Magnetic Sensory Canvas Hypothesis

There are very general objections against the idea that ultimate sensory representations are realized inside brain. For instance, any computer scientist, unless informed about materialistic dogmas, would argue that the processing of the sensory data must be separated from its representation. How this could occur if sensory and other representations are realized inside brain, is however difficult to see.

In TGD approach these objections lead to the view that the magnetic flux tube structures associated with the primary sensory organs and higher levels of central nervous system define a hierarchy of sensory and other representations outside brain with magnetic flux tubes serving as the sensory canvas to which place coding by magnetic transition frequencies generates sensory sub-selves and associates with them various sensory qualia and features by quantum entanglement. Thus brain could be much like a RAM memory containing a collection of features in random order and the ordering would be induced by the sensory map to the magnetic sensory canvas. MEs define the sensory projections and EEG MEs correspond to our level in this hierarchy of projections. The sizes of these sensory selves are of order ME sizes (L(EEG)= c/f(EEG)) and thus or order Earth size at least. Thus TGD based view about sensory representations is a diametrical opposite of the standard view in which sensory representations are miniatures.

The construction of a more detailed model is based on the following assumptions.

  1. Sensory qualia are at the level of primary sensory organs having their own magnetic bodies and entangled with the cognitive and symbolic representations of the perceptive field in brain in turn entangled with the points of the sensory magnetic canvas. The entanglement between primary sensory organs and brain and TGD based view about long term memory resolves the basic objections against this view, and one can understand the differences between sensory experience, imagination, dreams, and hallucinations and various strange phenomena like synesthesia, Anton's syndrome, and blind sight.

  2. Second essential element is the mirror mechanism of long term memories. To remember something in the geometric past at temporal distance T is to look at a magnetic mirror with length L=cT/2. At quantum level quantum entanglement is involved and means sharing of mental images between recent me and the me of the geometric past (or some other self responsible for the memory representations). This requires that magnetic flux tubes involved with long term memories have astrophysical lengths with light year being the natural length unit. For magnetic fields this indeed makes sense. This picture can be applied to construct a model of long term episodal and declarative memories. The magnetic body (the "me") uses brain as a time mirror by generating a negative energy ME representing a signal propagating along magnetic flux tube to the brain and entangling magnetic body with brain. The negative energy ME is time reflected as a positive energy ME able to communicate classical information to the magnetic body possibly using p-adic cognitive code. Phase conjugate laser wave is the physical counterpart of negative energy ME.

  3. Libet's findings about strange causal anomalies related to the passive aspects of consciousness support strongly the notion of magnetic body and lead to the conclusion that sensory experiences are geometric memories of magnetic body in time scale of .5 seconds about what happens in at the level of material body. Libet's findings about active aspects of consciousness in turn allow to conclude that motor activity is very much like active precognition and mirror image of sensory perception. A beautiful general scenario unifying sensory perception, long term memories, and motor action emerges and allows to explain phenomena like sensory rivalry difficult to understand in neuro-science framework. It must be however admitted that sensory canvas hypothesis is far from being established even in TGD framework: one can also defend the minimal model in which personal magnetic body is responsible only for the realization of long term memories and sensory, symbolic, and cognitive representations are realized only at the level of the material body.

  4. Dark matter hierarchy based on a hierarchy of increasing values of Planck constant predicts a hierarchy of generalized EEGs. The generalized EEGs make it possible for the magnetic bodies to receive sensory information from biological body and quantum control it. The resulting detailed model of ordinary EEG predicts correctly the band structure and narrow resonance bands.

  5. TGD suggests preferred values for r=hbar/hbar0. For the most general option the values of hbar are products and ratios of two integers na and nb. Ruler and compass integers defined by the products of distinct Fermat primes and power of two are number theoretically favored values for these integers because the phases exp(i2π/ni), i=a,b, in this case are number theoretically very simple and should have emerged first in the number theoretical evolution via algebraic extensions of p-adics and of rationals. p-Adic length scale hypothesis favors powers of two as values of r. The hypothesis that Mersenne primes Mk=2k-1, k=89,107,127, and Gaussian Mersennes MG,k=(1+i)k-1, k=113,151,157,163,167,239,241.. (the number theoretical miracle is that all the four p-adic length scales sith k=151,157,163,167 are in the biologically highly interesting range 10 nm-2.5 μm) define scaled up copies of electro-weak and QCD type physics with ordinary value of hbar and that these physics are induced by dark variants of each other leads to a prediction for the preferred values of r=2kd, kd=ki-kj, and the resulting picture finds support from the ensuing models for biological evolution and for EEG.

