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Year 2018

TGD based model for graphene superconductivity

A highly interesting new effect associated with graphene is discussed in Phys.Org article (see this). The original research articles by Cao et al are published in Nature. There is also a popular article In Nature (see this). What is found that a bilayer formed by parallel graphene sheets becomes superconducting for critical values of twist angle θ. The largest critical value of θ is θ=1.1 degrees.

Basic observations

Consider first basic facts. The surprising discovery was that graphene becomes unconventional superconductor at temperature 1.7 K. It was already earlier discovered that the coupling of graphene to a superconductor can make also graphene superconducting.

  1. The system studied consists of two graphene (see this) layers twisted by angle θ with respect to each other (rotation of the second sheet by angle θ around the axis normal to sheets). For a generic value of θ the graphene layers behave as separate conductors. For certain critical twist angles below 1.1 degrees the two-layered system however behaves like single unit and Mott insulator (see this) is involved. The twist creates a superlattice with larger unit cell and the electrons associated with periodically occurring C-atom pairs above each other give rise to a narrow band where the superconducting electrons are. Electric field would kick the electrons to this band.
  2. There are intriguing analogies with high Tc superconductivity. Electron density as function of temperature has a pattern similar to that for cuprates. Superconductivity occurs at electron density, which is 10-4 times that for conventional superconductors at the same temperature. The pairing of electrons cannot be due to phonon exchange since the density is so low. Unidentified strong interaction between electrons is believed to be the reason.
TGD based view very briefly

The finding of Cao et al is believed to be highly significant concerning the understanding of high Tc super-conductivity and motivates the development of a model of Mott insulators based on TGD based views about valence bond inspired by the identification of dark matter as heff/h=n phases of ordinary matter emerging naturally in adelic physics (see this). Also a more detailed version about the model of high Tc superconductivity in TGD Universe developed earlier emerges.

The model starts from a model of elementary particles applied to electron.

  1. At space-time level elementary particles are identified as two-sheeted structures involving a pair of wormhole contacts connecting the space-time sheets and magnetic flux tubes connecting the wormhole throats at the two sheets. For the second sheet flux tubes are loop-like and define the magnetic body of the particle. These flux loops are associated with valence bonds and the value of heff/h=n can be large for them implying that the loops become long. In ohmic conductivity the reconnection of the valence loops would be the fundamental mechanism allowing to transfer conduction electrons between neighboring lattice sites.
  2. An essential role is played by TGD based model for valence bond predicting that the value of n increases along the row of the Periodic Table. For group 4 transition metals n for valence bond with O is largest for Ni (NiO is Mott insulator) and for Cu (copper oxides are high Tc superconductors) so that they are predicted to be excellent candidates for Mott insulators and even unconventional superconductors.
  3. TGD space-time time is many-sheeted and flux tubes form a hierarchy. In high Tc superconductivity also anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) flux loops with a shape of flattened and elongated rectangle would be present. The reconnection of valence flux loops with AFM flux loops would allow the transfer of the precursors of Cooper pairs - appearing already for Mott insulators but not yet giving rise to super-conductivity - to the AFM flux loops. In the phase transition leading to high Tc superconductivity in macroscopic scales the AFM flux loops would reconnect to longer flux loops making possible macroscopic supra currents.
See the chapter Quantum Model for Bio-Superconductivity: II or the article TGD based model for graphene superconductivity.

Could Posner molecule realize genetic code?

They are now starting to get to the right right track in quantum computation!: see the popular article in Cosmos about the an advance in quantum computing by an Australian research team led by Mischelle Simmons published in Nature communications. The life-time of qubits represented by phosphorus (P) nuclei having spin 1/2 is unexpectedly long so that they are excellent candidate for qubits in quantum computation.

They have started to learn from biology! P is a key atom in metabolism and Fisher already earlier suggested that Posner molecules containing 9 Ca atoms and 6 phosphates could be a central element of life. Just now I realized that P atoms of Posner molecule could serve as qubits and 6 qubits in Posner molecule could realize genetic code with 64 code words. Could our bone marrow be performing massive quantum computations utilizing genetic code?!

Remark: Totally unrelated association: the magic number 6 appears also in the structure of cortex: could the six layers represent qubits and realize genetic code?

