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Year 2012

Two attempts to understand PK

In quantum theory context one can try to explain retro PK (psychokinesis) and perhaps even PK using quantum measurement theory. It seems however that quantum theory is not enough and feedback loop to past allowing to observer to affect the quantum system generating random number. In TGD framework intentional action based on negative energy signal to geometric past would be a rough manner to state what this feedback to geometric past is. For instance, intentional generation of motor action would involve a negative energy signal - say in EEG frequency range - from the "personal" magnetic body to the brain of geometric past, where it would initiate neural activity leading to motor action.

My attempt to concretize this picture in TGD framework - inspired by an unpublished article by Brian Millar - led to following two options restricting the consideration on PK in which operator tries to increase or decrease the number of 1:s or 0:s in random sequence of bits generated by transitions of microscopic quantum system to two alternative final states labelled by bit.

  1. For the first option observer (operator of experimenter) performs state function reduction for the quantum superpositions of two states resulting in quantal microscopic process and entangled with bits in data file: one can say that before the reading of the file it contains qubits. This requires further entanglement with observer's quantum states.

    Standard quantum measurement theory alone does not suggest any PK effect since the entanglement with observer does not affect the probabilities of the outcomes of microscopic quantum process. To achieve a non-trivial effect the measurement interaction generating entanglement with the observer must be able to modify the probabilities of the outcomes. This interaction could be called feedback loop in time. This picture seems to me more or less equivalent with that of Brian Millar.

  2. "Too-good-to be-true" option would be that the observer's intent transferred backwards in geometric time (feedback loop using the terminology of Brian Millar) can affect directly also the bits in data file so that they become superpositions of the originally quantum measured (read) bit, and then perform the quantum measurement as above. In this case PK effect could be observed directly by comparing the file subject to PK with its unaffected copy. The size of the effect would be characterized by the induced mixing. Of course, this kind of idea would have looked completely crazy for few years ago and perhaps even now.

    The fact however is that quantum entanglement and quantum superposition have been now demonstrated for increasingly larger systems. Of course, the observer-bit interaction might be be extremely weak due to the large energy needed to change the direction of bit classically.

I am a dilettante as a parapsychologist and in order to compare the two options in more detail I have used as background the article "Correlations of Random Binary Sequences with Pre-Stated Operator Intention: A Review of a 12-Year Program" tells about experiments of Jahn and others in which operator tried to affect the RNG output by intentional action: single cycle consisting of an attempt to increase the number of 1s, an attempt to decrease it, and no intention to either direction. Retro PK experiments have been also done: see the articles PK Effect on Pre-Recorded Targets an Addition effect for PK on pre-recorded targets of Schmidt. In these experiments the background philosophy seems to be conform with the first option.

There is also a report about an experiment in which chicken was labelled to a robot preprogrammed for months ago to wander randomly around the room: the path of robot was claimed to change so that it stayed near the chicken. Also Libet's experiments support propagation of intent backwards in geometric time in time scale of about .1 seconds.

Quantum measurement theory option

PK selects the outcome of a quantal microscopic process such as radioactive decay producing a superposition of two states (mapped to superposition of bits by entanglement - qubit in fact) and later to bit by state function reduction. Data file can be said to contain quantum superpositions of bits corresponding to the two outcomes of quantum process and observer (experimenter or operator in PK experiment) entangled with these state pairs in PK experiment and observes/state function reduces the state with click telling whether the outcome was desired.

This stage should bring in the effect of intention and change the probabilities for the outcomes. Standard quantum measurement theory does not allow this: experimenter acts as a passive selector of the outcome. Therefore some kind of feedback interaction propagating to geometric past and affecting the probabilities of outcomes in quantum superposition is needed.

If the data are read before experiment state function reduction takes place qubits become bits. One can also copy the file to a second one and check that the two files are identical. In this case standard measurement theory tells that the effect of observer cannot change the situation and null effect is obtained. This can be of course tested experimentally. Maybe this have been done.

If this option explains the experiment with chicken and robot, the reading of the random number sequence determining the path of the robot before the experiment implies that the labeling of the chicken to robot would have no effect on robot. The interpretation of Libet's findings about neural activity beginning before conscious decision could be that quantum superposition of neural states corresponding to "I do it" and "I don't do it" is generated a fraction of second before the conscious decision which selects either of these options. Does the intentional action propagating to geometric past generate this superposition? Conscious decision "I shall do this or that" would followed by the choice between "this" and "that".

"Too-good-to-be-true" option

Suppose that the data file is copied and second copy is read by human observer to guarantee state function reduction (according to the standard quantum measurement theory: in TGD framework state function reduction does not require human observer).

In this case the feedback loop of the observer (operator or experimenter) realized as negative energy signals to geometric past must be able to modify the states of the binary digits directly and induce a superposition of binary digits presumably containing a very small contribution of opposite binary digit for a given original digit. After this state function could take place just as in the experiment above. Now the test would be direct: compare the data file with its copy not subject to the action of observer. Statistical procedures would not be necessary and direct demonstration of PK would become possible.

In chicken and robot experiment the chicken could affect the path or robot even if it the file or its copy have been read by human observer. In Libet's experiment decision "I do it" would first generate quantum superposition of options "I do it" and "I don't do it" ("Should I do it?") and select "I do it".

I do not know whether this option even deserves to be killed. Certainly this should be very easy.

How the intention to increase/decrease the number of 1:s or 0:s could be realized?

Can one imagine in TGD framework any mechanism allowing to increase the number of 1:s or 0:s? The basic vision is following.

  1. One can consider magnetic fields or their wormhole counterparts accompanying necessarily elementary particles. Ordinary magnetic fields would correspond to single sheeted magnetic flux tubes carrying conserved magnetic flux. Wormhole magnetic fields consist of a pair of flux tubes carrying opposite monopole fluxes at different space-time sheetes and have wormhole contacts at their ends transferring the monopole flux between the sheets. Flux tubes or pairs wormhole magnetic flux tubes play a key role in TGD inspired quantum biology and proposed also to be a basic space-time correlate of intentional action. In the recent case flux tubes would connect the observer (operator or experimenter) to the device storing the bits. For wormhole flux tubes the flux tubes at the two sheets could have M4 projections, which do not overlap at all so that bits could interact with either flux tube but not with both simultaneously.
  2. If bits are realized as magnetized regions, the magnetic interaction between bits and the magnetic field carried by flux tube (or either of the opposite fluxes associated with the wormhole magnetic field) is a natural candidate for the interaction defining quantization axis of spin, and also for the interaction inducing a small mixing of the bits by Larmor precession induced by a small perturbation of the flux tube magnetic field. This perturbation could be the TGD counterpart of Alfwen wave inducing geometrical oscillation of the flux tube and therefore the direction of the magnetic field. State function reduction after the perturbation has ceases would produce either value of the bit. The strength and duration of perturbation determines how large the probability of bit reversal is.
If one assumes that magnetic interaction is in question, the most natural choice for the representation of bit is as magnetized region of data tape with direction of magnetization determining the value of the bit. This restriction can be criticized but will be made in the following.
  1. The energy needed to turn the bit must be above thermal energy but the minimization of energy costs requires that this energy is not much above it and is therefore larger than 5× 10-2 eV which by the way is also the order of magnitude for the energy gained by elementary charge in the electric field of cell membrane. This energy is considerably smaller than metabolic energy quantum with nominal value of .5 eV. Therefore metabolic energy of observer could provide the energy needed to turn the bit. Note that p-adic length scale hypothesis strongly suggests a hierarchy of metabolic energy quanta coming as octaves.
  2. Classically the effect of the small perturbation of the external magnetic field on spin is Larmor precession due to the torque τ=μ× B. A simple model is obtained by assuming that the magnetic moments in magnetized region is simply the sum of elementary magnetic moments of (say) electrons, which in magnetized state are parallel: μ= Neμe, where Ne is the number of electrons in the magnetized region defining the bit. The mutual interaction of spins forces them to have same direction so that they are not free.

