What's new in
TGD and EEG
Note: Newest contributions are at the top!
I learned simultaneously about two findings related to high Tc super-conductivity leading to a proposal of a general mechanism of bio-control in which small signal can serve as a control knob inducing phase transition producing macroscopically quantum coherent large heff phases in living matter.
High Tc superconductivity at room temperature and pressure
Indian physicists Kumar Thapa and Anshu Pandey have found evidence for superconductivity at ambient (room) temperature and pressure in nanostructures (see this). There are also earlier claims about room temperature superconductivity that I have discussed in my writings.
Here is part of the abstract of their article.
We report the observation of superconductivity at ambient temperature and pressure conditions in films and pellets of a nanostructured material that is composed of silver particles embedded into a gold matrix. Specifically, we observe that upon cooling below 236 K at ambient pressures, the resistance of sample films drops below 10-4 Ohm, being limited by instrument sensitivity. Further, below the transition temperature, samples become strongly diamagnetic, with volume susceptibilities as low as -0.056. We further describe methods to tune the transition to temperatures higher than room temperature.
Dark matter is identified as phases of ordinary matter with non-standard value heff/h=n of Planck constant (see this) (h=6h0 is the most plausible option). Charge carriers are heff/h0=n dark macroscopically quantum coherent phases of ordinary charge carriers at magnetic flux tubes along which the supra current can flow. The only source of dissipation relates to the transfer of ordinary particles to flux tubes involving also phase transition changing the value of heff.
This superconductivity is essential also for microtubules exhibit signatures for the generation of this kind of phase at critical frequencies of AC voltages serving as a metabolic energy feed providing for charged particles the needed energy that they have in heff/h0=n phase.
Large heff phases with same parameters than ordinary phase have typically energies large than ordinary phase. For instance. Atomic binding energies scale like 1/heff2 and cyclotron energies and harmonic oscillator energies quite generally like heff. Free particle in box is however quantum critical in the sense that the energy scale E= hbareff2/2mL2 does not depend on the heff if one has L∝ heff. At space-time level this is true quite generally for external (free) particles identified as minimal 4-surfaces. Quantum criticality means independence on various coupling parameters.
What is interesting is that Ag and Au have single valence electron. The obvious guess would be that valence electrons become dark and form Cooper pairs in the transition to superconductivity. What is interesting that the basic claim of a layman researcher David Hudson is that ORMEs or mono-atomic elements as he calls them include also Gold. These claims are not of course taken seriously by academic researchers. In the language of quantum physics the claim is that ORMEs behave like macroscopic quantum systems. I decided to play with the thought that the claims are correct and this hypothesis served later one of the motivations for the hypothesis about dark matter as large heff phases: this hypothesis follows from adelic physics (see this), which is a number theoretical generalization of ordinary real number based physics.
TGD explanation of high Tc superconductivity and its biological applications strongly suggest that a feed of "metabolic" energy is a prerequisite of high Tc superconductivity quite generally. The natural question is whether experimenters might have found something suggesting that the external energy feed - usually seen as a prerequisite for self-organization - is involved with high Tc superconductivity. During same day I got FB link to another interesting finding related to high Tc superconductivity in cuprates and suggesting positive answer to this question!
Transition to high Tc superconductivity involves positive feedback
The discovery of positive feedback in the transition to hight Tc superconductivity is described in the popular article " Physicists find clues to the origins of high-temperature superconductivity" (see this). Haoxian Li et al at the University of Colorado at Boulder and the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne have published a paper on their experimental results obtained by using ARPES (Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy) in Nature Communications (see this).
The article reports the discovery of a positive feedback loop that greatly enhances the superconductivity of cupra superconductors. The abstract of the article is here.
Strong diffusive or incoherent electronic correlations are the signature of the strange-metal normal state of the cuprate superconductors, with these correlations considered to be undressed or removed in the superconducting state. A critical question is if these correlations are responsible for the high-temperature superconductivity. Here, utilizing a development in the analysis of angle-resolved photoemission data, we show that the strange-metal correlations don’t simply disappear in the superconducting state, but are instead converted into a strongly renormalized coherent state, with stronger normal state correlations leading to stronger superconducting state renormalization. This conversion begins well above Tc at the onset of superconducting fluctuations and it greatly increases the number of states that can pair. Therefore, there is positive feedback––the superconductive pairing creates the conversion that in turn strengthens the pairing. Although such positive feedback should enhance a conventional pairing mechanism, it could potentially also sustain an electronic pairing mechanism.
The explanation of the positive feedback in TGD TGD framework could be following. The formation of dark electrons requires "metabolic" energy. The combination of dark electrons to Cooper pairs however liberates energy. If the liberated energy is larger than the energy needed to transform electron to its dark variant it can transform more electrons to dark state so that one obtains a spontaneous transition to high Tc superconductivity. The condition for positive feedback could serve as a criterion in the search for materials allowing high Tc superconductivity.