Posner molecules are the basic stuff of bones. What is required is however non-standard value of heff =n×h giving longer lifetime for the qubits realized as nuclear spins. The cyclotron frequency in the endogenous magnetic field Bend=.2 Gauss field central in TGD inspired biology is 9.4 Hz, in alpha band and the Larmor freqency of O nucleus is 10.9 Hz, alpha band again!

See the chapter Quantum model for nerve pulse or the article Are lithium, phosphate, and Posner molecule fundamental for quantum biology?.

New observations about Posner molecules and ATP

I wrote for a couple of years ago a commentary about the work of Fisher on so called Posner molecule: Ca9(PO4)6 Ca:s are double charged ions and phosphates triply charged ions. Bones have pairs of Posner molecules as building bricks. Fisher proposed that the Larmor frequences of phospates might be fundamental in biology. This might be true.

However, while writing I however found that PO4 3- ion has cyclotron frequency of 9.5 Hz in endogenous magnetic field Bend=.2 Gauss explaining together with heff/h=n hypothesis inspired by the quantal effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate brain reduced later to a prediction of adelic physics. This frequency is in alpha band defining the fundamental biorhytm. This of course puts bells ringing.

Posner molecule would be ideal for both control purposes (Ca2+ and PO43- ions) and for metabolism (6 phosphates with high energy phosphate bonds): P and O related valence bonds indeed have nearly maximal metabolic energy content in the proposed model of valence bonds based on heff/h=n hierarchy (see this).

This suggests that bones might also serve as energy storages and - of course - as nutrients. Interestingly, in the evolution of humans the discovery of stones as tools to break down bones of prey animals to get bone marrow has been seen as a critical step leading to the growth of cortex requiring a lot of metabolic energy (to generate large n bonds providing ability to generate negentropy).

What is interesting that ATP molecule - the basic metabolic currency - has triphosphate with total charge -4 as a building brick. Triphosphate is characterized by cyclotron frequency 4.8 Hz, which is one half of the alpha band frequency. The diphosphate in ADP has cyclotron frequency 5.2 Hz. Note that the cyclotron frequency of Fe2+ ion central in oxygen based metabolism is 10.7 Hz and in alpha band as also the Larmor frequency 10.96 Hz of P.

This suggests that MB uses spin flips for control and coordination purposes. MB could control and coordinate all phosphate containing biomolecules usign this Larmor transition of P. This includes ATP, DNA, RNA, the tubulins of microtubules containing GTP and all biomolecules to which phosphate is attached. This would conform with the frequencies in alpha band as a universal biorhythm used by magnetic body to keep metabolism in synchrony in body scale.

Note that in DNA the singly charged phosphates in XMPs, X = A, T, C, G, have cyclotron frequency, which is one third of this, that is 3.1 Hz. This frequency appears in EEG as a kind of resonance frequency during deep sleep. DNA nucleotides as a whole have cyclotron frequencies around 1 Hz. In microtubules the phosphate of GTP can have three different charge states allowing frequencies 3.1,6.2 and 9.4 Hz. I have proposed that these charge states together with two different tubulin conformations give rise to a realization of genetic code.

The proton cyclotron frequency 300 Hz has been already earlier assigned with ATP and the models for the lifelike properties of a system consisting of plastic balls involved cyclotron frequency of Ar+ ion, which is same as that of Ca2+ ion and cyclotron frequency 300 Hz of proton (see this). Also the two important frequencies associated with honeybee dance correspond to the cyclotron frequencies of Ca2+ and proton (see this).

See the chapter Quantum model for nerve pulse or the article Are lithium, phosphate, and Posner molecule fundamental for quantum biology?.

How did language emerge?

I encountered in FB a link to an article titled Unique mix of brain chemicals separates humans from other primates . The article inspired the following comments as a reaction, which are not so much about the chemistry but about what to my view goes outside chemistry.

Cultural evolution is what distinguishes us so sharply from our cousins. The evolution of social structures made possible by the emergence of language is certainly crucial for it. To me it is far from obvious whether this can be explained in terms of chemistry alone. My views are based on TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology and involve notions like magnetic body and hierarchy of Planck constants.

