Identification of Configuration Space Kähler Function

There are two basic approaches to quantum TGD. The first approach, which is discussed in this chapter, is a generalization of Einstein's geometrization program of physics to an infinite-dimensional context. Second approach is based on the identification of physics as a generalized number theory. The first approach relies on the vision of quantum physics as infinite-dimensional Kähler geometry for the "world of classical worlds" (WCW) identified as the space of 3-surfaces in in certain 8-dimensional space. There are three separate approaches to the challenge of constructing WCW Kähler geometry and spinor structure. The first approach relies on direct guess of Kähler function. Second approach relies on the construction of Kähler form and metric utilizing the huge symmetries of the geometry needed to guarantee the mathematical existence of Riemann connection. The third approach relies on the construction of spinor structure based on the hypothesis that complexified WCW gamma matrices are representable as linear combinations of fermionic oscillator operator for second quantized free spinor fields at space-time surface and on the geometrization of super-conformal symmetries in terms of WCW spinor structure.

In this chapter the proposal for Kähler function based on the requirement of 4-dimensional General Coordinate Invariance implying that its definition must assign to a given 3-surface a unique space-time surface. Quantum classical correspondence requires that this surface is a preferred extremal of some some general coordinate invariant action, and so called Kähler action is a unique candidate in this respect. The preferred extremal has intepretation as an analog of Bohr orbit so that classical physics becomes and exact part of WCW geometry and therefore also quantum physics.

The basic challenge is the explicit identification of WCW Kähler function K. Two assumptions lead to the identification of K as a sum of Chern-Simons type terms associated with the ends of causal diamond and with the light-like wormhole throats at which the signature of the induced metric changes. The first assumption is the weak form of electric magnetic duality. Second assumption is that the Kähler current for preferred extremals satisfies the condition jK ∧ djK=0 implying that the flow parameter of the flow lines of jK defines a global space-time coordinate. This would mean that the vision about reduction to almost topological QFT would be realized.

Second challenge is the understanding of the space-time correlates of quantum criticality. Electric-magnetic duality helps considerably here. The realization that the hierarchy of Planck constant realized in terms of coverings of the imbedding space follows from basic quantum TGD leads to a further understanding. The extreme non-linearity of canonical momentum densities as functions of time derivatives of the imbedding space coordinates implies that the correspondence between these two variables is not 1-1 so that it is natural to introduce coverings of CD×CP_2. This leads also to a precise geometric characterization of the criticality of the preferred extremals.

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About Identification of the Preferred extremals of Kähler Action

Preferred extremal of Kähler action have remained one of the basic poorly defined notions of TGD. There are pressing motivations for understanding what the attribute "preferred" really means. Symmetries give a clue to the problem. The conformal invariance of string models naturally generalizes to 4-D invariance defined by quantum Yangian of quantum affine algebra (Kac-Moody type algebra) characterized by two complex coordinates and therefore explaining naturally the effective 2-dimensionality. Preferred extremal property should rely on this symmetry.

In Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) preferred extremals are space-time surfaces connecting two space-like 3-surfaces at the ends of space-time surfaces at boundaries of causal diamond (CD). A natural looking condition is that the symplectic Noether charges associated with a sub-algebra of symplectic algebra with conformal weights n-multiples of the weights of the entire algebra vanish for preferred extremals. These conditions would be classical counterparts the the condition that super-symplectic sub-algebra annihilates the physical states. This would give a hierarchy of super-symplectic symmetry breakings and quantum criticalities having interpretation in terms of hierarchy of Planck constants heff=n× h identified as a hierarchy of dark matter. n could be interpreted as the number of space-time conformal gauge equivalence classes for space-time sheets connecting the 3-surfaces at the ends of space-time surface.

There are also many other proposals for what preferred extremal property could mean or imply. The weak form of electric-magnetic duality combined with the assumption that the contraction of the Kähler current with Kähler gauge potential vanishes for preferred extremals implies that Kähler action in Minkowskian space-time regions reduces to Chern-Simons terms at the light-like orbits of wormhole throats at which the signature of the induced metric changes its signature from Minkowskian to Euclidian. In regions with 4-D CP2 projection (wormhole contacts) also a 3-D contribution not assignable to the boundary of the region might be possible. These conditions pose strong physically feasible conditions on extremals and might be true for preferred extremals too.