    Classical torque is time derivative of angular momentum and one has total angular momentum J= (Nm/ge) μe, where g is so called g-factor not too far from unity. This gives dmμe/dt= μe× B, mue=(ge/m)s, where s is the spin of the electron. The situation reduces to single electron level and the oscillation of the magnetized regions takes place with the Larmor frequency ω=egB/2m of electron.

    This model is of course highly oversimplified but gives a good idea about what happens. The Larmor frequency of electron is given by ω=egB/2m and in the "endogenous" magnetic field of .2 Gauss (2/5 of the nominal value of the Earth's magnetic field) is f=6× 105 Hz. One expects that the flux tube magnetic fields and their perturbations are considerably weaker so that the perturbation gives rise to a rather slow change in the direction of the magnetic moment classically.

    At quantum level the evolution of the magnetic moment reduces to a unitary evolution of electron's spin by standard Hamiltonian defined by magnetic interaction energy E= -μ•B and if perturbation acts only a finite time the final state contains a small contribution from opposite value of spin.

  3. If all magnetized regions representing bits interact simultaneously with flux tube, the net effect to the spin/ bit average is zero since the probabilities for the inversion of magnetic moment are same for the values of bit. Therefore it is not possible to realize the intention to increase or reduce the total number of 1s/0s in this manner.
  4. Wormhole magnetic fields provide a possible solution to the problem. If the M4 projections of the two flux tubes involved do not overlap energy minimization favors the attachment of the magnetized region with the flux tube for which the energy E= -μ• B is smaller - that is negative. Since the fields of flux tubes are in roughly opposite directions, bits 1 and 0 tend to condense at different flux tubes. Hence a small short lasting perturbation associated with either flux tube can only reduce the number of 1s or 0s but not both and it would be possible to realize the intention "reduce the total number of 1:s or 0:s" equivalent with the intention "increase the total number 0:s or 1:s". This if the observer's intention boils down to a selection of the wormhole flux tube carrying the perturbation so that wormhole flux tubes would represent bits at the fundamental level.

The consideration of the energetics for the flip of the magnetization direction brings in naturally the hierarchy of effective Planck constants hbareff=n×hbar implied by the vacuum degeneracy of Kähler action.

  1. For ferromagnets the Weiss mean field theory predicts that in absence of external magnetic field both magnetization directions have same energy. External magnetic field splits the degeneracy. One could say that the if one regards the magnetized region as big spin, both spin directions have same energy and external field - now emerging from the observer as flux tubes - removes the degeneracy and defines direction for the quantization of spin. The mean field theory of Weiss based on the expression of free energy as function of magnetization as F= aM2+bM4- HM is minized and gives M as function of H=B/μ representing the external magnetic field. For H=0 one obtains remanent magnetization and clearly both signs of remanent magnetization correspond to the same free energy. This theory is of course thermodynamical theory and it is not clear whether it applies to the recent situation (zero energy ontology quantum theory at least formally a "square root" of thermodynamics).
  2. The energy needed to turn the spin of single free electron (for ferromagnet electrons have strong exchange interaction and are not free) must be above thermal energy but the minimization of energy costs requires that this energy is not much above it and is therefore larger than 5× 10-2 eV, which by the way is also the order of magnitude for the energy gained by elementary charge in the electric field of cell membrane. For electron Curie temperature is 843 K, which corresponds to thermal energy E ∼ 6 × 10-2 eV. This energy is considerably smaller than metabolic energy quantum with nominal value of .5 eV. Therefore metabolic energy of observer could provide the energy needed to turn the spin direction of single electron (note that there is a strong exchange interaction with other electrons). p-Adic length scale hypothesis allows to consider a hierarchy of metabolic energy quanta coming as octaves.
  3. Suppose that magnetized region behaves like single big spin so that the magnetic field of flux tube manages to change the directions of all spins simultaenously so that the contribution of exchange interactions is not affected and the change in the energy of the system in external field is due the change of single electron energies only. The large value for the number Ne of electrons gives for the total energy needed to turn the bit Etot= Neg eB/m. For micrometer sized region Ne is of order Ne=1012 for one conduction electron per atom. The magnetic field associated with the flux tube is expected to be much weaker than the remanent magnetization of order 1 Tesla. For B =1 nT one would have Etot=.3 eV, which is of the order of metabolic energy quantum. The electronic cyclotron frequency is in this field 30 Hz and in EEG range.
  4. Magnetic flux tubes are identified as carriers of dark matter and dark photons. This suggests that dark photons representing metabolic energy quanta are involved with the effective value of Planck constant hbareff= Nehbar, and that the transition can be regarded as an absorption of single dark photon turning the entire magnetized region. In terms of singular covering of the imbedding space, dark photon can be regarded as a pile of sheets of covering of space-time sheet each containing single ordinary photon. These photon space-time sheets should be somehow attached to the electrons of the magnetized region.
  5. The attempt to imagine how multisheeted photon/magnetic flux tube interacts with the conduction electrons responsible for ferromagnetism, forces to ask whether also they are dark with the same value of effective Planck constant and reside at various sheets of the singular covering having the size of the magnetized region. Only the first sheet associated with the double sheeted structure describing electron would multifurcate and second sheet would carry external magnetic field, and perhaps also the TGD counter part of the Weiss mean field interpreted as effective description of quantum mechanical exchange forces and having order of magnitude of 100 Tesla. Weiss mean field could allow an identification as return flux of the magnetic field generated by the multi-sheeted electron state. If so, the multifurcations of space-time sheets predicted by the vacuum degeneracy of Kähler action and predicting hierarcy of effective Planck constants comings multiples of hbar, would play a crucial role in the condensed matter physics. Also the TGD inspired model of fractional quantum Hall effect kenociteallb/anyontgd) encourages to consider this possibility seriously.

    The signature for the many-electron states associated with multi-sheeted covering is a sharp peak in the density of states due to the presence of new degress of freedom. In ferromagnets this kind of sharp peak is indeed observed at Fermi energy. Sheets of multi-sheeted covering could also carry Cooper pairs and this could give rise to effective Bose-Einstein statistics of Cooper pairs. In TGD photons emerge from fermions as wormhole contacts with throats carrying fermion and antifermion. This raises the question about realizability of Bose-Einstein statistics in Bose-Eintein condensation. If Bose-Einstein condensate corresponds to multi-furcation of space-time sheet, one obtains Bose-Einstein statistics effectively.

As such this model says nothing specific about the temporal direction of the intentional action although it is clear that the situation is four-dimensional in accordance with basic assumptions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness and with zero energy ontology. Most naturally, the negative energy signal to the geometric past could induce a magnetic perturbation propagating along either flux tube.


Both models are consistent with the general vision discussed by Brian Millar and thus leave open the question whether it is experimenter or operator, who is responsible the PK effect. Experimenters are not completely objective robots, and successful experimenters could have a dream about demonstrating PK convincingly whereas the operators are chosen in "Big Pot" approach randomly. Skeptic experimenters trying to replicate the experiment would tend to produce null result. Experimenters could prove PK by producing it themselves (not my original suggestion)! Taking this seriously, one faces the question whether similar situation could prevail also in other experiments than those of parapsychology.

See the chapter TGD Inspired View About Remote Mental Interactions and Paranormal or the little article Two attempts to understand PK.

Metabolic energy, ATP, and negentropic entanglement

The ideas about the detailed relationship between metabolism and negentropic entanglement are still in a state of turmoil. Let us sum up those concepts and ideas which look reasonably reliable.

