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Year 2014

TGD inspired model for the formation of exclusion zones from coherence regions

At Thinking Allowed Original there is a link to the talk of Mae-Wan Ho in Conference on the Physics, Chemistry and Biology of Water 2014. It is a very nice representation and I learned new facts highly relevant for my own work.

The main points of Mae were that protons make water aconductor, maybe even superconductor. In TGD framework the statement would be that dark protons flowing along magnetic flux tubes make this possible. I however believe that electronic and even ionic Cooper pairs are are involved. Mae believes also that water associated with collagen networks appears as superfluid in nano-scales. Also this is very attractive idea and if the heff= hgr condition holds as some arguments suggest, then superfluidity allowing macroscopic quantum coherence with gravitational Compton length having no dependence on the mass of particle becoems possible. One of the effects is fountain effect explained elegantly by macroscopic quantum gravitational coherence: water would effectively defy gravitation: this effect might allow testing of the hypothesis.

CDs and EZs

Mae Wan-Ho talked about and compared two notions: CDs (coherent domains of water with size of about micrometer postulated by quantum field theoreticians, in particular Emilio del Giudice) and EZs (exclusion domains with size about 200 micrometers discovered by Gerald Pollack and collaborators experimentally). By the way, in Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) I talk about causal diamonds (CDs), which are typically much larger than CDs of Giudice et al.

  1. Inside EZ the water forms layered structure consisting of hexagonal layers and the stoichiometry is H1.5O so that every fourth proton must be outside EZ (proton is not accompanied by electron if charge separation takes place: EZ is indeed negatively charged so that one obtains different pHs inside EZ and in its exterior). This state is experimentally heavier than ordinary water.
  2. So called tetrahedral or 4-coordinated water is assigned with CDs. CDs and EZs could correspond to two different p-adic length scales in TGD framework. This state would be less dense than ordinary water. Both CD and EZ contain plasma of almost free electrons. CDs are excited to 12.06 eV just .5 eV below the ionizing potential 12.56 eV. .5 eV which is the nominal value of metabolic energy quantum - probably not an accident.

TGD inspired model for CDs and EZs

I try my best to summarise some very interesting points of the talk and develop in more detail TGD inspired model for EZs and their formation, and the TGD view of metabolism leading to a prediction of new form of metabolism involving dark UV photons from Sun.

  1. The splitting of ordinary water H2O to 2H++2e- + O is a key step in photosynthesis. In particular, it produces oxygen without which which we cannot survive. The splitting process involves two ionizations. The ionisation energy of the first electron 12.56 eV and in ultraviolet much above the metabolic energy quantum around .5 eV. How the splitting of water can be achieved at all? This looks like a very real problem!
  2. CDs/EZs could be the solution to the problem. Inside CD the energy for the splitting of water is much smaller due to the fact that electrons are almost free as already mentioned: if the splitting energy equals to the so called formation energy, it is about .41 eV for CD: nothing but the metabolic energy quantum! Also at the interace of EZ just above the boundary of EZ the electronic states are excited and only an energy of .51 eV - known as formation energy - is needed for the splitting. This suggests that metabolic energy quanta are used to generate EZs and/or CDs in the fundamental step metabolism. Also irradiation at these energies generates CDs/EZs.
  3. My layman logic says that formation energy for EZ must correspond to the energy needed to increase the size of /EZ by a minimum amount. In TGD model this would mean creating one proton-electron pair such that electron remains inside the EZ, whose size thus increases and proton becomes dark proton at dark magnetic flux tube. This step would be also a key step in the splitting of water. Splitting of water and growth of EZ would be essentially the same process. In the case of CD it would seem that charge separation takes place inside CD in the splitting and proton can go outside.

    What comes in mind that the formation of CDs requiring large excitation UV energy of 12.06 eV precedes that of EZs. After the formation of CD and almost free electrons only metabolic energy quantum per proton is required to kick single proton to dark magnetic flux tube. This would conform with the fact that CD radius is about 200 times larger than that of CD meaning that volumes are related by a factor 8×106≈ 223. The formation of EZ would transform tetrahedral water to the hexagonal H1.5O and suck protons to dark protons at magnetic flux tubes. If this picture is correct, the proper identification of formation energy for CD would be as absorption energy for CD equal to 12.06 eV and in UV. Recall that biophoton spectrum extends to UV and dark photons with this energy could be responsible for the formation of CDs. This would adde dark photons transforming to biophotons to the picture.