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Quantum model for bio-superconductivity: I

The models for generalized EEG and nerve pulse relates very closely to the general model of high Tc superconductivity. This motivates a separate discussion of the vision about bio-super-conductivity in TGD Universe. The discussion is divided into two chapters. In the first chapter the general TGD inspired mechanism of high Tc super-conductivity relying on dark matter identified as large hbar phase at magnetic flux quanta is introduced. Also various poorly understood phenomena associated with cell membrane are considered as motivation for the TGD based view.

1. General mechanisms of bio-superconductivity

The many-sheeted space-time concept provides a very general mechanism of superconductivity based on the 'dropping' of charged particles from atomic space-time sheets to larger space-time sheets. The first guess was that larger space-time sheets are very dry, cool and silent so that the necessary conditions for the formation of high Tc macroscopic quantum phases are met.

The possibility of large hbar quantum coherent phases makes however the assumption about thermal isolation between space-time sheets un-necessary. At larger space-time sheet the interactions of the charged particles with classical em fields generated by various wormhole contacts feeding gauge fluxes to and from the space-time sheet in question give rise to the necessary gap energy. The simplest model for Cooper pair is space-time sheet containing charged particles having attractive Coulombic interaction with the quarks and antiquarks associated with the throats of the wormhole contacts.

A crucial element is quantum criticality predicting a new kind of superconductivity explaining the strange features of high Tc super-conductivity. There are two kinds of Cooper pairs, exotic Cooper pairs and counterparts of ordinary BCS type Cooper pairs. Both correspond to a large value of Planck constant. Exotic Cooper pairs are quantum critical meaning that they can decay to ordinary electrons. Below temperature Tc1>Tc only exotic Cooper pairs with spin are present and their finite lifetime implies that super-conductivity is broken to ordinary conductivity satisfying scaling laws characteristic for criticality. At Tc spinless BCS type Cooper pairs become stable and exotic Cooper pairs can decay to them and vice versa. An open question is whether the BCS type Cooper pairs can be present also in the interior of cell.

These two superconducting phases compete in certain narrow interval around critical temperature for which body temperature of endotherms is a good candidate in the case of living matter. Also high Tc superfluidity of bosonic atoms dropped to space-time sheets of electronic Cooper pairs becomes possible besides ionic super conductivity. Even dark neutrino superconductivity can be considered below the weak length scale of scaled down weak bosons.

Magnetic magnetic flux tubes and sheets are especially interesting candidates for supra current carries. In this case the Cooper pairs must have spin one and this is indeed possible for exotic Cooper pairs. The fact that the critical magnetic fields can be very weak or large values of hbar is in accordance with the idea that various almost topological quantum numbers characterizing induced magnetic fields provide a storage mechanism of bio-information.

This mechanism is extremely general and in principle works for electrons, protons, ions, charged molecules and even exotic neutrinos and an entire zoo of high Tc bio-superconductors, super-fluids and Bose-Einstein condensates is predicted. Of course, there are restrictions due to the thermal stability it room temperature and it seems that only electron, neutrino, and proton Cooper pairs are possible at room temperature besides Bose-Einstein condensates of all bosonic ions and their exotic counterparts resulting when some nuclear color bonds become charged.

2. Hierarchies of preferred p-adic length scales and values of Planck constant

TGD inspired quantum biology and number theoretical considerations suggest preferred values for r=hbar/hbar0. For the most general option the values of hbar are products and ratios of two integers na and nb. Ruler and compass integers defined by the products of distinct Fermat primes and power of two are number theoretically favored values for these integers because the phases exp(i2π/ni), i∈ {a,b}, in this case are number theoretically very simple and should have emerged first in the number theoretical evolution via algebraic extensions of p-adics and of rationals. p-Adic length scale hypothesis favors powers of two as values of r.