  1. Negentropic entanglement is the first basic notion. There is a strong tendency to consider the presence of a magnetic flux tube connecting two objects and carrying negentropically entangled quantum state as a fundamental structure giving rise to a directed attention. Negentropic entanglement would be basic element of conscious cognition, and one can assign to it various attributes like experience of understanding. The mildest assumption is that negentropic entanglement is associated with the flux tube. A stronger assumption is that it is between states assignable to the ends of the flux tube identifiable as observer and target of attention.

    An analogy with Orch OR is suggestive. The period of negentropic entanglement - period of directed attention - would correspond to Orch Or and its end to state function reduction.

  2. The identification of the increments zero point kinetic energies as universal metabolic energy quanta is one of the oldest hypothesis of TGD inspired theory of consciousness. Zero point kinetic energy is associated with the zero point motion of particle at space-time sheet. The finite size of the space-time sheet gives rise to this energy for which non-relativistic parametrization is E0= k× 3hbar2π2/2mL2(k). L(k)=2(-k+151)/2 L(151), L(151) ≈ 10 nm is the p-adic length scale of the space-time sheet, and k is a numerical factor not far from unity. Particle in 3-D box gives k=1.

    As particle is transferred to a larger space-time sheet the zero point kinetic energy is reduced, and the difference is liberated as usable metabolic energy. For proton the size scale of this space-time sheet could be atomic size scale k=137. For electron it could electron Cooper pair k=149 (prime) corresponding to a lipid layer of cell membrane could be in question. Entire hierarchy of metabolic energy quanta is predicted and the energy scale depends on the particle mass and p-adic length scale and geometric factors characterizing the shape of space-time sheet only.

    One can ask whether the high energy phosphate bond in the phosphate of ATP molecule contains this kind of smaller space-time sheet and in the transition ATP → ADP, electron or proton drops from this kind of space-time sheet. The following considerations show that this hypothesis is not necessary, and that one can also modify the identification of the fundamental metabolic energy quantum as zero point kinetic energy without losing anything. Therefore the details of the scenario are far from being fully nailed down.

  3. Magnetic flux tubes are carriers of charged particles and the hypothesis is that cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates for fermionic Cooper pairs and bosonic ions are relevant for consciousness. In particular, cyclotron transitions in which bosons in these condensates are excited would be important for the generation of conscious experiences. The hierarchy of Planck constants and the fact that cyclotron energy is proportional to hbar allows to have arbitrarily high cyclotron energies in given magnetic field. This is essential in the model for the effects of ELF em fields on living matter (see this).
  4. Becker's findings about the relevance of DC currents for healing of wounds lead to an idea about how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the charged particles at magnetic flux tubes (see this). What would happen is that charged particles experience the electric and magnetic fields of the radiation field described in terms of massless extremals. Electric field would generate acceleration in the direct of the flux tube and could excite Becker currents which would give rise to biological effects - healing of wound in the simplest case. The proposal has been that this process gives rise to what could be seen as a loading of metabolic batteries.

    The combination of this view with the notion of cyclotron BE condensate leads to a slightly more complex picture. Radiation field can excite single boson states both in transversal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Transversal ones correspond to cyclotron states with energies Ec,n= (n+1/2)Ec, Ec= hbar qB/m and the energies of excitations are of form nEc. Longitudinal degrees of freedom correspond to a particle in 1-D box -possibly in presence of longitudinal electric field: a simple model for the states was derived in the model for Becker's DC currents.

    In the absence of longitudinal electric field the energy spectrum is En=n2E0, E0=hbar2π2/2mL2, L the length of the flux tube. Longitudinal excitations correspond to energies (nf-ni)2E0 and would classically correspond to the acceleration in the electric field component parallel to the flux tube giving rise to Becker currents. For both excitations negentropically entangled states result very naturally as superpositions of single particle excitations and possibly also multi-particle excitations. Both incoming photons and liberation of metabolic energy quantum as photon can induce the excitation.

    One could reinterpret the idea about universal metabolic energy quanta by interpreting them as increments of longitudinal energies at flux tube. For the excitation n=1→ 2 the energy would be 3hbar2π2/2mL2 which is same as zero point kinetic energy for a particle in 3-D box of side L. Quantitative prediction is therefore same as that of the original model. One can of course consider also the original option that the transfer of particles from the flux tube to a larger space-time sheet indeed liberates metabolic energy.

Let us now try to weave these ideas to an internally consistent picture. It is perhaps best to proceed by making questions.
  1. Could one assign negentropic entanglement with high energy phosphate bond?If so, the period of negentropic entanglement (having Orch OR as a counterpart) would correspond to the presence of ATP and the end of this period to ATP→ ADP. I have considered this possibility earlier. The problem is that it is difficult to understand how negentropic entanglement could be assigned simultaneously both to ATP and to the magnetic flux tube whose length and thickness are proportional to hbar and therefore varies. One should treat ATP and flux tube as single basic structure and this does not sound convincing since the scales of flux tubes are expected to be much longer than the size scale of ATP molecule. Therefore the safest assumption would be that ATP is just what it is believed to be: provider of metabolic energy only. One can leave also open the question whether high energy phosphate bond can be interpreted in terms of zero point kinetic energy or not.
  2. Could the non-local excitations of cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates by large hbar photon give rise to the negentropically entangled states? Excitation of cyclotron BE condensate requires energy so that metabolic energy is required. ATP could provide this energy. Cyclotron energy quantum is given by Ec= hbar qB/m , q and m are charged and mass of the boson. As already found, the energy of boson is sum of two contributions: energy En∝ n2 associated with free longitudinal motion and magnetic energy Ec,n∝ n+1/2. Longitudinal excitations could be assigned to the generation of Becker currents. This proposal would integrate metabolism, negentropy generation, and quantum like behavior of ELF em fields in living matter to single picture.
  3. Could it be that ATP - instead of being a carrier of negentropic entanglement as suggested earlier - only provides the metabolic energy quantum transformed to cyclotron energy quantum or longitudinal energy quantum when negentropic entanglement is generated by exciting the cyclotron BE condensate? Or could ATP carry both metabolic energy and negentropic entanglement and both of them are transferred to the magnetic flux tube in ATP → ADP process?
    1. Cyclotron energies are quite too small for this to make sense for the ordinary value of Planck constant. The nominal value of the metabolic energy quantum is E0=0.5 eV which by E0= h0f0 corresponds to frequency f0= 5 × 1013 Hz in near infrared. The value of electron's cyclotron frequency in the endogenous magnetic field Bend=.2× 10-4 Tesla postulated to explain the effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate brain is fc,e≈ 6× 105 Hz. If metabolic energy quantum is to excite cyclotron state (n→ n+1), one must have Ec=E0.

      Even for electron Ec is much below E0 small for B=Bend and hbar=hbar0. One can however scale both B from Bend and hbar from hbar0. Requiring Ec(hbar,B)= E0 and using Ec= hf gives fc,e/f0=r1r, r1= B/Bend and r=hbar/hbar0, where hbar0 denotes the standard value of Planck constant. This gives r1r≈ (5/6)× 108.

    2. There are many manners to achieve the desired upwards scaling of cyclotron energies. Magnetic flux quantization gives further constraints. One could require that magnetic flux is quantized, and that for hbar=hbar0 the flux quantum has radius of order L(151) (1 nm, cell membrane thickness) corresponding to the thickness of a flux tube assignable to single DNA nucleotide.

      The radius of flux quantum corresponds to the magnetic length rB= (hbar/qB)1/2. In the scaling Bend→ 1 Tesla (r1= 2.5× 104), magnetic length scales as rB≈ 2.5 μm → 11 nm. From the condition r1r= (5/6)× 108 one has for the scaling of Planck constant r ∼ 3.3× 103. The scaling of the flux tubes length of L(151) would give flux tube length of order 3× 10 μ m, which corresponds to cell size so that a flux tube connecting DNA and cell membrane could be in question. Note that the scaling of hbar does not affect zero point kinetic energy in the longitudinal direction since L scales as hbar.