Number theoretic vision leads to a proposal that either the tangent space or normal space of given point of space-time surface is associative and thus quaternionic. Also the formulation in terms of quaternion holomorphy and quaternion-Kähler property is an attractive possibility. So called M8-H duality is a variant of this vision and would mean that one can map associative/co-associative space-time surfaces from M8 to H and also iterate this mapping from H to H to generate entire category of preferred extremals. The signature of M4 is a general technical problem. For instance, the holomorphy in 2 complex variables could correspond to what I have called Hamilton-Jacobi property. Associativity/co-associativity of the tangent space makes sense also in Minkowskian signature.

In this chapter various views about preferred extremal property are discussed.

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Construction of Configuration Space Kähler Geometry from Symmetry Principles

There are three separate approaches to the challenge of constructing WCW Kähler geometry and spinor structure. The first one relies on a direct guess of Kähler function. Second approach relies on the construction of Kähler form and metric utilizing the huge symmetries of the geometry needed to guarantee the mathematical existence of Riemann connection. The third approach relies on the construction of spinor structure assuming that complexified WCW gamma matrices are representable as linear combinations of fermionic oscillator operator for the second quantized free spinor fields at space-time surface and on the geometrization of super-conformal symmetries in terms of spinor structure.

p> In this chapter the construction of Kähler form and metric based on symmetries is discussed. The basic vision is that WCW can be regarded as the space of generalized Feynman diagrams with lines thickned to light-like 3-surfaces and vertices identified as partonic 2-surfaces. In zero energy ontology the strong form of General Coordinate Invariance (GCI) implies effective 2-dimensionality and the basic objects are pairs partonic 2-surfaces X2 at opposite light-like boundaries of causal diamonds (CDs).

p> The hypothesis is that WCW can be regarded as a union of infinite-dimensional symmetric spaces G/H labeled by zero modes having an interpretation as classical, non-quantum fluctuating variables. A crucial role is played by the metric 2-dimensionality of the light-cone boundary δ M4+ and of light-like 3-surfaces implying a generalization of conformal invariance. The group G acting as isometries of WCW is tentatively identified as the symplectic group of δ M4+× CP2 localized with respect to X2. H is identified as Kac-Moody type group associated with isometries of H=M4× CP2 acting on light-like 3-surfaces and thus on X2.

p> An explicit construction for the Hamiltonians of WCW isometry algebra as so called flux Hamiltonians is proposed and also the elements of Kähler form can be constructed in terms of these. Explicit expressions for WCW flux Hamiltonians as functionals of complex coordinates of the Cartesian product of the infinite-dimensional symmetric spaces having as points the partonic 2-surfaces defining the ends of the the light 3-surface (line of generalized Feynman diagram) are proposed.

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WCW Spinor Structure

Quantum TGD should be reducible to the classical spinor geometry of the configuration space ("world of classical worlds" (WCW)). The possibility to express the components of WCW Kähler metric as anti-commutators of WCW gamma matrices becomes a practical tool if one assumes that WCW gamma matrices correspond to Noether super charges for super-symplectic algebra of WCW. The possibility to express the Kähler metric also in terms of Kähler function identified as Kähler for Euclidian space-time regions leads to a duality analogous to AdS/CFT duality.

Physical states should correspond to the modes of the WCW spinor fields and the identification of the fermionic oscillator operators as super-symplectic charges is highly attractive. WCW spinor fields cannot, as one might naively expect, be carriers of a definite spin and unit fermion number. Concerning the construction of the WCW spinor structure there are some important clues.

1. Geometrization of fermionic statistics in terms of configuration space spinor structure

The great vision has been that the second quantization of the induced spinor fields can be understood geometrically in terms of the WCW spinor structure in the sense that the anti-commutation relations for WCW gamma matrices require anti-commutation relations for the oscillator operators for free second quantized induced spinor fields.