    The formation of EZ can be seen as pulling out one ordinary proton from ordinary water just above the surface of the EZ and making it dark proton at a magnetic flux tube assignable to the EZ and perhaps connecting it to neighboring EZ for form a quantum coherent network. Dark proton would serve as a current carrier and make water a conductor and perhaps even super-conductor. Even superfluidity can be considered.

  4. The metabolic energy quantum .5 eV can be also assigned with hydrogen bond. Could the process of generating dark proton and increasing the size of EZ by one electron involve cutting of the hydrogen bond binding the proton to the water outside. If so then the only thing keeping the excited water inside CD as a coherent phase would be the bond energy of hydrogen bonds! Maybe this is too simplistic.

    I have proposed earlier that hydrogen bonds are short magnetic flux flux tubes, which can suffer heff increasing phase transition. These flux tubes could in turn experience reconnections with U shaped large heff flux tubes and get connected to the dark web. Mae-Wan Ho also tells that the transfer of proton from covalent OH bond to the middle of hydrogen bond happens with a considerable probability. Could this step precede the increase of heff and reconnection? This would give a connection with hydrogen bonding about which Mae also talked about. These naive models of course cannot be correct in detail but give hopes about fusion of existing chemical thinking and new quantal notions.

  5. A process bringing in mind the formation of EZs occurs as one perturbs molecular bio-systems - that is feeds energy into it. The system "wakes up" from "winter sleep", the globular proteins, which are in resting state with hydrogen bonds at their surface forming kind of ice layer unfold and protein aggregates are formed. Molecular summer begins and ceases when the energy feed is over. Cellular winter begins again. Maybe cellular summer is just temporary formation of EZ layers around the protein involving melting of hydrogen bonds and generation of dark protons making system conscious!

Is a new source of metabolic energy needed?

What remains to be understood is the process generating CDs: where could the UV photons with energy 12.06 eV come? Clearly a new form of metabolism is involved and the only source of energy seems to be the Sun!

  1. Solar radiation cannot however provide UV photons as ordinary photons since UV radiation at these wavelengths is absorbed by the atmosphere. In TGD framework a reasonable candidate for dark radiation with energies in UV range is dark cyclotron radiation with energy E=heff×f: biophotons would be produced in the transformation of dark cyclotron photons to ordinary photons.
  2. Could part of solar UV radiation transform to dark UV photons at magnetic flux tubes of even size scales larger than that of Earth predicted by the model of EEG and arrive along them through the atmosphere? The presence of a new source of metabolic energy is in principle a testable prediction: is the energy feed from the visible part of solar radiation really enough to cover the metabolic energy needs? Here one must however take into account the fact that the UV energy would be received by water. The water from which CDs are eliminated would not allow photosynthesis.
To sum up, if the proposed picture is correct photosynthesis involves formation of EZs and cellular respiration the inverse of this process. As discussed earlier, the purpose of metabolic processes would be basically generation and transfer of negentropic entanglement assignable to large heff states.

See the chapter Quantum Mind, Magnetic Body, and Biological Body or the article TGD inspired model for the formation of exclusion zones from coherence regions.

How bio-polymers were associated with their dark counterparts?

Ulla gave in the comment section of previous posting a link to article Hydrogen cyanide polymers, comets and the origin of life helping me to discover a new big gap in my knowledge about biology. HCN is everywhere and Miller demonstrated in his classic experiments that 11 out of 20 amino-acids emerge in presence of HCN. It has been later found that well over 20 amino-acids were produced. In my own belief system amino-acids could have appeared first as concrete something "real" and DNA as symbolic representations of this something "real". First at dark matter level and then biochemically.

In TGD Universe one can imagine - with inspiration coming partially from Pollack's experiments - that dark variants DNA, RNA and amino-acids were realized first as dark proton sequences at flux tubes- dark nuclei - I call them just dark DNA, RNA and amino-acids although dark proton sequences are in question. The genetic machinery involving translation and transcription was realized as dark variant and dark DNA was a symbolic representation for dark amino-acids.

