Topological Geometrodynamics: Basic Visions

In this chapter I will discuss three basic visions about quantum Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD). It is somewhat matter of taste which idea one should call a vision and the selection of these three in a special role is what I feel natural just now.

  1. The first vision is generalization of Einstein's geometrization program based on the idea that the Kähler geometry of the world of classical worlds (WCW) with physical states identified as classical spinor fields on this space would provide the ultimate formulation of physics.

  2. Second vision is number theoretical and involves three threads. The first thread relies on the idea that it should be possible to fuse real number based physics and physics associated with various p-adic number fields to single coherent whole by a proper generalization of number concept. Second thread is based on the hypothesis that classical number fields could allow to understand the fundamental symmetries of physics and and imply quantum TGD from purely number theoretical premises with associativity defining the fundamental dynamical principle both classically and quantum mechanically. The third threadrelies on the notion of infinite primes whose construction has amazing structural similarities with second quantization of super-symmetric quantum field theories. In particular, the hierarchy of infinite primes and integers allows to generalize the notion of numbers so that given real number has infinitely rich number theoretic anatomy based on the existence of infinite number of real units.

  3. The third vision is based on TGD inspired theory of consciousness, which can be regarded as an extension of quantum measurement theory to a theory of consciousness raising observer from an outsider to a key actor of quantum physics.

The basic aspects of quantum classical correspondence are discussed. Strong form of General Coordinate Invariance implies strong form of holography and effective 2-dimensionality. Weak form of electric magnetic duality and simple general condition on preferred extremals of Kähler action imply that TGD indeed reduces to almost topological QFT defined by Chern-Simons terms located at space-like at ends of CDs and light-like 3-surfaces defined by the orbits of partonic 2-surfaces defining wormhole throats at which the signature of induced metric changes. A further reduction of action to sum of areas of minimal surfaces is conjectured on basis of effective 2-dimensionality. Feynman diagrams have direct interpretation in terms of space-time topology and ZEO leads to a dramatic simplification of the Feynman diagrammatics and suggest a close connection with twistorial diagrams. Induced gauge field concept makes impossible the superposition of classical fields in TGD Universe. This is a grave objection circumvented by simple observation: only the superposition of their effects is observed and many-sheeted space-time implies it.

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Quantum Mind in TGD Universe

The basic difficulties and challenges of Quantum Mind program are analyzed. The conclusion is that the recent form of quantum theory is not enough to overcome the challenges posed by the philosophical problems of quantum physics and quantum mind theories, and the puzzles of quantum biology and quantum neuroscience. Certain anomalies of recent day biology giving hints about how quantum theory should be generalized serve as an introduction to the summary of the aspects of quantum TGD especially relevant to the notion of Quantum Mind. These include the notions of many-sheeted space-time and field (magnetic) body, zero energy ontology, the identification dark matter as a hierarchy of phases with large value of Planck constant, and p-adic physics proposed to define physical correlates for cognition and intentionality.

Especially relevant is the number theoretic generalization of Shannon entropy: this entropy is well defined for rational or even algebraic entanglement probabilities and its minimum as a function of the prime defining p-adic norm appearing in the definition of the entropy is negative. Therefore the notion of negentropic entanglement makes sense in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds and is negative: this motivates the proposal that living matter resides in this intersection.

TGD inspired theory of consciousness is introduced as a generalization of quantum measurement theory. The notions of quantum jump and self defining the generalization of the notion of observer are introduced and it is argued that the notion of self reduces to that for quantum jump. Negentropy Maximization Principle reproduces standard quantum measurement theory for ordinary entanglement but respects negentropic entanglement so that the outcome of state function reduction is not random for negentropic entanglement. The new view about the relationship of experienced time and geometric time combined with zero energy ontology is claimed to solve the basic philosophical difficulties of quantum measurement theory and consciousness theory. The identification of the quantum correlates of sensory qualia and Boolean cognition, emotions, cognition and intentionality and self-referentiality of consciousness is discussed.

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Life and Death and Consciousness

Life and death belong to the greatest mysteries of science. The development of quantum theories of consciousness has made possible to say something non-trivial also about life and death. In this article I describe TGD inspired theory of consciousness and the view that it provides about life and death. There are several notions which are new from the point of view of standard physics. From the point of view of TGD inspired theory of consciousness the most important ones are Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO), Causal Diamond (CD), Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP). One can say that self as conscious entity is a sequence of repeated state function reductions at the same boundary of CD and not affecting or states at it - Zeno effect- and that self dies as the first reduction to the opposite boundary of CD is forced by NMP and means reincarnation of self as time-reversed self.

From the point of view of TGD inspired quantum biology the identification of dark matter has $h_{eff}/h=n$ phases of ordinary matter having non-standard value of Planck constant is central: these phases allow to understand living matter as macroscopically quantum coherent phases. Second key notion is that of field body, in particular magnetic body. This is implied by TGD view about space-time as 4-D surface of certain 8-D space-time and means that physical systems have besides ordinary identify also field identity so that one can talk about magnetic body (MB). MB takes the role of intentional agent using biological body as motor instrument and sensory receptor: this for instance explains EEG as a communications and control tool.

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Comparison of TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness with Some Other Theories of Consciousness

This work has been inspired by two books. The first book "On intelligence" is by Jeff Hawkins. The second book "Consciousness: the science of subjectivity" is by Antti Revonsuo.

Jeff Hawkins has developed a highly interesting and inspiring vision about neo-cortex, one of the few serious attempts to build a unified view about what brain does and how it does it. Since key ideas of Hawkins have quantum analogs in TGD framework, there is high motivation for developing a quantum variant of this vision. The vision of Hawkins is very general in the sense that all parts of neo-cortex would run the same fundamental algorithm, which is essentially checking whether the sensory input can be interpreted in terms of standard mental images stored as memories. This process occurs at several abstraction levels and involve massive feedback. If it succeeds at all these levels the sensory input is fully understood.

TGD suggests a generalization of this process. Quantum jump defining moment of consciousness would be the fundamental algorithm realized in all scales defining an abstraction hierarchy. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) would be the variational principle driving this process and in optimal case lead to an experience of understanding at all levels of the scale hierarchy realized in terms of generation of negentropic entanglement. The analogy of NMP with second law suggests strongly thermodynamical analogy and p-adic thermodynamics used in particle mass calculations might be also seen as effective thermodynamics assignable to NMP.