  1. One must identify the counterparts of second quantized fermion fields as objects closely related to the configuration space spinor structure. Ramond model has as its basic field the anti-commuting field Γk(x), whose Fourier components are analogous to the gamma matrices of the WCW and which behaves like a spin 3/2 fermionic field rather than a vector field. This suggests that the complexified gamma matrices of the WCW are analogous to spin 3/2 fields and therefore expressible in terms of the fermionic oscillator operators so that their anti-commutativity naturally derives from the anti-commutativity of the fermionic oscillator operators.

    As a consequence, WCW spinor fields can have arbitrary fermion number and there would be hopes of describing the whole physics in terms of WCW spinor field. Clearly, fermionic oscillator operators would act in degrees of freedom analogous to the spin degrees of freedom of the ordinary spinor and bosonic oscillator operators would act in degrees of freedom analogous to the "orbital" degrees of freedom of the ordinary spinor field.

  2. The classical theory for the bosonic fields is an essential part of the WCW geometry. It would be very nice if the classical theory for the spinor fields would be contained in the definition of the WCW spinor structure somehow. The properties of the modified massless Dirac operator associated with the induced spinor structure are indeed very physical. The modified massless Dirac equation for the induced spinors predicts a separate conservation of baryon and lepton numbers. The differences between quarks and leptons result from the different couplings to the CP2 Kähler potential. In fact, these properties are shared by the solutions of massless Dirac equation of the imbedding space.
  3. Since TGD should have a close relationship to the ordinary quantum field theories it would be highly desirable that the second quantized free induced spinor field would somehow appear in the definition of the WCW geometry. This is indeed true if the complexified WCW gamma matrices are linearly related to the oscillator operators associated with the second quantized induced spinor field on the space-time surface and/or its boundaries. There is actually no deep reason forbidding the gamma matrices of the WCW to be spin half odd-integer objects whereas in the finite-dimensional case this is not possible in general. In fact, in the finite-dimensional case the equivalence of the spinorial and vectorial vielbeins forces the spinor and vector representations of the vielbein group SO(D) to have same dimension and this is possible for D=8-dimensional Euclidian space only. This coincidence might explain the success of 10-dimensional super string models for which the physical degrees of freedom effectively correspond to an 8-dimensional Euclidian space.
  4. It took a long time to realize that the ordinary definition of the gamma matrix algebra in terms of the anti-commutators {γAB} =2gAB must in TGD context be replaced with {γAB} =iJAB , where JAB denotes the matrix elements of the Kähler form of the WCW. The presence of the Hermitian conjugation is necessary because configuration space gamma matrices carry fermion number. This definition is numerically equivalent with the standard one in the complex coordinates. The realization of this delicacy is necessary in order to understand how the square of the WCW Dirac operator comes out correctly.

2. Kähler-Dirac equation for induced spinor fields

Super-symmetry between fermionic and and WCW degrees of freedom dictates that Kähler-Dirac action is the unique choice for the Dirac action

There are several approaches for solving the modified Dirac (or Kähler-Dirac) equation.

  1. The most promising approach assumes that the solutions are restricted on 2-D stringy world sheets and/or partonic 2-surfaces. This strange looking view is a rather natural consequence of both strong form of holography and of number theoretic vision, and also follows from the notion of finite measurement resolution having discretization at partonic 2-surfaces as a geometric correlate. Furthermore, the conditions stating that electric charge is well-defined for preferred extremals forces the localization of the modes to 2-D surfaces in the generic case. This also resolves the interpretational problems related to possibility of strong parity breaking effects since induce W fields and possibly also Z0 field above weak scale, vahish at these surfaces.

    The condition that also spinor dynamics is associative suggests strongly that the localization to 2-D surface occurs always (for right-handed neutrino the above conditions does not apply this). The induced gauge potentials are the possible source of trouble but the holomorphy of spinor modes completely analogous to that encountered in string models saves the situation. Whether holomorphy could be replaced with its quaternionic counterpart in Euclidian regions is not clear (this if W fields vanish at the entire space-time surface so that 4-D modes are possible). Neither it is clear whether the localization to 2-D surfaces occurs also in Euclidian regions with 4-D CP2 projection.

  2. One expects that stringy approach based on 4-D generalization of conformal invariance or its 2-D variant at 2-D preferred surfaces should also allow to understand the modified Dirac equation. Conformal invariance indeed allows to write the solutions explicitly using formulas similar to encountered in string models. In accordance with the earlier conjecture, all modes of the modified Dirac operator generate badly broken super-symmetries.