    3. For flux tube length L(151) and for hbar=hbar0 the energy of the lowest longitudinal excitation is same order of magnitude as metabolic energy quantum so that the excitation of longitudinal states could be in key role in the generation of Becker's currents. There is evidence about non-local excitations of electrons in photosynthesis (see also the blog posting), which suggests that the longitudinal energy excitations for Cooper pairs could indeed play the role of fundamental metabolic energy quantum transferred to the the energy of high energy phosphate bond of ATP. This interpretation leaves open the structure of high energy phosphate bond and there is no absolute need to assign zero point kinetic energy with it.

      Longitudinal energies are negligible, one must require flux tube length to be considerably longer than L(151) for the ordinary value of hbar. Longitudinal energies are significant only for electron for given flux tube length. Indeed, Becker currents are known to be carried by electrons.

    4. If one allows ionic Bose Einstein condensates the value of Planck constant must be scaled up by the mass ratio mI/me, where mI and me are the masses of ion and electron. For proton this would give scaling ratio r=211 and one would end up with the hierarchy of Planck constants coming as powers of 211 suggests years ago. What is remarkable that in cyclotron degrees of freedom also protons and ions can play a signification role: the quantal effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate brain suggest that this is the case.

  4. What happens if one has just electrons rather than Cooper pairs? In both transversal and longitudinal degrees of freedom one would have the analog of Fermi sphere with electron states filled up to some maximum values integers characterizing cyclotron energy and longitudinal momentum. Transitions induce also now negentropic entanglement. For cyclotron states the energy increment would be Ec so that basic metabolic energy quantum can induce the transitions. In longitudinal degrees of freedom the minimal energy increment would be (2N+1)E0, where N characterizes the populated state with maximal longitudinal momentum. This energy should be equal to the metabolic energy quantum. This can be arranged but is not so natural. Experimental work is sooner or later bound to reveal whether electrons or their Cooper pairs are in question.
The option developed above is perhaps the most elegant found hitherto: it would raise the BE condensates of electronic and ionic Cooper pairs in a special position, it would lead to explicit proposal for what negentropic entanglement is, and it would requires no modification of the ideas related to ATP, even the standard view about ATP can be kept. It suggests that electronic cyclotron BE condensates are essential also for the understanding of photosynthesis. The absorption of dark photon would generate a non-local excitation of BE condensate of electron Cooper pairs- also a negentropically entangled state. The energy gain in this process could be interpreted as a fundamental metabolic energy quantum, and the subsequent steps in photosynthesis would only take care of the storage of the energy to ATP. Also the metabolic energy liberated in ATP→ ADP could be realized universally as IR dark photon absorbed by cyclotron BE condensate at magnetic flux tube so that dark photon beams would become the key actors of metabolism and negentropy generation. Note that a maximal negentropy gain is obtained if the number of Cooper pairs in the condensate is power of prime. Relatively small primes in the scale defined by the p-adic length scales assignable to elementary particles would be in question.

For background see also the chapter Quantum Mind, Magnetic Body, and Biological Body.

What is the role of magnetic body in DNA replication,mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization?

If magnetic body uses biological body as a motor instrument and sensory receptor, the natural question is whether basic process such as mitosis, meiosis. could be induced by more fundamental processes for the magnetic body. One can argue that if magnetic flux tubes are responsible for making living organism and even population a kind of Indra's net, cell division should be induced by magnetic body and should produce automatically this Indra's net.

As a matter of fact, cell division brings strongly in mind division of magnetic dipole but also the reconnection of magnetic flux tubes can be considered as a basic mechanism. At least the following basic mechanisms can be considered.

  1. Consider a pair of magnetic flux tubes with opposite fluxes connecting objects A and B. The division of A+B to A and B would be induced by a reconnection process for the members of the pair producing two loops associated with A and B but no connection between A and B anymore. The problem of this option is that the flux tube connection defined in this manner might not be stable enough.
  2. Magnetic dipole would correspond to a flux tube at the core of the dipole field itself decomposing to flux tubes with weaker magnetic flux at its ends. The division to two dipoles would correspond to a formation of segment in which flux tube decomposes into several flux tubes, which need not be parallel anymore. Two new dipole ends are formed and the old dipole ends remain connected so that the repetition of this process would yield a kind of Indra's net predicting that all cells of living organism are connected by the flux tubes to single coherent whole.

    The division of flux tube to several flux tubes could also correspond to the increase of Planck constant by integer factor n along a segment of flux tube. The resulting n flux sheets would corresponds to the sheets of the covering. The length of the segment would be scaled up by n.

  3. If one has pair of dipoles A-B and C-D with same total flux, a reconnection leading to A-D and C-B is possible.
Could biochemical processes associated with cell division be induced by some of the listed processes? The two latter options would predict that the cells produced in cell division remain connected by magnetic flux tubes. The division of dipole creates two new dipole ends connected by short flux tube. The already existing ends remain connected by "long" flux tubes carrying weak magnetic fields as compared to that carried by the dipole itself. Also the processes of meiosis and fertilization could respect the presence of long flux tubes connecting the cells participating in the process so that flux tube connections could also exist between parents and offspring. The members of population could form a kind of super-organism. Remote interactions between DNA and other biomolecules of closely related members of species and even shared use of DNA (and its TGD variant "dark DNA") can be imagined.
  1. Consider first DNA replication and reshuffling taking place in meiosis essential for the sexual reproduction in eukariotes. The dividing nucleus (of form MMFF) is ordinary nucleus and contains two pairs of chromosomes coming both mother (MM) and father (FF). Division produces four haploid cells containing only two chromosomes (AB) with A and B obtained by reshuffling the DNAs of mother and father to obtained 4 unique chromosome pairs. In sexual reproduction these cells fuse to form diploid cells (MMFF).
    1. The reshuffling of a pair MF of DNA strands from father and mother could be induced by a repeated reconnection process for flux tubes parallel to DNA strands. The simplest reconnection for strands A-B and C-D produces strands A-X-D and C-Y-B where A-Z and C-Y are pieces of A-B and C-D with same number of codons.
    2. The replication of DNA takes place for all four chromosomes before reshuffling. One obtains a nucleus containing 4 pairs of doubled chromosomes. This double nucleus divides to two daugher nuclei containing 2 doubled chromosomes each.These divide further to two nuclei each containing only two chromosomes each (AB).

      The DNA reshuffling could correspond to a multiple reconnection process if the two DNA strands are accompanied by by long magnetic dipoles (flux tubes). Note that in absence of additional restrictions many combinations (28) are possible.