In the following I will first discuss the ideas of Hawkins and then summarize some relevant aspects of quantum TGD and TGD inspired theory of consciousness briefly in the hope that this could make representation comprehensible for the reader having no background in TGD (I hope I have achieved this). The representation involves some new elements: reduction of the old idea about motor action as time reversal of sensory perception to the anatomy of quantum jump in zero energy ontology (ZEO); interaction free measurement for photons and photons as a non-destructive reading mechanism of memories and future plans (time reversed memories) represented 4-dimensionally as negentropically entangled states approximately invariant under quantum jumps (this resolves a basic objection against identifying quantum jump as moment of consciousness) leading to the identification of analogs of imagination and internal speech as fundamental elements of cognition; and a more detailed quantum model for association and abstraction processes.

I will also compare various theories and philosophies of consciousness with TGD approach following the beautifully organized representation of Revonsuo. Also anomalies of consciousness are briefly discussed. My hope is that this comparison would make explicit that TGD based ontology of consciousness indeed circumvents the difficulties against monistic and dualistic approaches and also survives the basic objections that I have been able to invent hitherto.

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TGD Inspired Comments about Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness

Integrated Information Theory (IIT) is a theory of consciousness originally proposed by Giulio Tononi. The basic goal of IIT is to abstract from neuroscience axioms about consciousness hoped to provide constraints on physical models. IIT relies strongly on information theory. The basic problem is that the very definition of information is not possible without introducing conscious observer so that circularity cannot be avoided. IIT identifies a collection of few basic concepts and axioms such as the notions of mechanism (computer program is one analog for mechanism), information, integration and maximally integrated information (maximal interdependence of parts of the system), and exclusion. Also the composition of mechanisms as kind of engineering principle of consciousness is assumed and leads to the notion of conceptual structure, which should allow to understand not only cognition but entire conscious experience.

A measure for integrated information (called Φ) assignable to any partition of system to two parts is introduced in terms of relative entropies. Consciousness is identified with a maximally integrated decomposition of the system to two parts (Φ is maximum). The existence of this preferred decomposition of the system to two parts besides computer and program running in it distinguishes IIT from the computational approach to consciousness. Personally I am however afraid that bringing in physics could bring in physicalism and reduce consciousness to an epiphenomenon. Qualia are assigned to the links of network. IIT can be criticized for this assignment as also for the fact that it does not say much about free will nor about the notion of time. Also the principle fixing the dynamics of consciousness is missing unless one interprets mechanisms as such.

In this article IIT is compared to the TGD vision relying on physics and on general vision about consciousness strongly guided by the new physics predicted by TGD. At classical level this new physics involves a new view about space-time and fields (in particular the notion of magnetic body central in TGD inspired quantum biology and quantum neuroscience). At quantum level it involves Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) and the notion of causal diamond (CD) defining 4-D perceptive field of self; p-adic physics as physics of cognition and imagination and the fusion of real and various p-adic physics to adelic physics; strong form of holography (SH) implying that 2-D string world sheets and partonic surfaces serve as "space-time genes"; and the hierarchy of Planck constants making possible macroscopic quantum coherence.

Number theoretic entanglement entropy (EE) makes sense as number theoretic variant of Shannon entropy in the p-adic sectors of the adelic Universe. Number theoretic EE can be negative and corresponds in this case to genuine information: one has negentropic entanglement (NE). TGD inspired theory of consciousness reduces to quantum measurement theory in ZEO. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) serves as the variational principle of consciousness and implies that NE can can only increase - this implies evolution. By SH real and p-adic 4-D systems are algebraic continuations of 2-D systems ("space-time genes") characterized by algebraic extensions of rationals labelling evolutionary levels with increasing algebraic complexity. Real and p-adic sectors have common Hilbert space with coefficients in algebraic extension of rationals so that the state function reduction at this level can be said to induce real and p-adic 4-D reductions as its shadows.

NE in the p-adic sectors stabilizes the entanglement also in real sector (the sum of real (ordinary) and various p-adic negentropies tends to increase) - the randomness of the ordinary state function reduction is tamed by cognition and mind can be said to rule over matter. Quale corresponds in IIT to a link of a network like structure. In TGD quale corresponds to the eigenvalues of observables measured repeatedly as long as corresponding sub-self (mental image, quale) remains conscious.

In ZEO self can be seen as a generalized Zeno effect. What happens in death of a conscious entity (self) can be understood and it accompanies re-incarnation of time reversed self in turn making possible re-incarnation also in the more conventional sense of the word. The death of mental image (sub-self) can be also interpreted as motor action involving signal to geometric past: this in accordance with Libet's findings.

There is much common between IIT and TGD at general structural level but also profound differences. Also TGD predicts restricted pan-psychism. NE is the TGD counterpart for the integrated information. The combinatiorial structure of NE gives rise to quantal complexity. Mechanisms correspond to 4-D self-organization patterns with self-organization interpreted in 4-D sense in ZEO. The decomposition of system to two parts such that this decomposition can give rise to a maximal negentropy gain in state function reduction is also involved but yields two independent selves. Engineering of conscious systems from simpler basic building blocks is predicted. Indeed, TGD predicts infinite self hierarchy with sub-selves identifiable as mental images. Exclusion postulate is not needed in TGD framework. Also network like structures emerge naturally as p-adic systems for which all decompositions are negentropically entangled inducing in turn corresponding real systems.

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Quantum Mind, Magnetic Body, and Biological Body

The chapter is devoted to some applications of TGD inspired view about Quantum Mind to biology. Magnetic body carrying dark matter and forming an onionlike structure with layers characterized by large values of Planck constant is the key concept. Magnetic body is identified as intentional agent using biological body as sensory receptor and motor instrument. EEG is identified as a communication and control tool of the magnetic body and a fractal hierarchy of analogs of EEG is predicted. Living system is identified as a kind of Indra's net with biomolecules representing the nodes of the net and magnetic flux tubes connections between then. The reconnection of magnetic flux tubes and phase transitions changing Planck constant and therefore the lengths of the magnetic flux tubes are identified as basic mechanisms behind DNA replication and analogous processes and also behind the phase transitions associated with the gel phase in cell interior. The braiding of magnetic flux makes possible universal memory representation recording the motions of the basic units connected by flux tubes. Braiding also defines topological quantum computer programs updated continually by the flows of the basic units. The model of DNA as topological quantum computer is discussed as an application.

