frequency is a real phenomenon in condensed matter physics (see this), and one can of course ask whether also it involves the transformation of positive energy photons to negative energy photons.

For background see the chapter TGD About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism.

TGD and Teslaphoresis

The title of the popular article is "Reconfigured Tesla coil aligns, electrifies materials from a distance" tells about the effects involved. The research group is led by Paul Churukuri and there is also an abstract about the work in ADS Nano journal. This article contains also an excellent illustration allowing to understand both the Tesla coil and the magnetic and electric fields involved. The abstract of the paper provides a summary about the results.

This paper introduces Teslaphoresis, the directed motion and self-assembly of matter by a Tesla coil, and studies this electrokinetic phenomenon using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Conventional directed self-assembly of matter using electric fields has been restricted to small scale structures, but with Teslaphoresis, we exceed this limitation by using the Tesla coil’s antenna to create a gradient high-voltage force field that projects into free space. CNTs placed within the Teslaphoretic (TEP) field polarize and self-assemble into wires that span from the nanoscale to the macroscale, the longest thus far being 15 cm. We show that the TEP field not only directs the self-assembly of long nanotube wires at remote distances (≥ 30 cm) but can also wirelessly power nanotube-based LED circuits. Furthermore, individualized CNTs self-organize to form long parallel arrays with high fidelity alignment to the TEP field. Thus, Teslaphoresis is effective for directed self-assembly from the bottom-up to the macroscale.

Concisely: what is found that single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) polarise and self-assemble along the electric fields created by capacitor in much longer length scales than expected. Biological applications (involving linear molecules like microtubules) come in mind. CNTs tend to also move towards the capacitance of the secondary coil of the Tesla coil (TC).

It is interesting to understand the TGD counterparts for the Maxwellian em fields involved with Tesla coils and it is found that many-sheetedness of space-time is necessary to understand the standing waves also involved. The fact that massless extremals (MEs) can carry light-like currents is essential for modelling currents classically using many-sheeted space-time. The presence of magnetic monopole flux tubes distinguishing TGD from Maxwellian theory is suggestive and could explain why Teslaphoresis occurs in so long length scales and why it induces self-organization phenomena for CNTs. The situation can be seen as a special case of more general situation encountered in TGD based model of living matter.

For background see the chapter About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism or the article Teslaphoresis and TGD.

TGD Inspired Comments about Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness

I received from Lian Sidoroff a link to a very interesting article by John Horgan in Scientific American with title "Can Integrated Information Theory Explain Consciousness?". Originally IIT is a theoretical construct of neuroscientst Giulio Tononi (just Tononi in the sequel). Christof Koch is one of the coworkers of Tononi. IIT can be regarded as heavily neuroscience based non-quantum approach to consciousness and the goal is to identify the axioms about consciousness, which should hold true also in physics based theories. The article of Horgan was excellent and touched the essentials and it was relatively easy to grasp what is common with my own approach to consciousness and comment also what I see as weaknesses of IIT approach.

To my opinion, the basic weakness is the lack of formulation in terms of fundamental physics. As such quantum physics based formulation is certainly not enough since the recent quantum physics is plagued by paradoxes, which are due the lack of theory of consciousness needed to understand what the notion of observer means. The question is not only about what fundamental physics can give to consciousness but also about what consciousness can give to fundamental physics.

The article Consciousness: here, there and everywhere of Tononi and Koch gives a more detailed summary about IIT. The article From the Phenomenology to the Mechanisms of Consciousness: Integrated Information Theory gives a more techanical description of IIT. Also the article of Scott Aaronson was very helpful in providing computer scientific view about IIT and representing also mathematical objections.

Tononi and Koch emphasize that IIT is a work in progress. This applies also to TGD and TGD inspired theory of consciousness. Personally I take writing of TGD inspired commentary about IIT as a highly interesting interaction, which might help to learn new ideas and spot the weaknesses and imperfections in the basic definitions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness. If TGD survives from this interaction as such, the writing of these commentaries have been waste of time.

The key questions relate to the notion of information more or less identified as consciousness.