How did this dark life give rise to bio-chemical life as its image? This is the question! I can only imagine some further questions.

  1. Was this process like master teaching to a student a skill? Master does it first, and then student mimics. If so, the emergence of amino-acids, mRNA and DNA polymers would not have been purely chemical process. Dark variants of these polymers would have served as templates for the formation of ordinary basic biopolymers, for transcription, and for translation. These templates might have been necessary in order to generate long RNA and DNA sequences: mere chemistry might have not been able to achieve this. Without dark polymers one obtains only bio-monomers, with dark polymers as template one obtains also bio-polymers. Dark polymers would have been the plan, biopolymers the stuff used to build.
  2. Are dark DNA, RNA, amino-acids, etc indeed still there and form binary structures with their biochemical variants as I have indeed proposed?
  3. Are dark translation and transcription processes still an essential part of ordinary translation and transcription? Master-student metaphor suggest that these dark processes actually induce them just like replication of magnetic body could induce the replication of DNA or cell. Visible chemistry would only make visible the deeper "dark chemistry". Apologies for all biochemists who have done heroic work in revealing chemical reaction paths!;-)

How the process assigning biochemical life to dark life could have proceeded? The minimalistic guess is that the only thing that happened was that dark life made itself gradually visible! As a consciousness theoretician I have a temptation to see religious statements as hidden metaphors, at least they provide an excellent manner to irritate skeptics: Dark matter - "the God" made us- the biological life - to its own image;-).

  1. First dark amino-acid sequences were accompanied by ordinary amino-acid sequences so that the dark translation process had now a visible outcome. At this step the presence of HCN was crucial and made the step unavoidable. Also the presence of template was necessary.
  2. Dark mRNA got a visible counterpart in the same manner: the presence of template made possible long RNA polymers. The translation remained basically dark process but made visible by mRNA.
  3. Dark DNA got a visible companion: again the presence of the template was and still is crucial.
What about generation of DNA and RNA? It is known that in reducing atmosphere DNA and RNA nucleobasis are obtained in an environment believed to mimick prebiotic situation: the presence of HCN and ammonia are necessary (see this). Reducing atmosphere does not oxidize, in other worlds does not contain oxygen and other oxidizing agents and can contain also actively reducing agents such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There are however some problems.
  1. There is evidence that early Earth atmosphere contained less reducing molecules than thought during times of Miller. If life emerged in the underground water reservoirs as TGD strongly suggests, the usual atmosphere was absent and there are good hopes about reducing atmosphere.
  2. The experiments using reducing gases besides those used in Miller's experiments produce both left and right handed polymers so that chiral selection is missing. This is not a surprise since weak interactions generate extremely small parity breaking for visible matter. If dark proton strings or even dark nuclei are involved, the Compton length of weak gauge bosons can be of the order of atomic length scale or even longer and weak interactions would be as strong as electromagnetic interactions. Therefore chiral selection becomes possible. The simplest option is that chirality selection occurred already for the helical magnetic flux tubes and induced that of biopolymers.
For background see the chapter Quantum Mind, Magnetic Body, and Biological Body.

More precise view about remote DNA replication

Both Luc Montagnier and Peter Gariaev have found strong evidence for what might be called remote replication of DNA. I have developed a TGD inspired model for remote replication using the data from Peter Gariaev, who has developed the notion of wave DNA waveDNA supported by Montagnier's findings.

Polymer chain reaction (PCR) provides a manner to buildcopies of piece of DNA serving as template. Once single copy is produced, it serves as a template for a further copy so that exponential amplification is achieved. Montagnier's and Gariaev's works suggest however that the synthesis of DNA could also occur without a real matrix DNA as remote replication. According to the proposal of Gariaev DNA template would be remotely represented as what he calls wave DNA. Montagnier uses 7 Hz ELF radiation to obtain the effect whereas Gariaev uses scattering of laser light into large interval of frequencies to achieve the effect.