The mechanism could be fundamental in TGD inspired quantum biology. The spontaneous occurrence of the transition would make possible to induce large scale phase transitions by using a very small signal acting therefore as a kind of control knob. For instance, it could apply to bio-superconductivity in TGD sense, and also in the transition of protons to dark proton sequences giving rise to dark analogs of nuclei with a scaled down nuclear binding energy at magnetic flux tubes explaining Pollack effect. This transition could be also essential in TGD based model of "cold fusion" based also on the analog of Pollack effect. It could be also involved with the TGD based model for the finding of macroscopic quantum phase of microtubules induced by AC voltage at critical frequencies (see this).
See the chapter Quantum Model for Bio-Superconductivity: II.
A fascinating finding again: neuroscientist Giovanni Caputo reports that staring into someone's eyes for 10 minutes induces an altered state of consciousness.
This findings seems to provide direct support for one of the most radical predictions of TGD based quantum view about brain (see this). Neuroscientists assume that nerve pulse pattern generate in brain sensory mental images, in particular visual mental images. In TGD framework brain would build cognitive representations and decompose perceptive field into standard objects in this manner but would not produce sensory qualia. The sensory mental images would be realized at the level of sensory organs. This would involve repeated feedback by using virtual sensory input from brain (or even magnetic body of brain) to build standardized sensory mental images giving rise to pattern cognition. During REM sleep the virtual sensory input would form the entire sensory input. Nerve pulses are quite two slow to achieve this and they would only generate sensory patways, kind of wave guides, along which dark photons with non-standard value hefff=n×h0 of Planck constant would propagate forth and back.
This view allows to avoid the problem due to the fact that neuronal networks in various sensory areas look very much the same so that it is difficult to understand why they give rise to so different sensory qualia. The obvious objection is phantom limb phenomenon, which could be however understood is the pain in phantom limb is sensory memory of pain. It is indeed possible to produce sensory memories by an electrical stimulation of brain. In TGD the perceptive field would be 4-D and only sensory percepts would be localized to approximate time=constant snapshot having actually a finite duration of about .1 seconds. Memories (as distinguished from learned skills and conditionings) would correspond to contributions to memories from the geometric past.
Staring into eyes experience provides an opportunity to test the idea about virtual sensory input. A fusion of two conscious entities, call them A and B, at some level of self hierarchy might occur. This would involve entanglement, which in TGD framework would accompany the generation of magnetic flux tubes or actually flux tube pairs (by reconnection of flux loops) connecting the eyes of the experiencers and the propagation of the dark photons along flux tubes between the brains of A and B so that visual consciousness would be shared. For instance, A could see the virtual sensory input representing her own face at the face of B. This indeed happened! Volunteers had also out of body experiences (OBEs), had hallucinations of monsters, and saw besides themselves their relatives.
One particular fascinating question is what seeing one's own relatives could mean. The answer depends on whether the subject persons knew each other or not. If not, then the information about relatives of say A would have been transferred from A to B and then returned as virtual sensory input via eyes of B to eyes of A. This is of course possible also when the persons know each other. A would be looking into consciousness mirror defined by B! This experiment would be the first direct realization of fusion of two selves by quantum entanglement. The revolution in neuroscience is now in full swing!
See the chapter Quantum Model for Nerve Pulse or the article DMT, pineal gland, and the new view about sensory perception.
A group of scientist, led by Prof. Ido Kanter, of the Department of Physics and the Gonda (Goldschmied) Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University (see this, has published an article Scientific Reports, which could have revolutionary implications for neuroscience.
Kanter et al claim that the old Hebb that learning takes place in synapses, is mistaken. Instead, the learning would take place in dendrites and much nearer to the neuron and only few parameters would determine the outcome unlikes in Hebbian approach in which thousands of parameters - synaptic strengths determine the outcome. Furthermore, weak synaptic connections - most of synaptic connections are weak - would be more significant as believed.
What the new view about learning could mean from the viewpoint of quantum brain paradigm according to TGD? In this vision magnetic tube pairs having define connections of a dynamical network having neurons at nodes. The connectivity/topology of this network is changing all the time. At deeper level supra currents and dark photons would be responsible for signalling and the function of nerve pulses would not be communication but to change the topology of the network via the activation of synaptic contacts. Neurotransmitters would be like relays in old fashioned telephone network.
If Kanter et al is right, dendrites would learn instead of synapses. Should one talk about dendritic strengths instead of synaptic strengths? Also weak synapses - most synapses are weak - would be important. What happens to "neurons that fire together wire together" paradigm?