    3. After replication and reshuffling the division of the nucleus two two intermedaires could be induced either by splitting of a flux tube connecting pairs of doubled chromosomes to flux tubes not anymore parallel to each other. The flux could diverge to a larger volume in this segment. Second possibility is that the increase of Planck constant increases the length of segment and at the same time divides the flux into sub-fluxes. Dipole field flux tube would give long flux tubes and split dipole shorter flux tubes connecting the resulting cells together.
    4. Also the chromosome pairs of the resulting intermediate nuclei could be connected to each other by flux tubes to form a connected structure A-B-C-D and reconnection process could divide it to A-B plus C-D (say) and lead to a division of the nucleus producing 4 ordinary daughter nuclei.
  2. In mitosis the initial nucleus corresponds to MMFF and DNA replication leads to pairs of doubled chromosomes but without re-shuffling. One doubled pair from mother and one pair from father the members of doubled chromosomes are connected by a kind of bridge. In the mitosis proper the doubled chromosome pairs are split and two chromosome pairs containing one chromosome from father and mother are formed. After this division leads to two diploid cells similar to the dividing cell.
  3. In fertilization gametes from father and mother fuse together to form a single cell with two pairs of chromosomes from both father and mother. The question is how the two gametes are able to find each other. The reconnection of closed magnetic flux tubes associated with the gametes could lead to a formation of bridges connection the two gametes and a phase transition reducing the value of Planck constant could lead the two gametes near each other and make possible the fusion.
DNA replication is clearly the fundamental process, and the question is whether also this step could be reduced to a reconnection for a pair flux tubes: first would connect the separated DNA strands and second one free nucleotide and its conjugate.
  1. Suppose that there are flux tubes connecting nucleotides of DNA and corresponding nucleotides of the conjugate strand: they could be rather short flux tubes of length shorter than 1 nm in the normal situation but could grow longer when DNA strands separate. This might involve a phase transition increasing temporarily the value of Planck constant assignable to these flux tubes and increasing the length of the segment and of connecting flux tube and therefore the distance of DNA strands.
  2. There are also free DNA nucleotides and their conjugates in the environment which can be used in the replication process as building bricks. If also free nucleotides and their conjugates are connected in a pairwise manner by similar flux tubes and if the value of magnetic flux characterizes a given pair then reconnection could take place for these two kinds of flux tubes and lead to a correct pairing of DNA strand with conjugate nucleotides. Same would happen for the conjugate strand. The reduction of Planck constant would lead to a pair of ordinary DNA double strands.
  3. The details of the dynamics would be determined by other factors but the outcome would be fixed by the nucleotide-conjugate pairing and dependence of the flux on the nucleotide pair. In particular, conservation of magnetic flux would guarantee that the nucleotides can be assigned only with their conjugates.
These arguments suggest that reconnection of magnetic flux tubes, temporary change of the Planck constant, and coding of nucleotide-conjugate pairs by magnetic flux could be key element of meiosis, mitosis, and reshuffling of chromosomes in meiosis. Also higher level processes - such as cell division and fertilization - could involve reconnection process as a fundamental step. These mechanisms would appear in several length scales corresponding to DNA, nucleus, and cell length scale. In an approach based on mere chemistry, this must be assumed as a result of reaction kinetics.

For background see also the chapter Quantum Mind, Magnetic Body, and Biological Body.

DNA, speech, music, and ordinary sound

Peter Gariaev's group has made rather dramatic claims about DNA during years. The reported findings have served as inspiration in the development of TGD based view about living matter (see this, this, this, this and this).

  1. The group has proposed that the statistical distributions of nucleotides and codons in the intronic portion of DNA resemble the distribution of letters and words in the natural languages. For instance, it is proposed that Zipf law applying to natural languages applies to the distributions of codons in the intronic portion of DNA. One can study the popularity of the words in natural languages and order them against their popularity. Zipf law states that the integer characterizing popularity is in constant proportion to the number of times it appears in given long enough text.
  2. It has been also claimed that DNA can be reprogrammed using modulated laser light or even radio waves. I understand that reprogramming means a modified gene expression. Gariaev's group indeed proposes that the meaning of the third nucleotide (having a rather low significance in the DNA-aminoacid correspondence) in the genetic codon depends on the context giving rise to a context dependent translation to amino-acids. This is certainly a well-known fact for certain variants of the genetic code. This context dependence might make possible the re-programming. The notion of dark DNA allows to consider much more radical possibility based on the transcription of dark DNA to mRNA followed by translation to aminoacds. This could effectively replaced genes with new ones.
  3. Also the modulation of the laser light by speech is claimed to have the re-programming effect. The broad band em wave spectrum resulting in the scattering of red laser light on DNA is reported to have rather dramatic biological effects. The long wave length part of this spectrum can be recorded and transformed to sound waves and these sound waves are claimed to have the same biological effects as the light. The proposal is that acoustic solitons propagating along DNA represent this effect on DNA.
I do not have the competence to make statements about the plausibility of these claims. TGD view about quantum biology makes also rather strong claims. The natural question is however whether a justification for the claims of Gariaev and collaborators could be found in TGD framework? In particular, can one say about possible effects of sound on DNA. One intriguing fact about sound perception is that music and speech have meaning whereas generic sounds to not. Could one say something interesting about how this meaning is generated at the level of DNA?

Basic picture

Before continuing it is good to restate the basic TGD inspired ideas about the generation of meaning.

  1. The generation of the negentropic entanglement is the correlate for the experience of the meaning. In the model inspired by Becker's findings discussed in the earlier posting, the generation of negentropic entanglement involves a generation of supra currents along flux tubes moving in the electric field parallel to them. This is a critical phenomenon taking place when the voltage along the flux tube is near critical value. The generation of nerve pulse near critical value of the resting potential is one example of this criticality. Becker's direct currents involved with the healing of wounds is another example.

    The flow of the supra current gives rise to the acceleration of charges along the flux tubes and generation of Cooper pairs or even many-electrons systems at smaller space-time sheets in negentropically entangled state and carrying metabolic energy quantum as zero point kinetic energy. The period of negentropic entanglement gives rise to a conscious experience to which one can assign various attributes such as understanding, attention, and so on. Negentropic entanglement would measure the information contained by a rule having as instances the state pairs in the quantum superposition defining the entangled state. When the period of negentropic entanglement ceases, the metabolic energy is liberated.

  2. Remote activation of DNA by analogs of laser beams is another essential piece of TGD inspired quantum biology (see this). In the proposed addressing mechanism a collection of frequencies serves as a password activating intronic portions of DNA. This would take place via a resonance for the proposed interaction between photons and dark supra currents flowing along magnetic flux tubes and perhaps also along DNA strands or flux tubes parallel to them. The superposition of electric fields of photons (massless extremals) with the electric fields parallel to flux tubes (so that massless extremals serving as correlates for laser beams would traverse the flux tube in orthogonal direction).
  3. The flux tubes, and more generally flux sheets labelled by the value of Planck constant, and along which the radiation arrives would be transversal to DNA and contain DNA strands. This kind of flux tubes and sheets also define the connections to the magnetic body, and form parts of it. A given flux sheet would naturally select the portion of DNA, which is activated by the radiation: it could be a portion of intronic part of DNA activating in turn a gene. These flux tubes and sheets could be connected to the lipids of nuclear and cell membranes - also cell membranes of other cells - as assumed in the model of DNA as topological quantum computer. The sheets could also give rise to a hierarchy of genomes - besides genome one would have super-genome in which genomes are organelles are integrated by flux sheets to a large coherently expressed structure containing individual genomes like page of a book contains lines of text. These pages would be in turn organized to a book - hyper-genome as I called it. One could have also libraries, etc... There would fractal flux quanta inside flux quanta structure.

Phonons and photons In TGD Universe

Consider next phonons and their coupling to photons in TGD Universe.

  1. Sound waves could quite well transform to electromagnetic radiation since living matter is piezo-crystal transforming sound to radiation and vice versa. Microwave hearing represents an example of this kind transformation. This would require that photons of given energy and varying value of Planck constant couple to phonons with the same energy, Planck constant, and frequency.
  2. Whether one can assign to phonons a non-standard value of Planck constant is not quite clear, but there seems to be no reason preventing this. If so, even photons of audible sounds would have energies above thermal threshold and have direct quantal effects on living matter if they have same Planck constant as the photons with same frequency.
  3. Acoustic phonons represent longitudinal waves and this would require longitudinal photons. In Maxwell's electrodynamics they are not possible but in TGD framework photon is predicted to have a small mass and also longitudinal photons are possible.
  4. For general condensed matter systems one can have also optical phonons for which the polarization is orthogonal to the wave vector and these could couple to ordinary photons. The motion of the charged particles in the electromagnetic field of massless extremal (topological light ray) would be a situation in which phonons and photons accompany each other. This would make possible the piezo-electric mechanism.
Under these assumptions the collections of audible frequencies could also represent passwords activating the intronic portion of the genome and lead to gene expression or some other activities. If one believes on the hypothesis that DNA acts like topological quantum computer based on the braid strand connections between nucleotides in the intronic portion of DNA with the lipids of the nuclear and/or cell membranes, also topological quantum computation type processes could be activated by the collections of sound frequencies (see this).