In TGD approach magnetic body containing dark matter with large Planck constant, the associated cyclotron radiation for which energy scale is proportional to effective Planck constant heff=n× h having large values implying conjectured macroscopic quantum coherence of living matter, dark analog of DNA represented as dark proton sequences at magnetic flux tubes and accompanying ordinary DNA, plus reconnection of U-shaped magnetic flux tubes assignable to the magnetic bodies of bio-molecules and allowing them to recognize each other, are the basic elements. The model has evolved from the attempts to understand water memory and homeopathy in TGD framework (see this).

Both 7 Hz ELF radiation and scattering of laser light would both generate dark photon (large Planck constant) spectrum with a wide spectrum of frequencies but with the same energy which in Gariaev's experiments would naturally be the energy of scatter laser light. The dark photons would provide representation for DNA codons. If 7 Hz frequency radiation involves dark photons with energies of visible photons transforming to ordinary photons before scattering from DNA the outcome would be same as in Gariaev's experiments.

The updated model involves same elements as the model discussed in (see this) but there are also new elements due to the developments in the model of dark DNA allowing to imagine a detailed mechanism for how water can represent DNA and how DNA could be transcribed to dark DNA. The transcription/association represents a rule and rules are represented in terms of negentropic entanglement in TGD framework with pairs of states in superposition representing the instances of the rule. Transition energy serves as a characterizer of a molecule - say DNA codon - and the entangled state is a superposition of pairs in which either molecule is excited or dark DNA codon is excited to higher cyclotron state with same energy: this requires tuning of the magnetic field and sufficiently large value of heff at the flux tube. Negentropic entanglement is due to the exchange of dark photons: this corresponds to wave DNA aspect. Dark cyclotron photons also generate negatively charged exclusion zones (EZs) discovered by Pollack and in this process transform part of protons to dark ones residing at the magnetic flux tubes associated with EZs and forming dark proton sequencies.

For details see the chapter Quantum Mind, Magnetic Body and Biological Body or the article More Precise View about Remote DNA Replication .

Has the decay of dark photons to visible photons observed in cosmological scales?

There is an interesting news providing new light to the puzzles of dark matter in New Scientist. It has been found that Universe is too bright. There are too many high energy UV photons in the spectrum. The model calculations suggest also that this too high brightness has emerged lately, and was not present in the early universe. The intergalactic space contains more neutral hydrogen and thus also more ionized hydrogen as thought previously and it was hoped that the ionized hydrogen could explain the too high brightness. It is now however clear that 5 times more ionized hydrogen would be required than theory allows accepting the experimental data.

The question is whether dark matter could explain the anomaly.

  1. The usual dark matter candidates have by definition extremely weak interactions - not only with ordinary matter and also with dark matter. Therefore it is not easy to explain the finding in terms of ordinary dark matter. The idea about dark matter as remnant from the early cosmology does not fit naturally with the finding that the surplus UV radiation does not seem to be present in the early Universe.
  2. In TGD dark matter is ordinary matter with large heff=n× h and has just the ordinary interactions with itself but no direct interactions with visible matter. Thus these interactions produce dark radiation with visible and UV energies but with probably much lower frequencies (from E= hefff). The energy preserving transformations of dark photons to ordinary ones are an obvious candidate for explaining the surprlus UV light.
  3. These transitions are fundamental in TGD inspired model of quantum biology. Biophotons are in visible and UV range and identified as decay products of dark photons in living matter. The fact that the surplus has appeared recently would conform with the idea that higher levels of dark matter hierarchy have also appeared lately. Could the appearance of UV photons relate to the generation of dark matter responsible for the evolution of life? And could the surplus ionization of hydrogen also relate to this? Ionization is indeed one of the basic characteristics of living matter and makes possible charge separation (see this), which is also a crucial element of TGD inspired quantum biology (see this).
For details see the chapter Are dark photons behind biophotons?.

Possible implications of Pollack's findings for pre-biotic life in TGD Universe

I discussed in previous posting the fourth phase of water whose existence is convincingly demonstrated by Gerald Pollack and known with many other names: one of them is Brown's gas known for a long time - standard scientists have refused to admit its existence. In TGD framework the fourth phase of water has nice interpretation in terms of magnetic body and dark proton strings at its flux tubes giving rise to a realization of genetic code. If the fourth phase of water defines pre-biotic life form then the phase transition generating fourth phase of water and its reversal are expected to be fundamental elements of the ordinary metabolism, which would have developed from the pre-biotic metabolism. The following argument demonstrates that the findings of Pollack interpreted in this manner allow to understand what happens in photosynthesis and metabolism at deeper level and also shed light to the newest dramatic discovery related to metabolic pathways.