Consider first as background TGD vision about neuroscience. The following article summarize the recent developments: DMT, pineal gland, and the new view about sensory perception, Is it possible to reverse Alzheimer's disease? , Emotions as sensory perceptions about the state of magnetic body?, Artificial Intelligence, Natural Intelligence, and TGD.
I learned about very weird looking phenomenon involving Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of strontium atoms at ultralow temperature corresponding to T=1.5× 10-7 K and thus thermal energy of order 10-11 eV. Experimenters create Rydberg atoms by applying a laser beam to BEC of strontium atoms: second valence electron of Sr is kicked to at an orbital with very large classical radius characterized by the principal quantum number n. This leads to a formation of "molecules" of BEC atoms inside the orbit of Rydberg electron - Rydberg polarons as they are called.
The phenomenon is an excellent challenge for TGD, and in this article I will construct a TGD inspired model for it. The model relies on the notion of many-sheeted space-time distinguishing between Maxwellian electrodynamics and TGD. The model assumers a pair of magnetic flux tubes between electrons of opposite spin associated with the Rydberg atom. The flux tubes are parallel space-time sheets in M4× CP2 (same M4 projection) and are not distinguishable at QFT limit of TGD. They carry monopole fluxes with opposite directions and present in the region between spins, where the sum of the dipole fields vanishes in Maxwellian theory. The members of s2 electron pairs of BEC atoms are assumed to topologically condense at different parallel flux tubes of the pair minimizing ground state energy in this manner.
The model makes predictions surprisingly similar to the model of experimenters based on Born-Oppenheimer potential but there are also differences. An interesting possibility that if the generation of Rydberg involves time reversal as zero energy ontology suggests then the energy spectrum involved can be positive rather than consisting of bound states. Also a possible interpretation for the "endogenous" magnetic fields central in TGD inspired biology emerges.
See the chapter Quantum Model for Bio-Superconductivity: II or the article Rydberg polarons as a support for TGD based view about space-time.
A highly interesting new effect associated with graphene is discussed in Phys.Org article (see this). The original research articles by Cao et al are published in Nature. There is also a popular article In Nature (see this). What is found that a bilayer formed by parallel graphene sheets becomes superconducting for critical values of twist angle θ. The largest critical value of θ is θ=1.1 degrees.
Consider first basic facts. The surprising discovery was that graphene becomes unconventional superconductor at temperature 1.7 K. It was already earlier discovered that the coupling of graphene to a superconductor can make also graphene superconducting.
The finding of Cao et al is believed to be highly significant concerning the understanding of high Tc super-conductivity and motivates the development of a model of Mott insulators based on TGD based views about valence bond inspired by the identification of dark matter as heff/h=n phases of ordinary matter emerging naturally in adelic physics (see this). Also a more detailed version about the model of high Tc superconductivity in TGD Universe developed earlier emerges.
The model starts from a model of elementary particles applied to electron.
They are now starting to get to the right right track in quantum computation!: see the popular article in Cosmos about the an advance in quantum computing by an Australian research team led by Mischelle Simmons published in Nature communications. The life-time of qubits represented by phosphorus (P) nuclei having spin 1/2 is unexpectedly long so that they are excellent candidate for qubits in quantum computation.
They have started to learn from biology! P is a key atom in metabolism and Fisher already earlier suggested that Posner molecules containing 9 Ca atoms and 6 phosphates could be a central element of life. Just now I realized that P atoms of Posner molecule could serve as qubits and 6 qubits in Posner molecule could realize genetic code with 64 code words. Could our bone marrow be performing massive quantum computations utilizing genetic code?!
Remark: Totally unrelated association: the magic number 6 appears also in the structure of cortex: could the six layers represent qubits and realize genetic code?
Posner molecules are the basic stuff of bones. What is required is however non-standard value of heff =n×h giving longer lifetime for the qubits realized as nuclear spins. The cyclotron frequency in the endogenous magnetic field Bend=.2 Gauss field central in TGD inspired biology is 9.4 Hz, in alpha band and the Larmor freqency of O nucleus is 10.9 Hz, alpha band again!
See the chapter Quantum model for nerve pulse or the article Are lithium, phosphate, and Posner molecule fundamental for quantum biology?.
I wrote for a couple of years ago a commentary about the work of Fisher on so called Posner molecule: Ca9(PO4)6 Ca:s are double charged ions and phosphates triply charged ions. Bones have pairs of Posner molecules as building bricks. Fisher proposed that the Larmor frequences of phospates might be fundamental in biology. This might be true.
However, while writing I however found that PO4 3- ion has cyclotron frequency of 9.5 Hz in endogenous magnetic field Bend=.2 Gauss explaining together with heff/h=n hypothesis inspired by the quantal effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate brain reduced later to a prediction of adelic physics. This frequency is in alpha band defining the fundamental biorhytm. This of course puts bells ringing.