The hypothesis that Mersenne primes Mk=2k-1, k∈{89,107,127}, and Gaussian Mersennes MG,k=(1+i)k-1, k∈{113,151,157,163,167,239,241..} (the number theoretical miracle is that all the four p-adic length scales sith k∈{151,157,163,167} are in the biologically highly interesting range 10 nm-2.5 μm) define scaled up copies of electro-weak and QCD type physics with ordinary value of hbar and that these physics are induced by dark variants of corresponding lower level physics leads to a prediction for the preferred values of r=2kd, kd=ki-kj, and the resulting picture finds support from the ensuing models for biological evolution and for EEG kenociteeegdark. This hypothesis - to be referred to as Mersenne hypothesis - replaces the earlier rather ad hoc proposal r=hbar/hbar0=211k for the preferred values of Planck constant.

3. Fractal hierarchy of magnetic flux sheets and the hierarchy of genomes

The notion of magnetic body is central in the TGD inspired theory of living matter. Every system possesses magnetic body and there are strong reasons to believe that the magnetic body associated with human body is of order Earth size and that there could be an entire hierarchy of these bodies with even much larger sizes. Therefore the question arises what one can assume about these magnetic bodies. The quantization of magnetic flux suggests an answer to this question.

  1. The quantization condition for magnetic flux reads in the most general form as ∮ (p-eA).dl =n×hbar. If supra currents flowing at the boundaries of the flux tube are absent one obtains e∫ B.dS =nhbar, which requires that the scaling of the Planck constant scales up the flux tube thickness by r2 and scaling of B by 1/r. If one assumes that the radii of flux tubes do not depend on the value of r, magnetic flux is compensated by the contribution of the supra current flowing around the flux tube: ∮ (p-eA).dl =0. The supra currents would be present inside living organism but in the faraway region where flux quanta from organism fuse together, the quantization conditions e∫ B.dS =n×hbar would be satisfied.

  2. From the point of view of EEG especially interesting are the flux sheets which have thickness L(151)=10 nm (the thickness of cell membrane) carrying magnetic field having strength of endogenous magnetic field. In absence of supra currents these flux sheets have very large total transversal length proportional to r2. The condition that the values of cycloctron energies are above thermal energy implies that the value of r is of order 2kd, kd=44. Strongly folded flux sheets of this thickness might be associated with living matter and connect their DNAs to single coherent structure. One can of course assume the presence of supra currents but outside the organism the flux sheet should fuse to form very long flux sheets.

  3. Suppose that the magnetic flux flows in head to tail direction so that the magnetic flux arrives to the human body through a layer of cortical neurons. Assume that the flux sheets traverse through the uppermost layer of neurons and also lower layers and that DNA of each neuronal nuclei define a transversal sections organized along flux sheet like text lines of a book page. The total length of DNA in single human cell is about one meter. It seems that single organism cannot provide the needed total length of DNA if DNA dominates the contribution. This if of course not at all necessarily since supra currents are possible and outside the organism the flux sheets can fuse together. This implies however correlations between genomes of different cells and even different organisms.

These observations inspire the notion of super- and hyper genes. As a matter fact, entire hierarchy of genomes is predicted. Super genes consist of genes in different cell nuclei arranged to threads along magnetic flux sheets like text lines on the page of book whereas hyper genes traverse through genomes of different organisms. Super and hyper genes provide an enormous representative capacity and together with the dark matter hierarchy allows to resolve the paradox created by the observation that human genome does not differ appreciably in size from that of wheat.

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Quantum model for bio-superconductivity: II

The models for EEG and its variants and for nerve pulse rely on a general model of high Tc superconductivity. The general vision behind model of cell membrane as super-conductor inspired by the identification of dark matter in terms of hierarchy of Planck constants and the notion of magnetic body was considered in the previous chapter. In this chapter the vision is tested by applying it to various anomalous findings about the behavior of the cell membrane.

The topics discussed are following.

  1. There are several findings challenging the standard thermodynamical view about cell membrane. TGD suggests a model in which various transmembrane proteins (receptors, channels, pumps) act as Josephson junction between superconductors assignable to the interior and exterior of cell membrane.