A vision about quantum metabolism in TGD Universe is proposed. The new element is the idea that the presence of ATP at magnetic flux tube is a necessary prerequisite for negentropic entanglement between its ends. ATP could be seen as a molecule of consciousness in this picture. Also a possible modification of second law to take into account negentropic entanglement is discussed. TGD approach to living matter was strongly motivated by the findings about strange behavior of cell membrane and of cellular water, and gel behavior of cytoplasm. These findings are briefly discussed in TGD framework by bringing in magnetic flux tubes as a new element. Water is in key role in living matter and TGD inspired view about water and its anomalies is discussed.

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Quantum Mind and Neuro Science

The article discusse some applications of TGD inspired view about Quantum Mind to neuroscience. Magnetic body carrying dark matter and forming an onionlike structure with layers characterized by large values of Planck constant is the key concept.

A general model for qualia is introduced. The identification of the correlates of the fundamental qualia as quantum number increments for a subsystem is in a complete analogy with the identification of quantum numbers as characterizers of physical states. A general classification of qualia based on thermodynamical notions is discussed and a mechanism generating sensory qualia is proposed. Also the question whether some qualia could correspond also to those of magnetic body is raised.

The interaction of subsystem S representing self with environment E is assumed to generate a negentropic entanglement between S and environment E. As long as this negentropic entanglement lasts, qualia are experienced. After the state function reduction eliminating this entanglement, there can be only a memory of qualia. There is clearly a resemblance with Orhc OR of Penrose and Hameroff. During negentropic entanglement there is polarization in scale of S⊗ E and S and E carry opposite quantum numbers. After the state function reduction negentropic entanglement and polarization prevail only in the scale S and S has vanishing net quantum numbers. "Quantum number increments Δ Q in quantum jump" therefore correspond to the reduction of charges of subsystem in the state function reduction process. The system is analogous to a capacitor whose size scale is that of S⊗ E during the sensation of quale and that of S after it. In ZEO one can consider states of S at both upper and lower boundaries of CD and assign Δ Q with this time evolution so that quantum classical correspondence is realized.

The capacitor model for sensory receptor based on the idea that sensory qualia are generated in the analog of di-electric breakdown introducing a flow of large number of particles with quantum numbers characterizing the quale. A model for the cell membrane as sensory receptor and as qualia chart with lipids serving as its pixels is developed. Although sensory organs are assumed to define the seats if the fundamental qualia, also neurons would define sensory homunculi not necessarily responsible for sensory mental images at our level of self hierarchy. Cell membrane is assumed to be a quantum critical system taken to mean that it is near to a vacuum extremal of so called Kähler action. This explains large parity breaking in living matter (chiral selection) very difficult to understand in standard model. The model explains the peak frequencies of visible light for photoreceptors and predicts that biophotons and bunches of EEG photons result as decay products of same dark photons with energies mostly in visible range.

The model of nerve pulse relies on the hypothesis that axonal membrane defines a Josephson junction. The ground state of the axon corresponds to a propagating soliton sequence for the phase difference over the membrane mathematically analogous to a sequence of coupled gravitational penduli with a constant phase difference between neighboring penduli. Nerve pulse is generated as one kicks one of the oscillating penduli. The model of nerve pulse explains the generation of EEG. The resonance frequencies of EEG can be understood as sums and differences of the harmonics of cyclotron frequencies of biologically important dark ions and of Josephson frequency.

A model of bio-photons is discussed. The motivation comes from the observations that bio-photons could be interpreted as decay products of large hbar EEG photons resulting in the energy conserving transformation to ordinary photons at visible and UV energies.

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Comments on the recent experiments by the group of Michael Persinger

Michael Persinger's group reports three very interesting experimental findings related to EEG, magnetic fields, photon emissions from brain, and macroscopic quantum coherence. The findings provide also support for the proposal of Hu and Wu that nerve pulse activity could induce spin flips of spin networks assignable to cell membrane. In this article I analyze the experiments from TGD point of view. It turns out that the experiments provide support for several TGD inspired ideas about living matter. Magnetic flux quanta as generators of macroscopic quantum entanglement, dark matter as a hierarchy of macroscopic quantum phases with large effective Planck constant, DNA-cell membrane system as a topological quantum computer with nucleotides and lipids connected by magnetic flux tubes with ends assignable to phosphate containing molecules, and the proposal that "dark" nuclei consisting of dark proton strings could provide a representation of the genetic code. The proposal of Hu and Wu translates to the assumption that lipids of the two layers of the cell membrane are accompanied by dark protons which arrange themselves to dark protonic strings defining a dark analog of DNA double strand.

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Are dark photons behind biophotons?