Posner molecule would be ideal for both control purposes (Ca2+ and PO43- ions) and for metabolism (6 phosphates with high energy phosphate bonds): P and O related valence bonds indeed have nearly maximal metabolic energy content in the proposed model of valence bonds based on heff/h=n hierarchy (see this).
This suggests that bones might also serve as energy storages and - of course - as nutrients. Interestingly, in the evolution of humans the discovery of stones as tools to break down bones of prey animals to get bone marrow has been seen as a critical step leading to the growth of cortex requiring a lot of metabolic energy (to generate large n bonds providing ability to generate negentropy).
What is interesting that ATP molecule - the basic metabolic currency - has triphosphate with total charge -4 as a building brick. Triphosphate is characterized by cyclotron frequency 4.8 Hz, which is one half of the alpha band frequency. The diphosphate in ADP has cyclotron frequency 5.2 Hz. Note that the cyclotron frequency of Fe2+ ion central in oxygen based metabolism is 10.7 Hz and in alpha band as also the Larmor frequency 10.96 Hz of P.
This suggests that MB uses spin flips for control and coordination purposes. MB could control and coordinate all phosphate containing biomolecules usign this Larmor transition of P. This includes ATP, DNA, RNA, the tubulins of microtubules containing GTP and all biomolecules to which phosphate is attached. This would conform with the frequencies in alpha band as a universal biorhythm used by magnetic body to keep metabolism in synchrony in body scale.
Note that in DNA the singly charged phosphates in XMPs, X = A, T, C, G, have cyclotron frequency, which is one third of this, that is 3.1 Hz. This frequency appears in EEG as a kind of resonance frequency during deep sleep. DNA nucleotides as a whole have cyclotron frequencies around 1 Hz. In microtubules the phosphate of GTP can have three different charge states allowing frequencies 3.1,6.2 and 9.4 Hz. I have proposed that these charge states together with two different tubulin conformations give rise to a realization of genetic code.
The proton cyclotron frequency 300 Hz has been already earlier assigned with ATP and the models for the lifelike properties of a system consisting of plastic balls involved cyclotron frequency of Ar+ ion, which is same as that of Ca2+ ion and cyclotron frequency 300 Hz of proton (see this). Also the two important frequencies associated with honeybee dance correspond to the cyclotron frequencies of Ca2+ and proton (see this).
See the chapter Quantum model for nerve pulse or the article Are lithium, phosphate, and Posner molecule fundamental for quantum biology?.
I encountered in FB a link to an article titled Unique mix of brain chemicals separates humans from other primates . The article inspired the following comments as a reaction, which are not so much about the chemistry but about what to my view goes outside chemistry.
Cultural evolution is what distinguishes us so sharply from our cousins. The evolution of social structures made possible by the emergence of language is certainly crucial for it. To me it is far from obvious whether this can be explained in terms of chemistry alone. My views are based on TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology and involve notions like magnetic body and hierarchy of Planck constants.
The notion of magnetic body and the emergence of language and cultural evolution
The emergence of language and speech organs is certainly a revolutionary step in evolution. What language is at quantum level? What thoughts as internal speech are at deeper level.
How do the words of spoken language transform to internal speech and vice versa? What distinguishes words from ordinary sounds?
I encountered an interesting popular article Scientists Just Changed Our Understanding of How Anaesthesia Messes With The Brain telling about the finding that anesthetes weaken the communications between neurons. It is found that a anesthete known as propofol restrics the movement of protein syntaxin 1a appearing as neurotransmitter at synapses and neurons.
The TGD inspired explanation for the loss of consciousness would be following. Nerve pulse activity is needed to generate neurotransmitters attaching to the receptors of post-synaptic neuron and in this manner forming connections between pre- and post-synaptic neurons giving rise to networks of active neurons. The transmitter would be like a relay in old-fashioned telephone network. Propofol would prevent the formation of the bridges and therefore of the networks of active neurons serving as correlates for mental images. No mental images, no higher level consciousness.
The earlier TGD inspired proposal was that anesthetes induce a hyperpolarization reducing the nerve pulse activity. How anesthetes could induce hyperpolarization is discussed at here: the model involves microtubules in an essential manner. Hyperpolarization would have same effect as the restriction of the movement of syntaxin 1a. This mechanism might be at work during sleep and also some anesthetes (but not propofol) could use it.
The TGD based interpretation relies on a profound re-interpretation of the function of transmitters and information molecules in general (see this). The basic idea is that connected networks of neurons correspond to mental images at neuronal level and that the effect of anesthetes is to prevent the formation of these networks.