What distinguishes speech and music from sounds without meaning?

Speech and music ares very special form of sound in that they have direct meaning. The more one thinks about these facts, the more non-trivial they look. For music - say singing - the frequency of the carrier wave is piecewise constant whereas for speech it remains constant and the amplitude modulation is important. In fact, by slowing down the recorded speech, one gets the impression that carrier frequency is actually modulated like in chirp (frequency goes down and covers a range of frequencies). What is the mechanism giving to speech and music its meaning and in this manner distinguishes them from other sounds?

Besides the frequency also phase is important for both speech and music experience. Speech and reverse speech sound quite different the intensity in frequency space is same. Therefore the relative phases associated with the Fourier coefficients of various frequencies must be important. For music simple rational multiples of the fundamental define the scale. Could it be that also the frequencies relevant to the comprehension of speech correspond to these rational multiples?

Suppose that one indeed believes on the proposed vision based on the fundamental role of negentropic entanglement in generation of meaning and takes seriously the proposed mechanisms for generating it. Can one understand why music and speech differ from general sounds and what distinguishes between them?

  1. With these assumptions suitable collections of frequencies sound wave would indee activates the intronic portion of DNA by generating negentropic entanglement. Also other dark flux tubes than those assignable to DNA are involved. For instance, hair cells responsible for hearing of sounds around particular frequencies could involved flux tubes and utilize similar mechanism. Allowing only hair cells would define the conservative option. On the other hand, one could well claim that what happens in ear has nothing to do with the understanding of the speech and music, it could take place only at the level of neuronal nuclei.
  2. Could the direct interaction of sound waves with magnetic flux tubes generate the experiences of speech and music? In other words, assign meaning to sounds? The criterion for sound to have an interpretation as speech or music would be that it contains the resonance frequencies needed to activate the DNA, or more generally generate dark super currents generating Cooper pairs in this manner loading metabolic energy storages. This would apply to both speech and musical sounds.
  3. The pitch of the speech and musical sound can vary. We are aware of the key of the music piece and of modulations of the key and remember the starting key, and it is highly satisfactory to make a return to "home" defined by the original key. This would imply that the overall scale of the collection of frequencies can be varied and that the pitch of the speech defines a natural expectation value of this scale. For persons possessing so called absolute ear this scaling symmetry would be broken in a well-defined sense.
  4. Musical scales involve frequencies coming as rational multiples of the basic frequency. Octaves - power of two multiples- of the frequency can be said to be equivalent as far musical experience is considered. One might understand the special role of rational multiples of the basic frequency if the Fourier components have same phase periodically so that the experience is invariant under discrete time translations. This requires commensurable frequencies expressible as rational multiples of the same fundamental frequency. The preferred role of p-adic primes comings as powers of two could relate to the octave phenomenon.
  5. Are the relative phases of different Fourier components important for music experience? If one requires a periodical occurrence of maximal possible intensity (maximal constructive interference) then the relative phases must vanish at the values of time for maximal possible intensity. What seems essential that the presence of commensurate frequencies gives rise to time translation invariant sensation whereas speech consists of pulses.

Are speech and music quantum duals like position and momentum?

Frequencies are crucial for music experience. In the case of of speech the relative phases are very important as the example of reverse speech demonstrates. How a given phoneme is heard is determined to high degree by the frequency spectrum in the beginning of the phoneme (this distinguishes between consonants). Vowels are nearer to notes in vocalization. Speech consists of pulses and destructive interference between different frequencies is required to generate pulses and different pulse shapes so that phase information is important. At least the harmonics of the basic rational multiples of the fundamental are necessary for speech.

One can criticize the previous discussion in that it has been completely classical. Phase and frequency are in wave mechanics canonically conjugate variables analogous to position and momentum. Is it really possible to understand the difference between music and speech purely classically by assuming that one can assign to sound waves both frequencies and phases simultaneously - just like one assigns to a particle sharp values of both momentum and position? Or should one use either representation either in terms numbers of phonons in different modes labelled by frequencies or as coherent states of phonons with ill defined phonon numbers but well defined amplitudes? Could the coherent states serve as the analogs of classical sound waves. Speech would be as near as possible to classical sound and music would be quantal. Of course, there is a large variety of alternative choices of basis states between these two extremes as a specialist in quantum optics could tell.

Suppose that this picture is more or less correct. What could be the minimal scenario allowing to understand the differences between speech and music?

  1. Only a subset of frequencies could activate DNA (or if one wants to be conservative, the hair cells) also in the case of speech. One could still pick up important frequencies for which the ratios are simples rational numbers as in the case of musical scale plus their harmonics If this assumption is correct, then speech from which all frequencies except for the harmonics of the simple rational multiples of the fundamental are removed, should be still be comprehensible as speech. The pitch of the speech would determine a good candidate for the fundamental frequency.
  2. The harmonics of frequencies activating DNA would be crucial for speech. Harmonics are present also in music and their distribution allows to distinguish between different instruments and persons. The deviation of musical notes from ideal Fock states would correspond to this.
  3. The naive guess is that the simple rational multiples of fundamental and the possibility of having their harmonics could be reflected in the structure of intronic portions of DNA as repetitive structures of various sizes. This cannot be the case since the wavelengths of ordinary photons would be so small that the energies would be in keV range. Neither is this expected to be the case. It is magnetic flux tubes and sheets traversing the DNA which carry the radiation and the natural lengths assignable to these flux quanta should correspond to the wave lengths. The larger, the flux quantum, the lower the frequency and the larger the value of Planck constant. Harmonics of the fundamental would appear for given flux tube length naturally.

    The DNA strands and flux tubes and sheets form a kind of electromagnetic music instrument with flux quanta taking the role of guitar strings and DNA strands and other structures such as lipids and possible other molecules to which flux tubes get attached taking the role of frets in guitar. This analogy suggests that for wave lengths measured in micrometers the basic frequencies correspond to the distances between "frets" defined by cell and nuclear membranes in the tissue in the scale of organism. This would relate the spectrum of resonance frequencies to the spectrum of distances between DNAs in the tissue.

    For wavelengths corresponding to very large values of Planck constant giving rise to frequencies in VLF and ELF range and corresponding also to audible frequencies, the preferred wave lengths would correspond to lengths of flux quanta in Earth size scale. One should understand whether the quantization of these lengths in simple rational ratios could take place for the preferred extremals.

  4. Could the pulse shape associated with massless extremals (MEs, topological light rays) allow to distinguish classically between speech and music at the level of space-time correlates? Linear superposition of Fourier components in the direction of ME is possible and this allows to speak about pulse shape. It allows also the notions of coherent state and Fock state for given direction of wave vector. Essential would be the restriction of the superposition of fields in single direction of propagation to be distinguished from the superposition of the effects of fields associated with different space-time sheets on multiply topologically condensed particle. Maybe this would allow to make testable predictions.

This text can be found at my homepage from an article with title Quantum Model for the Direct Currents of Becker. See also the chapter Quantum Mind, Magnetic Body, and Biological Body.

A model for remote gene expression

If one accepts the notion of magnetic body as intentional agent, the basic challenge is to understand how magnetic body realizes its intents as remote mental interactions on biological body. This model must of course apply also to the more conventional remote mental interactions such as remote realization of intent.

The hypothesis is that electromagnetic and possibly also other massless classical fields assignable to so called massless extremals are in a key role. Also cyclotron frequencies characterizing magnetic bodies play a key role. The vision is that magnetic flux sheets traverse many-sheeted DNA in various scales giving rise to a hierarchy of genomes and coherent gene expression in scales of cell, organelles, organism, and even population, and species. Hierarchy of Planck constants is in an essential role in realizing this hierarchy in terms of photons with energies above the thermal energy at physiological temperature and having spectrum of wavelengths coming as multiples λ=nλ0, n=hbar/hbar0.