  1. In IIT the information is identified essentially as a reduction of entropy as hypothetical conscious entity learns what the state of the system is. This definition of information used in the definition of conscious entity is circular. It involves also probabilistic element bringing thus either the notion of ensemble or frequency interpretation.
  2. In TGD the notion of information relies on number theoretical entanglement entropy (EE) measuring the amount of information associated with entanglement. It makes sense for algebraic entanglement probabilities. In fact all probabilities must be assumed to belong to algebraic extension of rationals if one adopts p-adic view about cognition and extends physics to adelic physics involving real and various p-adic number fields. Circularity is avoided but the basic problem has been whether one can apply the number theoretic definition of entanglement entropy only in p-adic sectors of the adelic Universe or whether it applies under some conditions also in the real sector. Writing this commentary led to a solution of this problem: the state function reduction in the intersection of realities and p-adicities which corresponds to algebraic extension of rationals induces the reductions at real and p-adic sectors. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) maximizes the sum of real and various p-adic negentropy gains. The outcome is highly non-trivial prediction that cognition can stabilize also the real entanglement and has therefore causal power. One can say that cognition tames the randomness of the ordinary state function reduction so that Einstein was to some degree right when he said that God does not play dice.
  3. IIT identifies qualia with manner, which I find difficult to take seriously. The criticism however led also to criticism of TGD identification of qualia and much simpler identification involving only the basic assumptions of ZEO based quantum measurement theory emerged. Occam's razor does not leave many options in this kind of situation.
IIT predicts panpsychism in a restricted sense as does also TGD. The identification of maximally integrated partition of elementary system endowed with mechanism, which could correspond to computer program, to two parts as conscious experience is rather near to epiphenomenalism since it means that consciousness is property of physical system. In TGD framework consciousness has independent causal and ontological status. Conscious existence corresponds to quantum jumps between physical states re-creating physical realities being therefore outside the existences defined by classical and quantum physics (in TGD classical physics is exact part of quantum physics).

The comparison of IIT with TGD was very useful. I glue below the abstract of the article comparing IIT with TGD inspired theory of consciousness.


Integrated Information Theory (IIT) is a theory of consciousness originally proposed by Giulio Tononi. The basic goal of IIT is to abstract from neuroscience axioms about consciousness hoped to provide constraints on physical models. IIT relies strongly on information theory. The basic problem is that the very definition of information is not possible without introducing conscious observer so that circularity cannot be avoided. IIT identifies a collection of few basic concepts and axioms such as the notions of mechanism (computer program is one analog for mechanism), information, integration and maximally integrated information (maximal interdependence of parts of the system), and exclusion. Also the composition of mechanisms as kind of engineering principle of consciousness is assumed and leads to the notion of conceptual structure, which should allow to understand not only cognition but entire conscious experience.

A measure for integrated information (called Φ) assignable to any partition of system to two parts is introduced in terms of relative entropies. Consciousness is identified with a maximally integrated decomposition of the system to two parts (Φ is maximum). The existence of this preferred decomposition of the system to two parts besides computer and program running in it distinguishes IIT from the computational approach to consciousness. Personally I am however afraid that bringing in physics could bring in physicalism and reduce consciousness to an epiphenomenon. Qualia are assigned to the links of network. IIT can be criticized for this assignment as also for the fact that it does not say much about free will nor about the notion of time. Also the principle fixing the dynamics of consciousness is missing unless one interprets mechanisms as such.

In this article IIT is compared to the TGD vision relying on physics and on general vision about consciousness strongly guided by the new physics predicted by TGD. At classical level this new physics involves a new view about space-time and fields (in particular the notion of magnetic body central in TGD inspired quantum biology and quantum neuroscience). At quantum level it involves Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) and the notion of causal diamond (CD) defining 4-D perceptive field of self; p-adic physics as physics of cognition and imagination and the fusion of real and various p-adic physics to adelic physics; strong form of holography (SH) implying that 2-D string world sheets and partonic surfaces serve as "space-time genes"; and the hierarchy of Planck constants making possible macroscopic quantum coherence.

Number theoretic entanglement entropy (EE) makes sense as number theoretic variant of Shannon entropy in the p-adic sectors of the adelic Universe. Number theoretic EE can be negative and corresponds in this case to genuine information: one has negentropic entanglement (NE). TGD inspired theory of consciousness reduces to quantum measurement theory in ZEO. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) serves as the variational principle of consciousness and implies that NE can can only increase - this implies evolution. By SH real and p-adic 4-D systems are algebraic continuations of 2-D systems ("space-time genes") characterized by algebraic extensions of rationals labelling evolutionary levels with increasing algebraic complexity. Real and p-adic sectors have common Hilbert space with coefficients in algebraic extension of rationals so that the state function reduction at this level can be said to induce real and p-adic 4-D reductions as its shadows.