TGD approach leads to a prediction that biophotons result when dark photons with large value of effective Planck constant and large wavelength transform to ordinary photons with same energy. The collaboration with Lian Sidorov stimulated a more detailed look for what biophotons are. Also the recent progress in understanding the implications of basic vision behind TGD inspired theory of consciousness erved as an additional motivation for a complementary treatment.
  1. The anatomy of quantum jump in zero energy ontology (ZEO) allows to understand basic aspects of sensory and cognitive processing in brain without ever mentioning brain. Sensory perception - motor action cycle with motor action allowing interpretation as time reversed sensory perception reflects directly the fact that state function reductions occur alternately to the two opposite boundaries of causal diamond (which itself or rather, quantum superposition of CDs, changes in the process).
  2. Also the abstraction and de-abstraction processes in various scales which are essential for the neural processing emerge already at the level of quantum jump. The formation of associations is one aspect of abstraction since it combines different manners to experience the same object. Negentropic entanglement of two or more mental images (CDs) gives rise to rules in which superposed n-particle states correspond to instances of the rule. Tensor product formation generating negentropic entanglement between new mental images and earlier ones generates longer sequences of memory mental images and gives rise to negentropy gain generating experience of understanding, recognition, something which has positive emotional coloring. Quantum superposition of perceptively equivalent zero energy states in given resolution gives rise to averaging. Increasing the abstraction level means poorer resolution so that the insignificant details are not perceived.
  3. Various memory representations should be approximately invariant under the sequence of quantum jumps. Negentropic entanglement gives rise to this kind of stabilization. The assumption that self model is a negentropically entangled system which does not change in state function reduction, leads to a problem. If the conscious information about this kind of subself corresponds to change of negentropy in quantum jump, it seems impossible to get this information. Quite generally, if moment of consciousness corresponds to quantum jump and thus change, how it is possible to carry conscious information about quantum state? Interaction free measurement however allows to circumvent the problem: non-destructive reading of memories and future plans becomes possible in arbitrary good approximation. This memory reading mechanism can be formulated for both photons and photons and these two reading mechanisms could correspond to visual memories as imagination and auditory memories as internal speech. Therefore dark photons decaying to biophotons could be crucial element of imagination and the notion bio-phonon could also make sense and even follow as a prediction. This would also suggest a correlation of biophoton emission with EEG for which there is a considerable evidence. The observation that biophotons seem to be associated only with the right hemisphere suggests that at least some parts of right hemisphere prefer dark photons and are thus specialized to visual imagination: spatial relationships are the speciality of the right hemisphere. Some parts the of left hemisphere at least might prefer dark photons in IR energy range transforming to ordinary phonons in ear or dark phonons: left hemisphere is indeed the verbal hemisphere specialized to linear linguistic cognition.
In the sequel I shall discuss biophotons in TGD Universe as decay products of dark photons and propose among other things an explanation for the hyperbolic decay law in terms of quantum coherence and echo like mechanism guaranteing replication of memory representations. Applications to biology, neuroscience, and consciousness are discussed and also the possible role of biophotons for remote mental interactions is considered. Also the phenomenon of taos hum is discussed as a possible evidence for biophonons.

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About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism

The idea of remote metabolism - or quantum credit card as I have also called it - emerged for more than decade ago and zero energy ontology (ZEO) provides justification for it. The idea is that the system needing energy sends negative energy to a system able to receive the negative energy and make a transition to a lower energy state. This kind of mechanism would be ideal for biology, where rapid reactions to a changing environment are essential for survival and there is no time for sending a request for energy.

The model of remote metabolism is applied to biology. It is shown that the basic notions of the theory of Ling about cell metabolism inspired by various anomalies have natural counterparts in TGD based model relying on the notion of magnetic body. Remote metabolism can be considered as a completely general mechanism of metabolism with magnetic body of ATP or system containing it carrying the metabolic energy and sucked from it by the user. In particular, the role of ATP is discussed in Ling's theory and from the point of view of TGD inspired theory of consciousness.

It is easy to imagine new technologies relying on negative energy signals propagating to the geometric past and ZEO justifies these speculations. Remote metabolism could make possible a new kind of energy technology making it un-necessary to carry fuel. The discoveries of Tesla made more than century ago plus various free energy anomalies provide excellent material for developing these ideas, and one ends up with a concrete proposal for how dark photons and dark matter could be produced in capacitor like systems analogous to cell membranes and acting as Josephson junctions and how energy could be sucked from "large" magnetic bodies.

The model identifies Josephson frequency with the subharmonic of the frequency characterizing the periodicity of a periodic voltage perturbation assumed to correspond to cyclotron frequency in biological applications. Together with quantization conditions for charge and effective Planck constant leads to precise quantitative predictions for capacitor like systems acting as dark capacitors. Also a relationship between the magnetic field at magnetic body of the system and the voltage of the capacitor like Josephson junction emerges.

The predictions allow new quantitative insights about biological evolution as emergence of Josephson junctions realized as capacitor like systems both at the level of cell, DNA and proteins, and brain. heff can be related to Josephson frequency and cyclotron frequency and thus to measurable parameters. heff serves as a kind of intelligence quotient and its maximization requires the maximization of both the voltage and area of the membrane like capacitor system involved. This is what has happened during evolution. Indeed, the internal cell membranes, cortical layers and of DNA double strand in chromosomes are strongly folded, and the value of membrane electric field is roughly twice the value of the electric field for which di-electric breakdown occurs in air. Even 40 Hz thalamocortical resonance frequency can be understood in the framework of model.

The properties of Tesla's "cold electricity" suggest strongly interpretation in terms of dark matter in TGD sense. This leads to a proposal that a transition to dark phase occurs when the value of voltage equals to the rest mass of charged particle involved. This criterion is generalizes to the case of cell membrane and relates the values of heff, p-adic prime p, and threshold potential for various charged particles to each other. The idea that nerve pulse corresponds to the breakdown of super-conductivity as a transition from dark to ordinary phase receives additional support. The resulting picture conforms surprisingly well with the earlier speculations involving dark matter and p-adically scaled variants of weak and color interactions in biologically relevant length scales. An extremely simple mechanism producing ATP involving only the kicking of two protonic Cooper pairs through the cell membrane by Josephson photon is proposed. Also the proposal that neutrino Cooper pairs could be highly relevant not only for cognition and but also metabolism finds support.

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Can quantum biology really do without new physics?m

Quantum biology is now taken rather seriously. Photosynthesis and avian navigation are two key applications of quantum biology. The basic problem in both cases is posed by the fact that the magnetic interaction energy in Earth's magnetic field is roughly million times smaller than thermal energy. The so called radical-pair mechanism (RPM) was proposed already at 60's as a possible solution to the problem posed by anomalously large effect in EPR and NMR experiments. According to RPM, a radical pair is accompanied by electron pair, which is in a superposition of spin triplet and singlet states and behaves as quantum coherent system for a time sufficiently long to induce chemical effects. The hyperfine interaction of the members of the electron pair with the nuclei of radicals would amplify the effect. The neutralization of radical pair puts an end to the coherence interaction period.

The proposal is that RPM gives rise to chemical compass making possible avian navigation. There is however a problem. RPM has been observed in laboratory only for magnetic fields in the range 1 mT- 10 T. Earth's magnetic field is only 2 per cent of the lower bound so that it is quite possible that RPM is not at work.

This opens up the door for new quantum physics proposed by TGD based model of quantum biology. In this approach magnetic body acts as as intentional agent using biological body as a sensory receptor and motor instrument. Macroscopic quantum coherence is made possible by dark matter realized as a hierarchy of heff=n× h phases.