    The most feasible model for cell membrane and charge transfer found hitherto relies on Pollack's observations about fourth gel like phase of water. The model for the findings leads to a generalization of the cell membrane as Josephson junction obtained by adding to Josephson energy the difference of the cyclotron energies of dark ion at two sides of the cell membrane. Cyclotron energy difference replaces chemical potential difference in the generalization of the thermodynamical model inspired by Zero Energy Ontology, and replacing thermodynamical distributions with their quantal "square roots". Charge transfer would be induced by a phase transition changing the value of Planck constant at either or both sides of the membrane. This would induce the change of the equilibrium concentrations of ions and also charge transfer.

  2. Water memory, chiral selection of biomolecules, burning of water by radiowaves represent further intriguing effects whose understanding seems to require new physics. Dark matter identified in term of hierarchy of Planck constants and the notion of magnetic body define an attractive candidate in this respect. Scaled up variants of weak physics defined by the hierarchy of Planck constants and p-adic length scale hierarchy could explain chiral selection.

  3. Hafedh Abdelmelek and collaborators have found evidence for effective super-conductivity in the sciatic nerves of both endotherms (rabbit) and poikilotherms (frog). The TGD based explanation would be in terms of dark supra currents.

  4. DC currents of Becker have been known for a long time. An attractive interpretation is as supra currents. The basic prediction is that the resistance should not depend on he length of the conduction pathway. One can also construct a quantum model for the current.

  5. TGD inspires two views about cell membrane which need not be contradictory. For the first model cell is far from vacuum extremal, for the second model nearly vacuum extremal. There are several constraints on the model coming from the TGD based identification of bio-photons, the new view about metabolism. It seem that that the first model might be enough when generalized along lines inspired by Pollack's findings about the fourth phase of water.

Physicists M. Tajmar and C. J. Matos and their collaborators working in ESA (European Satellite Agency) have made an amazing claim of having detected strong gravimagnetism with gravimagnetic field having a magnitude which is about 20 orders of magnitude higher than predicted by General Relativity.

Tajmar et al have proposed the gravimagnetic effect as an explanation of an anomaly related to the superconductors. The measured value of the mass of the Cooper pair is slightly larger than the sum of masses whereas theory predicts that it should be smaller. The explanation would be that actual Thomson field is larger than it should be because of gravimagnetic contribution to quantization rule used to deduce the value of Thomson field. The required value of gravimagnetic Thomson field is however 28 orders of magnitude larger than General Relativity suggests. TGD inspired proposal is based on the notion of gravitational Planck constant assignable to the flux tubes connecting to massive objects. It turns out that the TGD estimate for the Thomson field has correct order of magnitude. The identification heff=heff at particle physics and atomic length scales emerges naturally.

A vision about the fundamental role of quantum gravitation in living matter emerges. The earlier hypothesis that dark EEG photons decay to biophotons with energies in visible and ultraviolet range receives strong quantitative support. Also a mechanism for how magnetic bodies couple bio-chemistry emerges. The vision conforms with Penrose's intuitions about the role of quantum gravity in biology.

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Quantum Model of Hearing

The quantum model of hearing has evolved through several twists and turns. The emergence of zero energy ontology, the explanation of dark matter in terms of a hierachy of Planck constants requiring a generalization of the notion of imbedding space, the view about life as something in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds, and the notion of number theoretic entanglement negentropy led to the breakthrough in TGD inspired quantum biology and also to the recent view of qualia and sensory representations including hearing allowing a precise quantitative model at the level of cell membrane. This also modified dramatically the speculative ideas about the role of neutrinos in hearing.

Also in the recent view long range weak play a key role. They are made possible by the exotic ground state represented as almost vacuum extremal of Kähler action for which classical em and Z0 fields are proportional to each other wheras for standard ground state classical Z0 fields are very weak. Neutrinos are present but it seems that they do not define cognitive representations in the time scales characterizing neural activity. Electrons and quarks for which the time scales of causal diamonds correspond to fundamental biorhythms, take this role.

The ensuing general model of how cell membrane acts as a sensory receptor has unexpected implications for the entire TGD inspired view about biology.