NE in the p-adic sectors stabilizes the entanglement also in real sector (the sum of real (ordinary) and various p-adic negentropies tends to increase) - the randomness of the ordinary state function reduction is tamed by cognition and mind can be said to rule over matter. Quale corresponds in IIT to a link of a network like structure. In TGD quale corresponds to the eigenvalues of observables measured repeatedly as long as corresponding sub-self (mental image, quale) remains conscious.

In ZEO self can be seen as a generalized Zeno effect. What happens in death of a conscious entity (self) can be understood and it accompanies re-incarnation of time reversed self in turn making possible re-incarnation also in the more conventional sense of the word. The death of mental image (sub-self) can be also interpreted as motor action involving signal to geometric past: this in accordance with Libet's findings.

There is much common between IIT and TGD at general structural level but also profound differences. Also TGD predicts restricted pan-psychism. NE is the TGD counterpart for the integrated information. The combinatiorial structure of NE gives rise to quantal complexity. Mechanisms correspond to 4-D self-organization patterns with self-organization interpreted in 4-D sense in ZEO. The decomposition of system to two parts such that this decomposition can give rise to a maximal negentropy gain in state function reduction is also involved but yields two independent selves. Engineering of conscious systems from simpler basic building blocks is predicted. Indeed, TGD predicts infinite self hierarchy with sub-selves identifiable as mental images. Exclusion postulate is not needed in TGD framework. Also network like structures emerge naturally as p-adic systems for which all decompositions are negentropically entangled inducing in turn corresponding real systems.

For background see the new chapter TGD Inspired Comments about Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness or the with the same title.

Chi Energy - master gets animals to sleep

In Thinking Allowed there was an interesting link from Jeff Hall to a video with title Chi Energy - master gets animals to sleep. The video was very impressive and I recommend seeing it. Below I propose an explanation for the feats of the master.

I have constructed a theory of remote mental interactions but always said that I do not believe in them - I just take their possibility very seriously. To be honest, the only reason for this attitude is that they emerge naturally from TGD inspired theory of consciousness. This video made me a believer. I know that skeptic "knows" that the video is hoax and demands 10 sigma statistical proof that every chi master in every corner of the Universe can put animals to sleep under controlled laboratory conditions by weaving his hands. It does not matter: we can laugh together to my gullibility if this helps skeptic to avoid despair in his intellectual isolation.

We had a long discussion about the video and Ulla noticed the similarity with hypnosis: even the word "hypnosis" originally means some kind of sleep like state. In TGD framework hypnosis could be seen as a particular example of remote mental interactions. Simplifying: hypnotizer would in some sense hijack some part of brain of the subject by quantum entangling with it so that it becomes part of hypnotizer and obeys his commands. Note that the social explanation of hypnosis as the desire of subject ot please the hypnotiser does not explain what happens to the animals.

In the discussion consciousness was of course mentioned and consciousness was compared to field. As a philosophically oriented physicist I get worried when one says "consciousness is a field" or something like that. I would prefer to speak about field patterns as correlates for contents of consciousness. To me consciousness itself is an independent form of existence not reducing to a property of physical system as materialist believes. This looks like pedantry but becomes absolutely crucial if one really wants to understand consciousness. Real progress is science is mostly getting rid of sloppy language implying sloppy thinking.

I have explained so many times the basic ideas of TGD inspired theory of consciousness (call it TTC for short) and I am afraid that most readers have not got the message. I think that independently rediscovering TTC is the only manner to realize what I am trying to say. Therefore only few paragraphs.

One needs a new ontology - a vision about what exists. This ontology is neither materialistic nor dualistic and in which consciousness is not a property of physical state as "-ness" would suggest but resides in the nowhere-nowhen-land between two quantum states replaced with analogs of quantum evolutions of Schrödinger equation. I call the new ontology Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) and it leads to a new view about quantum measurement theory and state function reduction giving theory of consciousness as by-product by transforming observer from an outsider to the Universe a part of quantum physics. Conscious entity is the outcome of Zeno effect - a sequence of state function reductions which would not change the state in standard ontology at all but gives rise to the experienced flow of time in ZEO.