  1. Cell interiors, in particular the interior of the inner mitochondrial membrane are negatively charged as the regions formed in Pollack's experiments. Furthermore, the citric acid cycle, which forms the basic element of both photosynthesis and cellular respiration, involves electron transport chain in which electron loses gradually its energy via production of NADP and proton at given step. Protons are pumped to the other side of the membrane and generates proton gradient serving as metabolic energy storage just like battery. The interpretation for the electron transport chain in terms of Pollack's experiment would be in terms of generation of dark protons at the other side of the membrane.
  2. When ATP is generated from ADP three protons per ATP flow back along the channel formed by the ATP synthase molecule (perhaps Josephson junction) and rotate the shaft of a "motor" acting as a catalyst generating three ATP molecules per turn by phosphorylating ADP. The TGD based interpretation is that dark protons are transformed back to ordinary ones and possible negentropic entanglement is lost.
  3. ATP is generated also in glycolysis, which is ten-step process occurring in cytosol so that membrane like structure need not be involved. Glycolysis involves also generation of two NADH molecules and protons. An open question (to me) is whether the protons are transferred through an endoplasmic reticulum or from a region of ordered water (fourth phase of water) to its exterior so that it would contribute to potential gradient and could go to magnetic flux tubes as dark proton. This would be natural since glycolysis is realized for nearly all organisms and electron transport chain is preceded by glycolysis and uses as input the output of glycolysis (two pyruvate molecules).
  4. Biopolymers - including DNA and ATP - are typically negatively charged. They could thus be surrounded by fourth phase of water and neutralizing protons would reside at the magnetic bodies. This kind of picture would conform with the idea that the fourth phase (as also magnetic body) is fractal like. In phosphorylation the metabolic energy stored to a potential difference is transferred to shorter length scales (from cell membrane scale to molecular scale).
One of the basic questions of biology is whether metabolism preceded basic biopolymers or vice versa. RNA world scenario assumes that RNA and perhaps also genetic code was first.
  1. The above view suggests that both approaches are correct to some degree in TGD Universe. Both metabolism and genetic code realized in terms of dark proton sequences would have emerged simultaneously and bio-chemistry self-organized around them. Dark proton sequences defining analogs of amino-acid sequences could have defined analogs of protein catalysts and played a key role in the evolution of the metabolic pathways from the primitive pathways involving only the phase transition between ordinary water and fourth phase of water.
  2. There is very interesting article telling that complex metabolic pathways are generated spontaneously in laboratory environments mimicking hot thermal vents. Glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway were detected. The proposal is that these pathways are catalyzed by metals rather than protein catalysts.
  3. In standard biology these findings would mean that these metabolic pathways emerged before basic biopolymers and that genetic code is not needed to code for the metabolic pathways during this period. In TGD framework dark genetic code would be there, and could code for the dark pathways. Dark proton strings in one-one correspondence with the amino-acid sequences could be responsible for catalysts appearing in the pathways. Only later these catalysts would have transformed to their chemical counterparts and might be accompanied by their dark templates. One cannot even exclude the possiblity that the chemical realization of the DNA-aminoacid correspondence involves its dark analog in an essential manner.

For details see the chapter Meditation, Mind-Body Medicine and Placebo: TGD point of view or the article Pollack's findings about fourth phase of water: TGD view.

Pollack's findings about fourth phase of water

I have already earlier proposed a model of Brown's gas with inspiration coming from Moray B. King's lectures about splitting of water. I found that the model can be replaced by a simpler one proposed as a model for water memory as I tried to understand the experimental findings described by Gerald Pollack about fourth gel like phase of water in his Youtube lecture (see this).

I list first some basic experimental findings discovered in the laboratory led by Pollack.