In the article Can quantum biology really do without new physics? RMP is summarized and compared with the TGD based vision. Also the possible connection between avian navigation and circadian clock suggested by the fact that both involve photoreceptor known as cryptocrome and a possible connection with gravitaxis are considered in TGD framework.

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The anomalies in rotating magnetic systems as a key to the understanding of morphogenesis?

During almost two decades I have returned repeatedly to the fascinating but unfortunately un-recognized work of Roschin and Godin about rotating magnetic systems. With the recent advances in TGD it has become clear that the reported strange effects such as the change of weight proportional to the rotation velocity of rollers taking place above 3.3 Hz rotation frequency and rapid acceleration above 9.2 Hz up to frequency 10 Hz could provide clues for developing a general vision about morphogenesis of magnetic body, whose flux quanta can carry Bose-Einstein condensates of dark charged ions with given mass and charge if the hypothesis heff=n× h=hgr identifying dark matter as phases with non-standard value of Planck constant holds true.

The generalization of Chladni mechanism would provide a general model for how magnetic flux tubes carrying charged particles with given mass at given flux tube drift to the nodal surfaces giving rise to magnetic walls in the field of standing or even propagating waves assignable to "topological light rays" (MEs). Ordinary matter would in turn condense around these dark magnetic structures so that Chladni mechanism would serve as a general mechanism of morphogenesis. This mechanism could be universal and work even in astrophysical systems (formation of planets).

The change of weight correlating with the direction of rotation (parity breaking) and rapid acceleration could be understood in terms of momentum and angular momentum transfer by dark photons liberated in the quantum phase transition of many-particle states of dark charged particles to from cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates giving rise to analogs of superconductivity and spontaneous magnetization.

There is also evidence that the presence of light source below massive object affects its weight by about .1 per cent. This effect could be explained along the same lines. Zero Energy Ontology and the proposed mechanism remote metabolism at the level of dark matter is however needed and this would force to modify dramatically the views about basic interactions at the level of dark matter.

An increase of weight Δ g/g≈ 2× 10-4 is observed for electrets : this number has appeared in TGD already earlier and in TGD framework could have interpretatation in terms of dark matter layer with mass MD≈ 2× 10-4 ME at distance of Moon. More generally, any living system could be accompanied by a magnetic body with this mass fraction and lose it in biological death. Amusingly, this change of weight happens to consistent with the "weight of soul" claimed to be 21 g.

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Life-like properties observed in very simple system

The physicists working in Emory University have made very interesting discovery. The very simple system studied exhibits what authors call self-organized bi-stability making phase transitions between crystal-like and gas-like phases. The expectation was that only single stable state would appear. Neuron groups can also have collective bi-stability (periodic synchronous firing). Neurons are however themselves bi-stable systems: now the particles are plastic balls and are not bi-stable. One could say that the system exhibits life-like properties. The most remarkable life-like property is metabolism required by the sequence of phase transitions involving dissipation.

Where does the metabolic energy come from? The proposal of the experimenters that stochastic resonance feeds the needed metabolic energy leaves open its source. The resemblance with living cells suggests that the attempt to interpret the findings solely in terms of non-equilibrium thermodynamics might miss something essential - the metabolism.

One can develop a model for the system based on TGD inpired quantum biology. This involves the notion of magnetic body carrying dark matter identified as heff=n× h phases; a network of magnetic flux tubes (magnetic body) controlling biological body (now charged plastic balls) and responsible for coherence and synchrony (of the crystal-like phase now); the control of the oscillations of BB by cyclotron radiation (now the plastic ball system) resulting from decays of cyclotron condensates of charged particles (now protons and Ar ions). The source of metabolic energy would come from dark nucleosynthesis explaining nuclear transmutations occurring in living matter and "cold fusion" and serving as source of metabolic energy in prebiotic stage when the chemical energy storage had not yet emerged. Dark analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids are dark protons sequences realizing degeneracies of vertebrate genetic code are dark nuclei and can transform to ordinary nuclei and liberate nuclear binding energy so that the hen-egg question about which came first: metabolism or genetic code, is resolved: hen= egg.

There is also second very simple system consisting of particle system with feed of acoustic energy at single wavelength. What happens that the distribution of particles develops synchronous oscillations in wave length band. and the amplitudes are reduced in this band so that wavelength gap emerges. The system is also able to heal. The interpretation is in terms of the emergence of flux tube structure rigidifying the system to pseudo-crystal. The energy of the oscillations of the particles is transferred to MB where it gives rise to Alfwen waves with a wavelength band analogous to atomic energy bands.

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Artificial Intelligence, Natural Intelligence, and TGD

Recently a humanoid robot known as Sophia has gained a lot of attention in net. Sophia uses AI, visual data processing, and facial recognition. Sophia imitates human gestures and facial expressions and is able to answer questions and make simple conversations on predefined topics. The AI program used analyzes conversations, extracts data, and uses it to improve responses in the future. To a skeptic Sophia looks like a highly advanced version of ELIZA.

Personally I am rather skeptic view about strong AI relying on a mechanistic view about intelligence. This leads to transhumanism and notions such as mind uploading. It is however good to air out one's thinking sometimes.

Computers should have a description also in the quantal Universe of TGD and this forces to look more precisely about the idealizations of AI. This process led to a change of my attitudes. The fusion of human consciousness and presumably rather primitive computer consciousness but correlating with the program running in it might be possible in TGD Universe, and TGD inspired quantum biology and the recent ideas about prebiotic systems provide rather concrete ideas in attempts to realize this fusion.

TGD also strongly suggests that there is also what might be called Natural Intelligence relying on 2-D cognitive representations defined by networks consisting of nodes (neurons) and flux tubes (axons with nerve pulse patters) connecting them rather than linear 1-D representation used by AI. The topological dynamics of these networks has Boolean dynamics of computer programs as a projection but is much more general and could allow to represent objects of perceptive field and number theoretic cognition.

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Emotions as sensory percepts about the state of magnetic body?

What emotions are? How emotions are created? How they are represented: in brains, at body, or somewhere else? Emotions can be divided into lower level emotions and higher level emotions. What does does this correspond to?