The notion of magnetic body and the emergence of language and cultural evolution

  1. The notion of magnetic body (MB) as intentional agent using biological body as motor instrument and sensory receptor is central in TGD based view about biology and neuroscience. Flux tubes serving as correlates of attention and making possible quantum entanglement and communications by dark photons give quite concretely rise to bonds between systems in various scales. In TGD Universe the notion of magnetic body in crucial for understanding life in general. The emergence of collective levels of consciousness involving large scale MBs would make possible cultural evolution and allow to understand the dramatic difference between humans and other animals.
  2. The hierarchy of Planck constants heff/h=n would be crucial. The larger the value of n, the larger the scale of quantum coherence. Cultural evolution would involve increase of n leading to a formation of large MBs characterizing collective levels of consciousness. The MBs of DNAs consisting of flux sheets going through DNA would combine to bigger structures assignable to organs, organisms, and even populations. This could make possible cultural evolution as emergence of higher level conscious entities with collective genome and collective gene expression.
  3. There might be also other deep differences at DNA level not visible at the level of chemistry. The braiding of magnetic flux tubes emanating from the intronic part of DNA could make possible topological quantum computations and a new kind of memory and this might led to the quantum leap to real cultural evolution: the portion of introns is largest for humans.
What internal speech could be?

The emergence of language and speech organs is certainly a revolutionary step in evolution. What language is at quantum level? What thoughts as internal speech are at deeper level.

  1. My own proposal is that internal speech has as neuronal correlates linear structures of activated neurons giving names for things and having linear flux tube sequences and corresponding quantum states as correlates at the level of MB. This does not however tell what internal speech is at deeper quantum level.
  2. Did thinking as internal speech precede ordinary speech or vice versa? If internal speech came first, one avoids the problem of understanding why only certain sounds have meaning as words. Assume that this is the case.
  3. Genes are fundamental in biology. Did internal speech evolve as one particular form of gene expression? TGD inspired model for music harmony based on 12-note scale realize as Hamilton's cycle at icosahedron (see this) leads to a model of genetic code predicting correctly the numbers of codons coding for given amino-acid and to the proposal that genes express themselves are controlled by signals consisting of sequences of 3-chords allowed by a particular bio-harmony with 64 3-chords (256 of bio-harmonies) (see this). Given harmony would define an emotional state, mood.

    Gene would be represented as a sequence of 3-chords - accompaniment for a song, melody. Melody would be a sequence of single notes of 12-note scale consistent with the bio-harmony. The sequence of 3-chords allowed by the harmony would define the emotional character of the "music piece". Harmony would be something which chemistry cannot explain.

  4. How the accompaniment and song were represented at gene level? The most natural guess is that both the notes of 3-chords of the harmony defining the mood and the melody were represented as dark light. This would be music of light consisting of dark photons rather than phonons: notes would have been analogs of laser beams along flux tubes characterized by frequency and duration.

    How singing was represented at neuronal level? My proposal is that it was represented as 2-D structure of activated neurons having connected magnetic flux tube network as correlate and representing the mental image. Perhaps the pitch and duration of the note served as 2 discrete coordinates in neuronal lattice (see this).

  5. It is said that right brain sings and left brain talks. These two modes of expression relate like function and its Fourier transform. Did (internal) singing precede (internal) speech? At neuronal level this is suggested by the fact that Alzheimer patient who has lost understanding of language and ability to talk can still understand singing and also sing. Indeed, 1-D linear flux tube structures representing thoughts splits as amylose splits the neuronal connection so that speech is not possible. 2-D structures survive even if some connections are split (see this). Note that these two modes relate to cognition and emotion. Emotion came first as indeed evolution of nervous system demonstrates.
How did spoken language emerge?

How do the words of spoken language transform to internal speech and vice versa? What distinguishes words from ordinary sounds?

  1. The piezoelectric property of bio-matter makes possible the transformation of light to sound: now light would consist of dark photons with energies E= hefff in bio-photon range (visible and UV) and frequencies f in the range of audible sound frequencies. Did this transformation somehow give rise to genuine auditory experience of internal song/speech? Did internal singing/speech transform to heard singing/speech by virtual sensory input from brain to ears?

    In TGD based model for sensory perception, hallucinations/psychedelic experiences, and imagination (see this) this kind of virtual sensory input is essential since sensory qualia are at the level sensory organs and the objects of perceptive field are standardized mental images, kind of artwork requiring resulting from pattern recognition involving a lot of forth-and-back signalling between brain and sensory organs by dark photons).