  1. If one as gel water boundary a layer of thickness of ordermicrons is formed. All impurities in this layer are taken outside the layer. The layer consists of layers of molecular thickness and in these layers the stochiometry is H1.5O. The layer is negatively charged. The outside region carries compensating positive charge. This kind of blobs are formed in living matter. Also in the splitting of water producing Brown's gas negatively charged regions are reported to emerge.
  2. The process requires energy and irradiation by visible light or thermal radiation generates the layer. Even the radiation on skin can induce the phase transition. For instance, the blood flow in narrow surface veins requires metabolic energy and irradiation forces the blood to flow.
  3. The layer can serve as a battery: Pollack talks about a form of free energy deriving basically from solar radiation. The particles in the layer are taken to the outside region, and this makes possible disinfection and separation of salt from sea water. One can even understand how clouds are formed and mysteries related to the surface tension of water as being due the presence of the layer formed by H1.5O.
  4. In the splitting of water producing Brown's gas having a natural identification as Pollack's fourth phase of water the needed energy can come from several alternative sources: cavitation, electric field, etc...
While listening the lecture of Pollack I realized that the original model for dark water is enough to explain the properties of the exotic water according to experiments done in the laboratory of Pollack. There is no need to assume sequences of half-dark water molecules.
  1. The dark proton sequences with dark proton having size of order atomic nucleus would reside at the flux tubes of dark magnetic field which is dipole like field in the first approximation and defines the magnetic body of the negatively charged water blob. This explains the charge separation if the flux tubes have length considerably longer than the size scale of the blob which is given by size of small cell. In the model inspired (see this) by Moray B. King's lectures (see this and this) charge separation is poorly understood.
  2. An interesting question is whether the magnetic body is created by the electronic currents or whether it consists of flux tubes carrying monopole flux: in the latter case no currents would be needed. This is obviously purely TGD based possibility and due to the topology of CP2.
  3. This means that in the model inspired by the lectures of Moray B. King discussed above, one just replaces the sequences of partially dark water molecules with sequences of dark protons at the magnetic body of the H1.5O blob. The model for the proto-variants of photosynthesis and metabolism remain as such. Also now genetic code would be realized.

    These primitive forms of photosynthesis and metabolism form could be key parts of their higher level chemical variants. Photosynthesis by irradiation would induce a phase transition generating dark magnetic flux tubes (or transforming ordinary flux tubes to dark ones) and the dark proton sequences at them. Metabolism would mean burning of the resulting blobs of dark water to ordinary water leading to the loss of charge separation. This process would be analogous to the catabolism of organic polymers liberating energy. Also organic polymers in living matter carry their metabolic energy as dark proton sequences: the layer could also prevent their hydration. That these molecules are typically negatively charged would conform with the idea that dark protons at magnetic flux tubes carry the metabolic energy.

    The liberation of energy would involve increase of the p-adic prime characterizing the flux tubes and reduction of Planck constant so that the thickness of the flux tubes remains the same but the intensity of the magnetic field is reduced. The cyclotron energy of dark protons is liberated in coherent fashion and in good approximation the frequencies of the radiation corresponds to multiplies of cyclotron frequency: this prediction is consistent with that in the original model for the findings of Blackman and others.

    The phase transition generating dark magnetic flux tubes containing dark proton sequences would be the fundamental step transforming inanimate matter to living matter and the fundamental purpose of metabolism would be to make this possible.

This picture raises a question relating to the possible problems with physiological temperature.