  1. TGD inspired answer to the questions is that emotions are sensory percepts about the state of magnetic body (MB). Sensory-motor loop generalizes: various glands excreting hormones to blood stream and binding to receptors give rise to the analog of motor output.
  2. Neural transmitters binding to receptors serve as bridges allowing to build connected networks of neurons from existing building bricks. They are accompanied by flux tube networks giving rise to tensor networks as quantum coherent entangled structures serving as correlates of mental images and allowing classical signalling with light velocity using dark photons.

    In a similar manner hormones give rise to networks of ordinary cells implying in particular that emotional memories are realized in (biological) body (BB). Nervous system gives information about the state of these networks to brain. Hypothalamus serves as the analog of motor cortex excreting hormones controlling the excretion of hormones at lower level glands.

  3. The hierarchy of Planck constants defines a hierarchy of dark matters and heff=n× defines a kind of IQ. The levels of MB corresponding to large/small values of n would correspond to higher/lower emotions.
MB decomposes to two basic parts: the part in the scale of BB and formed by networks having cells and larger structures as nodes (forming a fractal hierarchy) and the part in the scales larger than BB.
  1. In the scales of BB (short scales) the dynamics involves topological dynamics of the flux tube network and sensory percepts can be accompanied by conscious-to-us desire to change the state of MB and thus of BB and could be seen as intentions induced by the comparison between what happened and what were the expectations. The outcome would be state function reduction replacing the behavioral pattern with a new one giving better hopes for achieving the goal. In zero energy ontology (ZEO) behavioral pattern is represented as quantum superposition of 4-D MBs so that time aspect is naturally involved with emotions.
  2. In the scales larger than that of BB (long scales) the change the topology is not easy and the dynamics involves oscillations of MB - analogs of Alfwen waves - and analogs of ordinary motor actions changing the shape of flux tubes but leaving its topology unaffected. Alfwen waves with cyclotron frequencies and generalized Josephson frequencies assignable to cell membrane as Josephson junction would be involved. The size scale of particular onyon-like layer of MB corresponds to the wavelength scale for cyclotron frequencies and is proportional to heff/h=n for dark photons. For instance, alpha band in EEG corresponds to the scale of Earth but the energy scale of dark photons is that of bio-photons.

    The TGD inspired model of music harmony gives as a side product a model of genetic code predicting correctly the numbers of codons coding for amino-acids for vertebrate code. The model allows to see sensory percepts about the dynamics in large scales as analog of music experience. The notes of 3-chords of the harmony correspond to light as dark photons and frequencies defining the notes of the chord: cyclotron radiation and generalized Josephson radiation from cell membrane would represent examples of dark light. Music expresses and creates emotions and music harmonies would correspond to various emotional states/moods realized at the level of DNA and its dark counterpart (dark nuclei represented as dark proton sequences). MB would be like a music instrument with flux tubes serving as strings. It is difficult to assign any specific desire to large scale sensory percepts about MB and the interpretation as higher emotions - or rather feelings - makes sense.

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Dance of the honeybee and New Physics

For more than two decades ago mathematician Barbara Shipman made rather surprising finding while working with her thesis. The 2-D projections of certain curves in flag manifold F=SU(3)/U(1)× U(1) defined by the so called momentum map look like the waggle part of the dance of the honey bee. Shipman found that one could reproduce in this framework both waggle dance and circle dance (special case of waggle dance) and the transition between these occurring as the distance of the food source from the nest reduces below some critical distance. Shipman introduced a parameter, which she called α, and found that the variation of α allows to integrate various forms of the honeybee dance to a bigger picture. Since SU(3) is the gauge group of color interactions, this unexpected finding led Shipman to as whether there might be a profound connection between quantum physics at quark level and macroscopic physics at the level of honeybee dance.

The average colleague of course regards this kind of proposal as crackpottery: the argument is that there simply cannot be any interaction between degrees of freedom in so vastly different length scales. Personally I however found this finding fascinating and wrote about the interpretation of this finding in the framework of TGD and TGD inspired consciousness. During more than two decades a lot of progress has taken place in TGD, in particular I have learned that the flag manifold F has interpretation as twistor space of CP2 and plays a fundamental role in twistor lift of TGD. Hence it is interesting to look what this could allow to say about honeybee dance.

It turned out that one could understand the waggle parts of the honeybee dance at space-time level in terms of the intersection of the space-time surface with the image of the Cartan sub-algebra of SU(3) represented in CP2 using exponential map. This allows to code the positional data about the food source. The frequencies assignable to the wing vibrations and waggling turn could have interpretation as cyclotron frequencies as expected if the magnetic body of the bee controls the waggle dance utilizing resonance mechanism. They could also correspond to the momenta (frequencies) defining constants of motion for geodesic in U(1)× U(1) defining one particular point of flag manifold F. Also a connection with the Chladni effect emerges: the waggle motion is along time-like curve at which Kähler force vanishes. Also the transition from waggle dance do circle dance.

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Dark valence electrons and color vision

By its large orbital radius dark valence electron (dark in TGD sense, heff=n× h) sees atomic nucleus and other electrons, which are ordinary, effectively as an object of charge Zeff=1. Dark valence electron has reduced mass which in excellent approximation equals to that of electron so that the spectrum of bound state energies and transition energies is scaled down by the factor (h/heff)2. This irrespective of what the atom is. The only condition is that there is single unpaired valence electron guaranteed if Z for the atom is odd. For even Z an odd number of valence electrons must be associated with valence bonds: this would be the case for OH radical for instance.

The dynamics of dark valence electrons is universal with universal transition energy spectrum. One obtains a fractal hierarchy of dynamics labelled by the value of (h/heff)2, where heff=n× h0, h0 the minimal value of Planck constant, not necessary equal to h so that one has h=n0× h0. The quantum critical dynamics characterizing living matter in TGD Universe is indeed universal.

The dark photon communications in living matter could utilize these universal energy spectra besides cyclotron energy spectrum and Larmor spectrum assignable to dark particles at flux tubes and the spectrum of generalized Josephson frequencies assignable to cell membrane. In particular, vision and even other sensory modalities could rely on the transitions induced by the absorption of dark valence electron. In TGD also other sensory percepts are communicated from sensory receptors to the sensory areas of cortex (see this) and also here same universal transition energies of dark valence electrons might be involved.