A lot of unexpected predictions follow. Mention only the possibility of exotic unexpected phenomena such as time reversed consciousness, the re-incarnation of conscious entity in different time after biological death, and the predicted hierarchy of conscious entities with mental images identifiable as sub-selves - conscious entities. Also a detailed view about quantum biology and about remote mental interactions emerges.

Quantum biology involves a generalization of both classical physics and quantum physics.

  1. Classical physics is generalized by replacing space-time with space-time surfaces bringing in notions like many-sheeted space-time, magnetic flux quanta/tubes, field body and topological light rays essential for understanding living matter. Magnetic body (MB) becomes what might be called intentional agent. Our MB is the "real us" using our biological body (BB) as a motor instrument and sensory receptor. EEG and its scaled variants mediate sensory information from neuronal/cell membranes to parts of magnetic body having onion-like structure and control commands from MB to genome initiating gene expressions and possible other hitherto unknown genome related functions such as topological quantum computation and communications with dark photons which an decay to bio-photons.

    Magnetic flux tubes accompany and are space-time correlates of entanglement: note that also superstringers have ended up with this idea but talk about wormholes instead of flux tubes.

    Concerning remote mental interactions, the crucial difference from Maxwell's linear and relatively simple theory is that flux tubes make possible precisely targeted communications such that the signal does not weaken with distance. This is like replacing radio station with something sending laser signals along cable: replacing mass communication like radio broadcast with email. The signals - I call them topological light rays - are analogous to laser light beams travelling along flux tubes: also their existence distinguishes TGD from Maxwell's theory where light signals travel in all directions and weaken like 1/r2.

  2. The generalization of quantum physics involves the hierarchy of Planck constants coming as multiples of ordinary Planck constants and identified in terms of dark matter which becomes a key player in living systems. Scaling of Planck constant scales up quantum lengths and gives rise to macroscopic quantum coherence, which is the key property of living matter. p-Adic physics and fusion of real physics (correlates of sensory experience) and various p-adic physics (correlates of cognition and imagination) is an essential element of the theory too.
Consider now what remote mental interactions might be.
  1. Attention is obviously an essential element. This master intensively attends. Magnetic flux tubes are correlates for attention. When I attend something the flux tubes connecting some part of me to this something are formed. This something could be mental image perhaps localizable to my brain or an object of external world - say my cat. Or the animals in the amazing video, which motivated the writing of this posting. Magnetic flux tubes are like tentacles studying the environment and when they find tentacle of another BB, reconnection to a bridge connecting the biological bodies can happen if the magnetic field strengths are nearly the same. This implies that cyclotron frequencies are same so that the reconnection involves resonance.

    This is a good reason to identify the prerequisites/correlates for remote mental interactions as magnetic flux tubes, which are TGD counterparts of Maxwellian magnetic fields but differ from them since they are topologically quantized.

  2. Remote mental interactions are not anything exotic in this world view: the communications from BB and control of my BB by my MB rely on remote mental interactions. What we are used to call remote mental interactions is the same phenomenon except that the target is not my BB but something else: say patient in remote healing or computer in experiments testing whether intention can affect random number generator.
What might happen in the video?
  1. What could happen as the master in the video weaves his hands? Same as in hypnosis, which is also a remote mental interactions. The magnetic flux tubes for a part of hypnotizer's MB reconnect with those for a part of subject's MB fusing two conscious entities single one with chi master serving as boss for the unit formed in this manner. Both supra currents and analogs of laser light signals can proceed along these bridges thus formed. This is the same effect as the fusion of mental images - subselves - producing stereo vision. Fusion can occur also for mental images in different brains: our consciousness is not so private as we think - be cautious with your thoughts;-). Your brain children are not always only your brain children!
  2. What makes a fellow who just weaves his hands "superhuman" - as the video says? How the movement of his hands can have so magic effect? It cannot. MB acting as an intentional agent is needed. The skills of the master in using his MB give him his magic looking powers - he is a master in magnetic gymnastics:-). Yoga trains your BB, meditation trains your MB. Using the tentacles emanating from is hands the master can get a contact even to the MBs of members of different species and make them part of this own MB and give commands to them. As the master weaves his hands he helps the flux tubes to form reconnections with the MBs of the subject animals. I wonder whether the master can "see" the flux tubes of foreign magnetic bodies (not necessarily consciously at his level of self hierarchy). This would make his task much easier.
For background see the chapter Hypnosis as remote mental interaction.

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