  1. The Josephson radiation generated by cell membrane has photon energies coming as multiples of ZeV, where V is membrane potential about .06 V and Z=2 is the charge of electron Cooper pair. This gives E=.12 eV.
  2. There is a danger that thermal radiation masks Josephson radiation. The energy for photons at the maximum of the energy density of blackbody radiation as function of frequency is given as the maximum of function x3/(ex-1), x= E/T, given by e-x+x/3-1=0. The maximum is given approximately by x=3 and thus Emax≈ 3 T (in units c=1, kB=1). At physiological temperature T= 310 K (37 C) this gives .1 eV, which is slightly below Josephson energy: living matter seems to have minimized the value of Josephson energy - presumably to minimize metabolic costs. Note however that for the thermal energy density as function of wavelength the maximum is at E≈ 5T corresponding to 1.55 eV, which is larger than Josephson energy. The situation is clearly critical.
  3. One can ask whether also a local reduction of temperature around cell membrane in the fourth phase of water is needed.
    1. "Electric expansion" of water giving rise to charge separation and presumably creating fourth phase of water is reported to occur (see this and this).
    2. Could the electric expansion/phase transition to dark phase be adiabatic involving therefore no heat transfer between the expanding water and environment? If so, it would transform some thermal energy of expanding water to work and reduce its temperature. The formula for the adiabatic expansion of ideal gas with f degrees of freedom for particle (f=3 if there are no other than translational degrees of freedom) is (T/T0) = (V/V0), γ= (f+2)/f. This gives some idea about how large reduction of temperature might be involved. If p-adic scaling for water volume by a power of two takes place, the reduction of temperature can be quite large and it does not look realistic.
    3. The electric expansion of water need not however involve the increase of Planck constant for water volume. Only the Planck constant for flux tubes must increase and would allow the formation of dark proton sequences and the generation of cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates or their dark analog in which fermions (electrons in particular) effectively behave as bosons (the anti-symmetrization of wave function would occur in dark degrees of freedom corresponding to multi-sheeted covering formed in the process).
For details see the chapter Meditation, Mind-Body Medicine and Placebo: TGD point of view.

Morphogenesis, morphostasis, and learning in TGD framework

According to Michael Levin, the basic challenge of morphogenetics and morphostasis is to understand how the shape of the organism is generated and how it is preserved. The standard local approach based on belief on genetic determinism does not allow answer these questions satisfactorily.

The first approach relies on self-organization paradigm in which the local dynamics of cells leads to large scale structures as self-organization patterns. In TGD framework 3-D self-organization is replaced with 4-D self-organizaton (the failure of strict determinism of classical dynamics is essential motivating zero energy ontology (ZEO)). One can speak about 4-D healing: the space-time surfaces serving as classical correlated is as a whole replaced with the original one during healing process: after the healing process the organism was never sick in geometrical sense!

Second approach could be seen as computational. The basic idea is that the process is guided by a template of the target state and morphogenesis and healing are computational processes. What Levin calls morphogenetic fields would define this template. It is known that organisms possess kind of coordinate grids providing positional information allowing cells to "decide" about the profile of genetic expression. In TGD framework magnetic body forming coordinate grid formed from flux tubes is a natural candidate for this structure. They would also realize topological quantum computation (TQC) with basic computational operations realized at the nodes of flux tubes to which it is natural to associate some biological sub-structures.

The assumption about final goal defining a template can be argued to be too strong: much weaker principle defining a local direction of dynamics and leading automatically to the final state as something analogous to free energy minimum in thermodynamics might be enough. Unfortunately, second law is the only principle that standard physics can offer. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) provides the desired principle in TGD framework. Also the approach of WCW spinor field to the maximum of vacuum functional (or equivalently that of Kähler function) gives a goal for the dynamics after the perturbation of the organism causing "trauma". If Kähler function is classical space-time correlate for entanglement negentropy, these two views are equivalent.

TGD thus suggests an approach, which could be seen as a hybrid of approaches based on self-organizaton and computationalism. The magnetic body becomes the key notion and codes also for learned behaviors as TQC programs coded by the braiding of flux tubes. The replication of the magnetic body means also the replication of the programs behind behavioral patterns (often somewhat misleadingly regarded as synonymous with long term memories). This hypothesis survives the killer tests provided by the strange findings about planaria cut into two and developing new head or tail: the findings suggest that behavioral programs are preserved although planaria develops a new brain (see this).

For details see the chapter Quantum Mind, Magnetic Body, and Biological Body or the article "Morphogenesis, morphostasis, and learning in TGD framework".

Orch-Or theory of Penrose and Hameroff and new experimental findings about microtubules

The latest news in quantum biology is the claim about corroboration of the the Orch OR theory of Penrose Hameroff (see this). To my humble opinion the news suffer from rather heavy hyping. If the observation of the group lead by Anirban Bandyopadhyay about detection of quantum vibration in microtubule scale - their lengths vary up to 50 μm - can be replicated, one can speak about breakthrough in quantum consciousness. The results do not however prove Orch OR, which involves poorly defined vision about quantum gravitational description of state function reduction so that most predictions are just order of magnitude estimates relying on Uncertainty Principle.