  1. The most important implication concerning the model of sensory receptors relates to the vacuum degeneracy of Kähler action. It has been clear from the beginning that the nearly vacuum extremals of Kähler action could play key role key role in living systems. The reason is their criticality making them ideal systems for sensory perception. These extremals carry classical em and Z0 fields related to each other by a constant factor and this could explain the large parity breaking effects characterizing living matter. The assumption that cell membranes are nearly vacuum extremals and that nuclei can feed their Z0 charges to this kind of space-time sheets in living matter leads to a modification of the model for cell membrane as Josephson junction. Also a model of photoreceptors explaining the frequencies of peak sensitivity as ionic Josephson frequencies and allowing the identification of biophotons as Josephson radiation emerges and will be discussed in the sequel. The value of Weinberg angle in this phase is fixed to sin2W)=.0295, whereas in standard phase the value is given by sin2W)=.23.

  2. DNA as topological quantum computer model plus certain simplifying assumption leads to the conclusion that the spectrum of net quantum numbers of quark antiquark pair define the primary qualia assignable to a nucleotide-lipid pair connected by a magnetic flux tube. The most general prediction is that the net quantum numbers of two quark pairs characterize the qualia. In the latter case the qualia would be assigned to a pair of receptor cells.

  3. Composite qualia result when one allows the nucleotide-lipid pairs of the membrane to be characterized by a distribution of quark-antiquark pairs. Cell membrane -or at least the axonal parts of neurons- would define a sensory representation in which is a pair of this kind defines a pixel characterized by primary qualia. Cells would be sensory homunculi and DNA defines a sensory hologram of body of or of part of it. Among other things this would give a precise content to the notion of grandma cell.

  4. Josephson frequencies of biologically important ions are in one-one correspondence with the qualia and Josephson radiation could re-generate the qualia or map them to different qualia in a one-one and synesthetic manner in the neurons of the sensory pathway. For large values of Planck constant Josephson frequencies are in EEG range so that a direct connection with EEG emerges and Josephson radiation indeed corresponds to both biophotons and EEG. This would realize the notion of sensory pathway which originally seemed to me a highly non-realistic notion and led to the vision that sensory qualia can be realized only at the level of sensory organs in TGD framework.

  5. At the level of brain motor action and sensory perception look like reversals of each other. In zero energy ontology motor action can be indeed seen as a time reversed sensory perception so that the model of sensory representations implies also a model for motor action. Magnetic body serves as a sensory canvas where cyclotron transitions induced by Josephson frequencies induce conscious sensory map entangling the points of the magnetic body with brain and body.

The model for hearing follows as a special case from the general model for sensory receptor and representations.

  1. Concerning hearing, the basic questions relate to the precise identification of the hearing quale, to the representation of pitch of the sound at the magnetic body, and to the representation of various geometric data about sound. The electromagnetic charge of the quark pair (or equivalently electroweak isospin) looks like an excellent candidate in this respect so that charge increment would define one fundamental hearing quale.

    This quale need not correspond to pitch. The vision about hearing as a frequency quale suggests that cyclotron transition frequency corresponds to the pitch. Sound frequency would be coded to an increment of cyclotron frequency and pitch would be a quale assignable to magnetic body rather than biological body. Hearing would in a well-defined sense represent a higher level sense not understandable without the notion of magnetic body. The strength of the magnetic field would code for cyclotron frequency and therefore for the pitch. One of the mysteries related to hearing is the ability to hear frequencies much higher than the maximum rate of nerve pulses which is below kHz. The coding by Josephson frequencies and representation of them as quale of the magnetic body resolves this mystery.

  2. At quantative level the first challenge is to understand the typical hearing ranges (humans, mice, bats, sea mammals) and here the time scales of CDs associated with quarks and leptons give intriguing hints. Also their cyclotron frequencies are involved and large values of Planck constant are unavoidably involved. Josephson frequencies are given by the effective membrane potential (Z0 potential must be included) divided by Planck constant and it is possible to represent arbitrarily low frequencies in terms of membrane potential by allowing Planck constant to have high enough values.