  3. Well-definedness of em charge is not enough to localize spinor modes at string world sheets. Covariantly constant right-handed neutrino certainly defines solutions de-localized inside entire space-time sheet. This need not be the case if right-handed neutrino is not covarianty constant since the non-vanishing CP2 part for the induced gamma matrices mixes it with left-handed neutrino. For massless extremals (at least) the CP2 part however vanishes and right-handed neutrino allows also massless holomorphic modes de-localized at entire space-time surface and the de-localization inside Euclidian region defining the line of generalized Feynman diagram is a good candidate for the right-handed neutrino generating the least broken super-symmetry. This super-symmetry seems however to differ from the ordinary one in that νR is expected to behave like a passive spectator in the scattering. Also for the left-handed neutrino solutions localized inside string world sheet the condition that coupling to right-handed neutrino vanishes is guaranteed if gamma matrices are either purely Minkowskian or CP2 like inside the world sheet.

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Recent View about Kähler Geometry and Spin Structure of "World of Classical Worlds"

The construction of Kähler geometry of WCW ("world of classical worlds") is fundamental to TGD program. I ended up with the idea about physics as WCW geometry around 1985 and made a breakthrough around 1990, when I realized that Kähler function for WCW could correspond to Kähler action for its preferred extremals defining the analogs of Bohr orbits so that classical theory with Bohr rules would become an exact part of quantum theory and path integral would be replaced with genuine integral over WCW. The motivating construction was that for loop spaces leading to a unique Kähler geometry. The geometry for the space of 3-D objects is even more complex than that for loops and the vision still is that the geometry of WCW is unique from the mere existence of Riemann connection.

This chapter represents the updated version of the construction providing a solution to the problems of the previous construction. The basic formulas remain as such but the expressions for WCW super-Hamiltonians defining WCW Hamiltonians (and matrix elements of WCW metric) as their anticommutator are replaced with those following from the dynamics of the modified Dirac action.

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Classical Part of Twistor Story

Twistor Grassmannian formalism has made a breakthrough in N=4 supersymmetric gauge theories and the Yangian symmetry suggests that much more than mere technical breakthrough is in question. Twistors seem to be tailor made for TGD but it seems that the generalization of twistor structure to that for 8-D imbedding space H=M4× CP2 is necessary. M4 (and S4 as its Euclidian counterpart) and CP2 are indeed unique in the sense that they are the only 4-D spaces allowing twistor space with Kähler structure.

The Cartesian product of twistor spaces P3=SU(2,2)/SU(2,1)× U(1) and F3 defines twistor space for the imbedding space H and one can ask whether this generalized twistor structure could allow to understand both quantum TGD and classical TGD defined by the extremals of Kähler action. In the following I summarize the background and develop a proposal for how to construct extremals of Kähler action in terms of the generalized twistor structure. One ends up with a scenario in which space-time surfaces are lifted to twistor spaces by adding CP1 fiber so that the twistor spaces give an alternative representation for generalized Feynman diagrams.

There is also a very closely analogy with superstring models. Twistor spaces replace Calabi-Yau manifolds and the modification recipe for Calabi-Yau manifolds by removal of singularities can be applied to remove self-intersections of twistor spaces and mirror symmetry emerges naturally. The overall important implication is that the methods of algebraic geometry used in super-string theories should apply in TGD framework.

The physical interpretation is totally different in TGD. The landscape is replaced with twistor spaces of space-time surfaces having interpretation as generalized Feynman diagrams and twistor spaces as sub-manifolds of P3× F3 replace Witten's twistor strings.

The classical view about twistorialization of TGD makes possible a more detailed formulation of the previous ideas about the relationship between TGD and Witten's theory and twistor Grassmann approach. Furthermore, one ends up to a formulation of the scattering amplitudes in terms of Yangian of the super-symplectic algebra relying on the idea that scattering amplitudes are sequences consisting of algebraic operations (product and co-product) having interpretation as vertices in the Yangian extension of super-symplectic algebra. These sequences connect given initial and final states and having minimal length. One can say that Universe performs calculations.