    We would experience mere virtual sensory input in dreams (REM), hearing voices from head, etc... Pineal gland ("third eye") receiving dark photons signals would receive internal speech and in presence of DMT would channel it to ears producing heard internal song/speech. Jaynes argues that what he calls bicameral consciousness preceded modern consciousness and was like that of schizophrenic and people heard their thoughts as voices in head and interpreted these voices as voices of Gods.

  2. Did speech and speech organs evolve from the attempts to mimic this genuinely heard internal singing/speech. This would answer the question why only certain kind of sounds have meaning as words. Did this attempt provide evolutionary pressure leading to the emergence of genes coding for speech organs and speech as a motor activity?

    Remark: An amusing analogy pops in mind: internal speech viz. internal song is like rap viz. ordinary singing dropping out much of the emotional content.

    This cannot be the whole story. Language learning is a social phenomenon involving mimicry. Modern human cannot learn to speak by listening only voices in his head! One can however ask whether languages have some universal pattern. For instance, could very primitive languages depend only on species? What is the role of the collective consciousness: does it talk in the same manner to individuals of the group who then mimic this talk. Was the God of the bicamerals the collective consciousness of the group?

See the the article How did language emerge? or the chapter Quantum model of nerve pulse.

Does the action of anesthetes prevent the formation of cognitive mental images?

I encountered an interesting popular article Scientists Just Changed Our Understanding of How Anaesthesia Messes With The Brain telling about the finding that anesthetes weaken the communications between neurons. It is found that a anesthete known as propofol restrics the movement of protein syntaxin 1a appearing as neurotransmitter at synapses and neurons.

The TGD inspired explanation for the loss of consciousness would be following. Nerve pulse activity is needed to generate neurotransmitters attaching to the receptors of post-synaptic neuron and in this manner forming connections between pre- and post-synaptic neurons giving rise to networks of active neurons. The transmitter would be like a relay in old-fashioned telephone network. Propofol would prevent the formation of the bridges and therefore of the networks of active neurons serving as correlates for mental images. No mental images, no higher level consciousness.

The earlier TGD inspired proposal was that anesthetes induce a hyperpolarization reducing the nerve pulse activity. How anesthetes could induce hyperpolarization is discussed at here: the model involves microtubules in an essential manner. Hyperpolarization would have same effect as the restriction of the movement of syntaxin 1a. This mechanism might be at work during sleep and also some anesthetes (but not propofol) could use it.

The TGD based interpretation relies on a profound re-interpretation of the function of transmitters and information molecules in general (see this). The basic idea is that connected networks of neurons correspond to mental images at neuronal level and that the effect of anesthetes is to prevent the formation of these networks.

  1. In TGD based model neither nerve pulses nor information molecules represent signals in intra-brain communications but build communication channels acting as relays fusing existing disjoint flux tubes associated with axons to network like connected structures as they attach to receptors.

    Flux tue networks make possible classical signalling by dark photons with heff=n× h. Dark photons make their presence manifest by occasionally transforming to ordinary photons identified as bio-photons with energies in visible and UV range. This signalling takes place at light velocity and is therefore optimal for communication and information processing purposes.

    Quantum mechanically flux tube networks correspond to so called tensor networks. Due to quantum coherence in the scale of network, quantum entanglement between the neurons of connected sub-networks is possible and networks serve as correlates for mental images.

    Nerve pulse patterns frequency modulate generalized Josephson radiation from neuronal membrane acting as a generalized Josephson junction. This radiation identifiable as EEG gives rise to sensory input to magnetic body (MB). MB in turn controls biological body (say brain) via dark cyclotron radiation, at least through genome, where it induces gene expression.

  2. All mental images at the level of brain are cognitive representations but they generate dark photon signals as virtual sensory inputs to sensory organs and in this manner give rise to sensory percepts as kind of artworks resulting in an iteration like process involving signalling forth and back using dark photons. This would make possible pattern recognition and formation of the objects of the perceptive field as cognitive representations in turn mapped to sensory percepts at sensory organs.
  3. In the case of hearing of speech the objects of the perceptive field are linear and represent words and sentences. In the case of written language the words decompose to linear sequences of syllables and these in turn into letters. In the case of sensory perception the sub-networks are 2-D or even 3-D and represent objects of the perceptive field. The topological dynamics of this network represents the dynamics of sensory perception and verbal and sensorily represented cognition (idiot savants).
See the the chapter Quantum model of nerve pulse or the article DMT, pineal gland, and the new view about sensory perception.


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