The biological half of the theory relies on microtubules and for this side of the theory the claimed finding would of course be a victory. Indeed, there is a meeting in Amsterdam devoted to Orch OR theory of consciousness motivated by this finding (see this) Unfortunately, I could not find any article about the findings of Bandyopadhyay in web. I managed however to find two years old Youtube talk of Bandyopahdyay summarizing earlier experimental results supporting the vision about microtubules as macroscopic quantum systems (see this) to be discussed below.

The findings reported in the talk give support for the general TGD inspired view about TQC and allow rather detailed model in the case of microtubules. The idea is that flux tubes from a 2-D coordinate grid consisting of parallel flux tubes in two different directions: say helical Fibonacci flux tubes and their mirror images. Crossing points would be associated with tubulins and the conformational state of tubulin could define a bit coding whether the braid strands defining coordinate lines are braided or not (swap or not). In this manner any bit pattern at microtubule defines a particular TQC program. If also conformations are quantum superposed one as "quantum-quantum computation". The flux tubes could form lattice of type A whereas microtubules form always a lattice of type B - a heavy objection against Penrose-Hameroff model. This picture generalizes in the fractal universe of TGD. One can form layers of 2-D coordinate grids and connect them by vertical flux tubes to obtain 3-D grid defining TQC. Brain is known to have grid like architecture and neurons could by quantum computation produce bit/qubit defining swap or not/superposition of swap and not-swap for a larger scale TQC. One would have fractal of TQCs.

One also ends up with a very crazy idea which turned out to have lifetime longer than the time it took to type it.

  1. If one piles up 2-D TQC:s one obtains 3-D TQC. In crossings one must have 4 bits to specify whether to swap or not since there are three planes for TQC and 4 pairs of crossing strands (12,13,23,23).
  2. If one further piles 3D TQC:s in 4-D one obtains 4-D one making sense in zero energy ontology because failure of strict non-determinism is basic element of TGD. Single crossing would in 4-D would involve crossings of four lines in orthogonal dimensions. TGD predicts also space-time regions with Euclidian signature in all scales (lines of generalised Feynman diagrams). I have proposed that any system corresponds to an Euclidian space-time sheet having its size and shape and behaving like quantum system. In these regions the fourth piling might really make sense!
  3. in 4-D This would make 6 crossing pairs corresponding to 6 planes in which particular TQC takes place - for which one must tell whether to swap or not (12,13,14,23,24,34). This makes 6 bits. DNA codons correspond to 6 bits! Could codons define crossing points of magnetic flux tubes arriving from 4 coordinate directions- perhaps at Euclidian space-time sheets? Could the planes correspond to 3 components of magnetic field and 3 components electric field. Magnetic flux tubes and electric flux tubes in 3 directions? In Euclidian regions magnetic and electric do not differ intrinsically.

The TGD inspired interpretation of the experiments of Bandyopadhyay in terms of flux tube coordinate grids making possible TQC architectures with tubulin dimers defining bits defining in turn TQC program looks rather natural. Coordinate grids can be fixed on basis of the experimental findings and there are 8 grids. The interpretation is in terms of different resolutions. The grids for A and B type lattices are related by 2π twist for the second end of the basic 13-unit for microtubule. An attractive interpretation for the resonance frequencies is in terms of phase transitions between A and B type lattices. If A type lattices can be generated only in phase transitions induced by AC stimulus at resonance frequencies, one could understand their experimental absence, which is a strong objection against Penrose-Hameroff model.

This would fit very nicely with the general vision about frequencies as passwords inducing not only directed attention but activities in target - also TQCs! The increase of Planck constant could be associated with the phase transition to A-phase making possible high Tc dark super-conductivity for which evidence is observed! One can even deduce estimates for heff/h=n if one requires that AC photons have energy above thermal threshold: n= fvisible/fAC would be the estimate. For biophoton energies one would obtain something like n≈ 108-109, which pops up in different contexts in TGD framework.

For details see the chapter Quantum Mind, Magnetic Body, and Biological Body or the article "Orch-Or theory of Penrose and Hameroff and new experimental findings about microtubules".

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