The findings of Benveniste and followers relating to water memory and homeopathy, the recent work of group led by HIV Nobelist Luc Montagnier coupling the findings with genetics and suggesting a new nanoscale realization of genetic code (see this, the work of the group of Popp with biophotons identified as decay produces of large hbar photons with visible energies (in particular dark EEG photons), and the work of Peter Gariaev and collaborators supporting remote gene expression and replication discussed here suggest that electromagnetic radiation is indeed involved. In the case of water memory and homeopathy the spectrum of cyclotron frequencies for the chemical invader characterizes it and induces immune response trying to eliminate it.

I have also proposed a model for how genes coding for proteins eliminating the invader could be generated almost automatically: the model is based on the predicted realization of vertebrate genetic code in terms of dark proton states (see this). DNA would like an animal which sniffs the invaders magnetic body and automatically reacts to the smell.

The discussions with Lian Sidorov and people who have realized that new era is beginning in biology have served as a driving force in the attempts to formulate in more detail TGD inspired view about how remote mental interactions - which are basic element of the model in TGD framework - might be realized. As a matter fact, I have added to my homepage a new book summarizing briefly the recent view about quantum TGD and its applications to quantum consciousness, quantum biology, to quantum neuroscience, and to remote mental interactions with some proposals for possible tests (see this) .

To start with, suppose that in the case of biological target realization of intent in the simplest situation reduces to expression of genes. This is of course a strong limitation to the type of remote mental interactions. The challenge is to develop a model for remote realization of genetic activities like replication, and transcription. For some time ago I proposed a model with Peter Gariaev but it was still too clumsy since it required too much of information transfer between the genomes of sender and receiver. Much simpler model involving only sending of simple non-targeted commands initiating genetic programs suggests itself. The following proposal tries to achieve this and involves three basic ideas.

  1. The idea of password and addressing is familiar from ordinary computers. Collection of frequencies as password/address allows to reach tuned targets without specific targeting of the command. This is a dramatic improvement to the previous model.
  2. Password and fractal addressing realized in terms of frequencies coupling resonantly (already in the original model: I did not however realize the implications of resonant coupling!) and the hierarchy of Planck constants to realize the hierachical addressing. I have discussed analogous addressing based on information molecules and their receptors at the biochemical level to realize magnetic flux tube connections between sender and target inside organism (hormonal action would be very analogous to what I am proposing here).
  3. Becker's DC currents as supra currents flowing along DNA and activated optimally when the incoming laser light has polarization parallel to DNA's local direction, activation of super currents would mean activation of the gene. This is second new element to the original model. The basic prediction is that the biological activity is stimulated only at the second half of the cycle of the radiation. For low frequencies this could well be testable.
In the following I discuss this with more details.

The analogy with ordinary computer

Consider first the analog of remote mental interactions for ordinary computer. Computer sends a password to the other computer and after that it can use it to run programs of the other computer. Whisling to a dog is another example: extremely simple command activates arbitrary complex programs.

In the recent case electromagnetic radiation with a given frequency coupling resonantly like radio signal to a tuned radio receiver would be the simplest command activating the target. There would no need to specify the direction or distance of the target precisely since essentially mass communications would be in question: intent would be enough. Password could consist of several frequencies which must be received simultaneously by the target before it would activate and tunes to receive more frequencies representing simple commands - perhaps acting on the intronic portion of DNA and activating the genome to remote gene expression or something else such as activating DNAs of other cells by sending similar em addresses!

I have discussed topological quantum computer programs based on braiding could look like in this framework. Also here addressing but now realized as information molecule-receptor pair would play a key role.

Hierarchy of Planck constants and hierarchical addressing

Fractal hierarchy of frequencies (in Peter's experiment laser light induced generation of radiation at frequencies down to about 10 kHz) would allow to transform passwording to addressing. Very naively, the longest wavelengths: about 104 meters would reach the tuned receivers in nearly the same phase in a region of this size. One would have some subregions in tune. The shorter wavelengths would allow to pinpoint the tuned receivers inside each of these subregions and so on. This would be fractal addressing with most significant bits correspond to the longest wavelengths. Only those receivers which would be tuned to all frequencies would start to express the gene in the case of AND logic. Of course, also other Boolean functions of tuned-not tuned bits can be considered.

A good guess is that all photons correspond to same energy of visible photon and only Planck constant varies. For ordinary value of Planck constant one would have a photon with wavelength of order size scale of single cell, and the frequencies in this range would select single gene in the genome ofa particular kind of cell, say neuron within particular region of brain.

In Peter Gariaev's experiment involving 2 eV incoming red laser light the outgoing photons would have same energy but larger Planck constant so that also wavelengths would be longer and range down to at least 3× 104 meters corresponding to radiofrequency scale of 10 kHz. What is interesting that 2 eV is 4 times the nominal value of the metabolic energy quantum of .5 eV identifiable as zero point kinetic energy of electron or proton for the p-adic length scale L(151) corresponding to cell membrane thickness and Gaussian Mersenne M151= (1+i)151-1. Could it be that 2 eV could be preferred photon energy or is its use simply due to the unavailability of continuous frequency spectrum for laser light. And why the laser light induces the generation of the command inducing remote gene expression?

This picture conforms with Peter's experiment and with the reports of Benveniste and followers about the possibility of representing homeopathic remedy using very low frequency spectrum - presumably cyclotron frequencies - assignable to remedy. These frequencies would be addresses for genes activating genes transcribing building bricks of biomolecules of immune response eliminating the substance from the organism. The proposal could be seen as a generalization of Benveniste's observation and realization of wave DNA proposal.

DNA supra currents and activation of genes by Becker mechanism

The third bulding brick of the model would be quantum model for Becker currents as supra currents or quantal DC currents: also this element is new. Assume - in accordance with the general vision - that these supra currents can flow also along the strands of many-sheeted DNA (flux sheets associated with the strand, entire hierarchy labelled by the values of hbar). Assume also that the interaction of polarized photons addressing for genes with DNA is such that the electric fields of DNA flux tube and "massless extremal" representing laser beam superpose and charges (electrons) experience the superposition of field already present and the field of ME. If the net electric field is near criticality originally (think as analog neuronal membrane) and becomes over-critical, quantal Becker current starts to flow and the machinery responsible for gene activation is activated.

This means also the activation of metabolic machinery since the acceleration of electrons in the electric field gives them energy making possible a transfer to smaller space-time sheets where they form Cooper pair like states with negentropic entanglement. Metabolic energy corresponds to zero point kinetic energy and negentropic entanglement is relevant from the point of view of consciousness: in the case of healing understood as a regeneration of negentropic resources this aspect is especially important. This mechanism generates high energy phosphate bonds in ATP and the decay ATP → ADP liberates the metabolic energy and destroys the negentropic entanglement so that the second law in generalized form allowing local generation of genuine negentropy (but assigned to information carried by entanglement defining a quantum rule) wins after all.

This text can be found at my homepage from an article with title Quantum Model for the Direct Currents of Becker. See also the chapter Quantum Mind, Magnetic Body, and Biological Body.

Negentropic entanglement, metabolism, and acupuncture

It is interesting to try to develop a detailed model of acupuncture in TGD framework. Consider following assumptions.