This hypothesis when combined with the earlier ideas about color qualia leads to a highly predictive and testable model for the perception of colors. In particular the condition h=n0× h0, n0>1, is necessary for the model to work. n0=4 and n0=6 look the most realistic options. For n0=4 the number of values of n=8,9,10 and correspond to the number 3 of color sensitive receptors whereas n0=6 the number of values n=12,13,14,15 suggests the existence of a fourth color receptor sensitive to red light.

The statistical aspects of color summation can be understood from TGD inspired theory of consciousness in terms of the hypothesis that self experiences the mental images of sub-self as kind of statistical averages. The identification of quark colors as fundamental color qualia, the entanglement of quarks and antiquarks to form states in one-one correspondence with charged gluons, and the twistor space of CP2 play key roles in the model of color summation.

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Dark valence electrons, dark photons, bio-photons, and carcinogens

The possible role of bio-photons in living matter is becoming gradually accepted by biologists and neuroscientists. Bio-photons serve as a diagnostic tool and it seems that their intensity increases in non-healthy organism. I have proposed that bio-photons emerge from what I call dark photons, which are ordinary photons but have non-standard value heff= nh0 of Planck constant.

In this article the consequences of the hypothesis that dark photons emerging from the transitions of dark valence electrons of any atom possessing lonely unpaired valence electron could give rise to part of bio-photons in they decays to ordinary photons. The hypothesis is developed by considering a TGD based model for a finding, which served as a starting point of the work of Popp: the irradiation of carcinogens with light at wavelength of 380 nm generates radiation with wavelength 218 nm so that the energy of the photon increases in the interaction. Also the findings of Veljkovic about the absorption spectrum of carcinogens have considerably helped in the development of the model.

The outcome is a proposal for dark transitions explaining the findings of Popp and Veljkovic. The spectrum of dark photons also suggests a possible identification of metabolic energy quantum of .5 eV and of the Coulomb energy assignable to the cell membrane potential. The possible contribution to the spectrum of bio-photons is considered, and it is found that spectrum differs from a smooth spectrum since the ionization energies for dark valence electrons depending on the value of heff as 1/heff2 serve as accumulation points for the spectral lines.

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Geometric theory of bio-harmony

For some years ago I developed a model of music harmony. As a surprising side product a model of genetic code predicting correctly the number of codons coding given amino-acid emerged. Since music expresses and creates emotions, one can ask whether genes could have "moods" characterized by these bio-harmonies. The fundamental realization could be in terms of dark photon triplets replacing phonon triplets for ordinary music.

  1. The model relies on the geometries of icosahedron and tetrahedron and representation of 12-note scale as so called Hamiltonian cycle at icosahedron going through all 12 vertices of icosahedron. The 20 faces correspond to allowed 3-chords for harmony defined by given Hamiltonian cycle. This brings in mind 20 amino-acids (AAs).
  2. One has three basic types of harmonies depending on whether the symmetries of icosahedron leaving the shape of the Hamiltonian cycle is Z6, Z4 or Z2. For Z2 there are two options: Z2,rot is generated by rotation of π and Z2,refl by reflection with respect to a median of equilateral triangle.
  3. Combining together one harmony from each type one obtains union of 3 harmonies and if there are no common chords between the harmonies, one has 20+20+20 3-chords and a strong resemblance with the code table. To given AA one assigns the orbit of given face under icosahedral isometries so that codons correspond to the points of the orbit and orbit to the corresponding AA. 4 chords are however missing from 64. These one obtains by adding tetrahedron. One can glue it to icosahedron along chosen face or keep is disjoint.
  4. The model in its original form predicts 256 different harmonies with 64 3-chords defining the harmony. DNA codon sequences would be analogous to sequences of chords, pieces of music. Same applies to mRNA. Music expresses and creates emotions and the natural proposal is that these bio-harmonies correlate with moods that would appear already at molecular level. They could be realized in terms of dark photon triplets realized in terms of light and perhaps even music (living matter is full of piezo-electrets). In fact, also the emotions generated by other art forms could be realized using music of dark light.
The model of music harmony is separate from the model of genetic code based on dark proton triplets and one of the challenges has been to demonstrate that they are equivalent. This inspires several questions.
  1. Could the number of harmonies be actually larger than 256 as the original model predicts? One could rotate the 3 fused Hamilton's cycles with respect to each by icosahedral rotations other leaving the face shared by icosahedron and tetrahedron invariant. There are however conditions to be satisfied.
    1. There is a purely mathematical restriction. If the fused 3 harmonies have no common 3-chords the number of coded AAs is 20. Can one give up the condition of having no common 3-chords and only require that the number of coded AAs is 20?
    2. There is also the question about the chemical realizability of the harmony. Is it possible to have DNA and RNA molecules to which the 3-chords of several harmonies couple resonantly? This could leave only very few realizable harmonies.
  2. The model predicts the representation of DNA and RNA codons as 3-chords. Melody is also an important aspect of music. Could AAs couple resonantly to the sums of the frequencies (modulo octave equivalence) of the 3-chords for codons coding for given AA? Could coding by the sum of frequencies appear in the coupling of tRNA with mRNA by codewords and coding by separate frequencies to the letterwise coupling of DNA and RNA nucleotides to DNA during replication and transcription?
  3. What about tRNA. Could tRNA correspond to pairs of harmonies with 20+20+444 codons? What about single 20+4=24 codon representation as kind of pre-tRNA?
  4. What is the origin of 12-note scale? Does genetic code force it? The affirmative answer to this question relies on the observation that 1-1 correspondence between codons and triplets of photons requires that the frequency assignable to the letter must depend on its position. This gives just 12 notes altogether. Simple symmetry arguments fix the correspondence between codons and 3-chords highly uniquely: only 4 alternatives are possible so that it would be possible to listen what DNA sequences sounds in given mood characterized by the harmony.
  5. What disharmony could mean? A possible answer comes from 6 Hamiltonian cycles having no symmetries. These disharmonies could express "negative" emotions.

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TGD Inspired View about Remote Mental Interactions and Paranormal

I have proposed a general vision about what remote mental interactions and related phenomena could be in TGD Universe around 2003. A lot of progress that has taken place since then, and this motivates the reconsideration of this vision. The general vision is that both biology, consciousness, and remote mental interactions and related phenomena labelled as paranormal are predicted to share the same basic mechanisms, and that the proposed vision provides basic concepts and the language allowing to speculate and build simple models. One cannot of course take the proposed models too seriously at the level of details.