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Unified Number Theoretic Vision

An updated view about M8-H duality is discussed. M8-H duality allows to deduce M4× CP2 via number theoretical compactification. One important correction is that octonionic spinor structure makes sense only for M8 whereas for M4× CP2 complefixied quaternions characterized the spinor structure.

Octonions, quaternions, quaternionic space-time surfaces, octonionic spinors and twistors and twistor spaces are highly relevant for quantum TGD. In the following some general observations distilled during years are summarized.

There is a beautiful pattern present suggesting that H=M4× CP2 is completely unique on number theoretical grounds. Consider only the following facts. M4 and CP2 are the unique 4-D spaces allowing twistor space with Kähler structure. Octonionic projective space OP2 appears as octonionic twistor space (there are no higher-dimensional octonionic projective spaces). Octotwistors generalise the twistorial construction from M4 to M8 and octonionic gamma matrices make sense also for H with quaternionicity condition reducing OP2 to to 12-D G2/U(1)× U(1) having same dimension as the the twistor space CP3× SU(3)/U(1)× U(1) of H assignable to complexified quaternionic representation of gamma matrices.

A further fascinating structure related to octo-twistors is the non-associated analog of Lie group defined by automorphisms by octonionic imaginary units: this group is topologically six-sphere. Also the analogy of quaternionicity of preferred extremals in TGD with the Majorana condition central in super string models is very thought provoking. All this suggests that associativity indeed could define basic dynamical principle of TGD.

Number theoretical vision about quantum TGD involves both p-adic number fields and classical number fields and the challenge is to unify these approaches. The challenge is non-trivial since the p-adic variants of quaternions and octonions are not number fields without additional conditions. The key idea is that TGD reduces to the representations of Galois group of algebraic numbers realized in the spaces of octonionic and quaternionic adeles generalizing the ordinary adeles as Cartesian products of all number fields: this picture relates closely to Langlands program. Associativity would force sub-algebras of the octonionic adeles defining 4-D surfaces in the space of octonionic adeles so that 4-D space-time would emerge naturally. M8-H correspondence in turn would map the space-time surface in M8 to M4× CP2.

A long-standing question has been the origin of preferred p-adic primes characterizing elementary particles. I have proposed several explanations and the most convincing hitherto is related to the algebraic extensions of rationals and p-adic numbers selecting naturally preferred primes as those which are ramified for the extension in question.

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Knots and TGD

Khovanov homology generalizes the Jones polynomial as knot invariant. The challenge is to find a quantum physical construction of Khovanov homology analous to the topological QFT defined by Chern-Simons action allowing to interpret Jones polynomial as vacuum expectation value of Wilson loop in non-Abelian gauge theory.

Witten's approach to Khovanov homology relies on fivebranes as is natural if one tries to define 2-knot invariants in terms of their cobordisms involving violent un-knottings. Despite the difference in approaches it is very useful to try to find the counterparts of this approach in quantum TGD since this would allow to gain new insights to quantum TGD itself as almost topological QFT identified as symplectic theory for 2-knots, braids and braid cobordisms. This comparison turns out to be extremely useful from TGD point of view.

An essentially unique identification of string world sheets and therefore also of the braids whose ends carry quantum numbers of many particle states at partonic 2-surfaces emerges if one identifies the string word sheets as singular surfaces in the same manner as is done in Witten's approach. Even more, the conjectured slicings of preferred extremals by 3-D surfaces and string world sheets central for quantum TGD can be identified uniquely. The slicing by 3-surfaces would be interpreted in gauge theory in terms of Higgs= constant surfaces with radial coordinate of CP2 playing the role of Higgs. The slicing by string world sheets would be induced by different choices of U(2) subgroup of SU(3) leaving Higgs=constant surfaces invariant.

Also a physical interpretation of the operators Q, F, and P of Khovanov homology emerges. P would correspond to instanton number and F to the fermion number assignable to right handed neutrinos. The breaking of M4 chiral invariance makes possible to realize Q physically. The finding that the generalizations of Wilson loops can be identified in terms of the gerbe fluxes ∫ HA J supports the conjecture that TGD as almost topological QFT corresponds essentially to a symplectic theory for braids and 2-knots.

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