  1. ATP (metabolic energy) - negentropic entanglement connection is true and formation of high energy phosphate bond generates somehow negentropic entanglement.
  2. Pain means loss of negentropic entanglement and healing at the fundamental level - in particular pain relief - involves regeneration of negentropic entanglement.
  3. Fundamental metabolic energy currencies correspond to zero point kinetic energies E0≈ π2 /2mL2 at space-time sheets labelled by p-adic primes determining their size scale L=(hbar/hbar0)Lp. Therefore the generation of metabolic energy storages means at fundamental level driving charged particles to smaller space-time sheets (the smaller the space-time sheet, the higher the zero point kinetic energy). The driving force is basically electric force so that electric fields are needed.
  4. Metabolic energy storage - generation of ATP - means generation of negentropic entanglement. Assume that this entanglement is assignable to the smaller space-time sheet.
    1. The simplest possibility is that the electrons at this space-time sheet form Cooper pairs and negentropic entanglement is between them. The decay of Cooper pairs would make ATP unstable and the decay to ADP would mean use of metabolic energy quantum and also a loss of negentropic entanglement. This conforms with the generalized form of the second law allowing generation of genuine negentropy but predicting that it does not last for ever. The lifetime of ATP - about 40 minutes - gives an estimate for the life time of the electronic Cooper pairs. The negative charge of ATP would be due to the electronic Cooper pairs.
    2. A simple estimate for the order of magnitude of Kähler magnetic energy of the flux tube assuming far from vacuum extremal and quantization of the Kähler magnetic flux (BKS= n× hbar for constant magnetic field in a flux tube of cross section S) shows that the Kähler magnetic energy is much higher than zero point kinetic energy of electron pair. Especially so for large values of hbar since magnetic energy behaves as EB∝ hbar3L0/S by the proportionalities B∝ hbar B0 and L= hbar L0. In this case the magnetic flux tube should be pre-existing and correspond to acupuncture meridian emerging from the node.
    3. For near vacuum extremals the flux tube could be generated in the process. The use of the metabolic energy would mean dropping of electrons to larger space-time sheet and possibly even the disappearence of the magnetic flux tube in this case. This option does not look too plausible however.
  5. The generation of metabolic energy storages (ATP) requires energy feed. In the formation of ATP from ADP the acceleration of protons and electrons in the electric of cell membrane plays a key role. The electric energy gained in the process is transformed to metabolic energy and could means the formation of a flux tube carrying the Cooper pair. Assume that a similar process occurs also in much longer length scales for weaker electric fields scaling like 1/hbar2 for given p-adic prime (and 1/Lp2 as function of p-adic length scale) so that electric potential between the ends of the flux tube remains the same. Assume that quantum direct currents are in question. If so, the function of the direct currents of Becker can be identified as a manner to generate metabolic energy and negentropic entanglement. This is natural since healing is involved.

Armed with these assumptions one can try to understand why metal needles are essential for acupuncture.

  1. The basic idea is that the presence of the needle makes possible the generation of direct quantal currents accelerating electrons in electric field which is sum of pre-existing field and the field possibly generated by the needle. After gaining some minimum energy electrons can jump to a smaller space-time sheet and give rise to negentropically entangled Cooper pairs.
  2. The needle could serve as a mere donor of electrons giving rise to a quantal direct current in turn leading to the generation of metabolic energy and negentropic entanglement.
  3. Second possibility is that the needle also generates a strong additional contribution to the existing electric field.
    1. Basic wisdom from from electrodynamics is that any sharp conducting charged object - such as metal needle- tends to create a strong electric field around the tip. This is the reason for why one should not go below a tree during thunder storm. Suppose that acupuncture needle becomes charged when touching the skin. One could test this assumption by replacing acupuncture needles with non-conducting material to see whether the healing effect is lost. One could also test whether the metal need is in non-vanishing potential with respect to Earth or measure directly the electric field in the vicinity of the needle tip.

    2. If the needle generates negative charge, an opposite charge must be generated somewhere else and electric field lines connecting the needle and its end to it. These field lines could be along magnetic flux tubes carrying also longitudinal electric field. The natural assumption is that the flux tubes correspond to meridians emanating from the acupuncture node to which needle is sticked to. Another possibility is that needle remains neutral as total but develops a density of surface charge via polarization in existing electric field. Also in this case an additional electric field is generated and should be analogous to that of a a thin electric dipole in external electric field.

    3. Under these assumptions quantum currents can flow along the meridians and load the metabolic batteries provided the strength of the generated field is high enough. The situation could resemble quite closely to that for the generation of nerve pulse. There would be pre-existing electric field along flux tuve not too far from critical for the generation of quantal direct current. The field generated by the needle would induce depolarization so that quantal direct current of some minimal strength could flow between the ends of the flux tube with acceleration giving providing electrons with energy making possible transfer to the smaller space-time sheet.

Nanna Goldman et al have provided empirical evidence for the expectation that the healing effect of the acupuncture involves metabolism (see the popular article in Sciencedaily).

The group has found that adenosine is essential for the pain killing effects of acupuncture. For mice with a normal adenosine level acupuncture reduced dis-comfort by two-thirds. In special "adenosine receptor knock-out mice" acupuncture had no effect. When adenosine was turned on in the tissues, the discomfort was reduced even in the absence of acupuncture. During and after an acupuncture treatment, the level of adenosin in tissues near the needles was 24 times higher than before the treatment. In the abstract of the article it is stated that it is known for long time that acupuncture generates signals which induce brain to generate natural pain killing endorphins but that also adenosine acts as a natural pain killer.

Adenosine is the basic building block of AXP, X=M,D,T (adenosin-X-phosphate, X=mono,di,tri). Therefore the findings suggest that the electric fields generated or amplified by the presence of acupuncture needles loads metabolic batteries by generating ATP. Adenosine could be partially generated as decay products of AXPs. Tissue itself could increase adenosine concentration to make possible its transformation to AXP utilizing electric field energy. From the popular article one cannot conclude whether the authors propose a connection with metabolism. The results are consistent with the assumption that the AXPs generated from adenosin accompany negentropic entanglement. This can occur in the scale of entire body and meridians could also make possible direct signalling with brain.

This text can be found at my homepage from an article with title Quantum Model for the Direct Currents of Becker. See also the chapter Quantum Mind, Magnetic Body, and Biological Body.

New book about consciousness, biology, and remote mental interactions

The latest TGD inspired articles related to quantum biology, quantum mind, and remote mental interactions were published in JNLRMI around 2003. Several new ideas related to basic TGD, TGD inspired quantum biology and theory of consciousness have emerged during the subsequent 8 years: for a short summary about the development of ideas see the article Evolution of TGD.

My original intention was to write just single article trying to give a summary about the progress of quantum TGD first and after that I will discuss the implications for quantum TGD based view about biology, consciousness and remote mental interactions and similar anomalies.

As usually happens, also now I realized that I am not able to write this kind of short article. The amount of topics has grown during years quite large and is scattered around to several books and gradually I began to feel desperate. I simply could not decie what should I take and what should I leave. Finally I drifted to the predictable outcome: I decided to wrote several articles with topic restricted to the recent state of quantum TGD itself, TGD inspired views about consciousness, and some basic asects of biology, neuroscience, and remote mental interactions. The decision was made easy after recalling that I had written a series of three articles to the journal Journal of Consciousness Explorationa and Research founded by Huping Hu. It was rather easy to add the developments that had happened during last three years to these articles and write a new article about remote mental interactions. The final step was the realization that it is natural to organize the article in a form of book(let).

There are other arguments in defence of book format. For a long time the basic challenge of TGD has been to give a precise meaning for heuristic ideas and loosely formulated concepts. Why this kind of approach requiring scanning through of all what one has written is so fruitful is that it forces to realize that definitions which have seemed obvious, are not at all obvious after all. At this stage when so little is known, internal consistency is an extremely valuable constraint on free imagination. Although reprocessing all this topic requires patience, it helps so identify internal inconsistencies. There has been quite a flux of ideas during last years and it is also very useful to allow them to interact.

Therefore the outcome was six articles trasnformed into chapters of a book. The reader should not be scared. I have tried to write these chapters so that one could read them in any order and there are links to the material at my homepage.

To the index page