The new ideas that have emerged since 2003 are summarized and parapsychological phenomena are discussed at general level. Also some applications of the basic vision are discussed. The notion of conscious hologram is discussed from the point of view of remote mental interactions. The notion of magnetic body is in decisive role as it is also in the understanding of quantum biology in TGD framework. TGD inspired model for OBEs relying on the notion of magnetic body is summarized. The idea is that OBEs could correspond to sensory experiences assignable to magnetic body rather than real body. Also the connections with the work of other researchers, such as Shnoll, Persinger, and Tiller are discussed briefly. The challenge of testing the vision is also considered.

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How to test TGD Based Vision about Living Matter and Remote Mental Interactions?

The general TGD inspired vision is that both biology, consciousness, and remote mental interactions and related phenomena labelled as paranormal share the same basic mechanisms. This purpose of this chapter is to summarize the new physics effects involved with the TGD inspired quantum view about consciousness and living matter and its applications to remote mental interactions and related phenomena. Also tests are discussed when possible. By the universality of the mechanisms most of the tests reduce to tests for a new physics predicted by TGD.

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Hypnosis as Remote Mental Interaction

In TGD framework one can argue that hypnosis represents an example about the fact that brain is not "private property": hypnotist uses the biological body and brain of the subject as instrument. Therefore remote mental interaction is in question. This idea generalizes: if one accepts self hierarchy, one can assign to any kind of higher level structure - family, organization, species, .... - a higher level self and magnetic body carrying dark matter, and these magnetic bodies can use lower level magnetic bodies as their instruments to realize their intentions. Biological bodies would be an important level in the hierarchy, which would continue down to cellular, molecular, and perhaps to even lower levels.

This view challenges the prevailing views about brain as a sole seat of consciousness and the assumption that conscious entities assigned with brains are completely isolated. Given magnetic body can use several biological bodies although one can assign to it the one providing the sensory input - at least during wake-up state. Note however that it is easy to produce illusion that some foreign object is part of biological body.

For more than decade ago I proposed a model for so called bicamerality based on the notion of semitrance. In semitrance the brain of subject becomes partially entangled with a higher level self - in this case the self of family or more general social group uses the biological body of member for its purposes. Higher level self gives its commands and advice interpreted by the bicameral as "God's voice". The consciousness of schizophrenic might be basically bicameral. Also hypnotic state and dream consciousness are candidates for bicameral consciousness.

In this article I develop essentially this idea but using as input the recent understanding of about TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology and end up with a proposal for a detailed mechanism for how the magnetic body hijacks some parts of the brain of the subject: prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex are argued to be the most plausible targets of hijacking. Also a mechanism explaining how the sensory hallucinations and motor actions are induced by hypnotist by inhibiting a halting mechanism preventing imagined motor actions to become real and sensory imagination to become "qualiafied".

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Meditation, Mind-Body Medicine and Placebo: TGD point of view

The chapter represents TGD inspired answers to Lian Sidorov's questions concerning meditation, mind-body medicine and placebo in quantum biology framework. To help the reader, some aspects of TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology are summarized since several new insights inspired by the notions of magnetic body and dark matter have emerged lately. This includes improved views about quantum metabolism and prebiotic life: the basic input comes from the claimed free energy phenomena interpreted in TGD framework. Water structures representing simplified analogs of basic biomolecules suggested by water splitting producing so called Brown's gas might be highly relevant also for the ordinary metabolism. The main new input concerning remote mental interactions comes from a possible answer to the question whether TGD based ontology of physics could allow the "shamanistic" view that the experiences (say encounters with strange life forms assigned with distant civilizations) induced by various psychedelics used in the spiritual practices of indigenous people could be genuine remote sensory perceptions rather than hallucinations. Affirmative answer would mean a direct and testable connection between neuropharmacology and remote sensory perception with serotonin defining the crucial neurotransmitter and pineal gland ("third eye") serving as a candidate for the brain area of special importance in this respect.

Concerning the questions about meditation, mind-body medicine and placebo, the key concept is that of magnetic body. Usually organism and environment are seen as members of an interacting pair: organism receives sensory data from environment and controls it. Now magnetic body appears as a third party, "intentional agent" using biological body as a kind of interface between magnetic body and environment. Various "motor actions" of the magnetic body are highly relevant for both consciousness and biochemistry. The pairs formed by various information molecules and corresponding receptors could define plug-ins to the Indra's net (or Internet) defined by the magnetic bodies and Josephson radiation emitted by Josephson currents assignable to receptors would propagate along flux tubes. Meditation can be seen as "bodily exercise" of the magnetic body and a method to improve the communications between magnetic body and biological body. In healing magnetic body would be the active participant and healing would be also the healing of magnetic body. The placebo effect could be seen as an outcome of intentions of magnetic body affecting biological body.

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Non-locality in quantum theory, in biology and neuroscience, and in remote mental interactions: TGD perspective

Non-locality seems to be a basic aspect of what it is to be living. Living system is elementary particle like coherent unit. The phenomenon of memory suggests temporal non-locality. Also remote mental interactions - if real - suggest non-locality. In fact, non-locality - both spatial and temporal - is the basic element of entire quantum TGD, and in particular, of its applications to quantum biology, neuroscience, theory of consciousness, and also of remote mental interactions.

In the sequel I make kind of pseudo deduction of the picture provided by Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD) by starting from empirical findings loosely related to non-locality rather than problems of General Relativity or of particle physics. The hope is that this could make the basic ideas of TGD easier to grasp. Also the mathematical framework and its interpretation as they are now are briefly discussed and the some applications to TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology are discussed.

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Questions bout IIT

Integrated Information Theory (IIT) is a neuro- and computer science based theory of consciousness proposed originally by Tononi. This article is a critical summary of IIT and its comparison with TGD inspired theory of consciousness. Basic criticism relates to the circular definition of consciousness leading to the conclusion that the printing of text is a conscious process if no-one knows the text but not so if some-one knows the text. One could test IIT by looking if a system with large Φ (say classical computer in which program is running) has the properties associated with living conscious systems (self-organization in presence of energy feed, metabolism, responsiveness,...). Also the questions about possible experimental testing of IIT raised by Lian Sidorov are discussed.

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