  3. The extreme rapidity of signalling from hair cells to brain is one of the mysteries of hearing and here Josephson radiation (biophotons) provides a direct neuronal window with practically instantaneous communication. Microtubles could be associated with the flux tubes along which Josephson radiation propagates and also microtubular conformational waves could be involved.

  4. Hearing represent in many respects an exceptional quale: consider only music experience, language, internal speech, the understanding and production of speech, and right brain sings- left brain talks metaphor. This conforms with the assumption that magnetic body is involved in essential manner with hearing. Zero energy ontology leads to a vision explaining basic aspects of music experience and the notion of memetic code plus possible realization of genetic code as temporal patterns could provide first principle understanding of language.

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What music can teach about consciousness?

Recently I have been reading the of Oliver Sacks titled "Musicophilia" dealing with various aspects of music experience. Humans as a species indeed have a very special relation to music. But is it really genuine characteristic of human consciousness? One can even ask whether consciousness emerges only in higher species or whether it could be in some form a characteric of any living or even inanimate system? I am not the only quantum consciousness theorists forced to consider panpsychism in some form. In this framework one can ask whether music like aspects of conscious experience could be universal and only especially highly developed in humans?

In this chapter I restrict the consideration to those stories of Musicophila, which I find of special interest from the point of view of TGD inspired theory of consciousness. The outcome is a more precise formulation for the general TGD inspired vision about brain based on basic ideas of quantum TGD.

Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) implies a new view about the relation between geometric and experienced time and allowing to generalize quantum measurement theory to a theory of consciousness.

Strong form of holography implies the analog of AdS/CFT duality between 2-D representation of physics based on string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces and 4-D space-time representations. This duality is not tautology and this inspires the idea that these two representations correspond to two modes for consciousness motivating "Left brain talks, right brain sings" metaphor.

  1. Language and music could relate to two dual representations of conscious information - local and holistic, cognitive and sensory. Discretization of function/its Fourier transform as a collection of its values at discrete set values of time/frequencies would correspond local/holistic approximations of function. In principle any conscious entity - self- could utilize these two representational modes at appropriate quantum criticality.
  2. The holistic "musical consciousness" is assignable to right brain hemisphere and according to the stories of Sacks seems to characterized by episodal sensory memories. TGD based view about memories relies on ZEO: the memories would be mental images with sensory input from geometric past, genuine sensory experiences of time reversed sub-selves! This picture simplifies considerably and one can see all memories - sensory, cognitive, or emotional - as analogs of phantom pain, which would be also a sensory memory and even more a genuine sensory experience. It is even possible that our biological bodies are used by two selves: right brain hemisphere sleeps when we are awake and vice versa. Even the experiences of epileptics about having double consciousness could be understood.
  3. A more concrete realization of "Left brain talks, right brain sings" metaphor relies on the assumption that "magneto-anatomy" is universal. Only the "magneto-physiology" characterized by the values of heff characterizing quantum criticality and defining a kind of intelligence quotient dictating the span of long term memory and planned action varies.

    heff would differ for the magnetic bodies of various brain areas, and the spectrum of heff for right and left brain would differ and characterize their specializations. For instance, the value of heff would be large (small) for the cognitive areas of left (right) brain and small (large) for some higher sensory areas of right (left) brain. Magnetic bodies form a fractal hierarchy and one can characterize even individual cells and neurons by the value of heff associated with them. The spectrum for heff allows also to distinguish between members of the same species since it defines the skill profile. This obviously goes far beyond the genetic determinism.

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Is Non-Associative Physics and Language Possible Only in Many-Sheeted Space-Time?

Language is an essentially non-associative structure as the necessity to parse linguistic expressions essential also for computation using the hierarchy of brackets makes obvious. Hilbert space operators are associative so that non-associative quantum physics does not seem plausible without an extension of what one means with physics. Associativity of the classical physics at the level of single space-time sheet in the sense that tangent or normal spaces of space-time sheets are associative as sub-spaces of the octonionic tangent space of 8-D imbedding space M4× CP2 is one of the key conjectures of TGD. But what about many-sheeted space-time? The sheets of the many-sheeted space-time form hierarchies labelled by p-adic primes and values of Planck constants heff=n× h. Could these hierarchies provide space-time correlates for the parsing hierarchies of language and music, which in TGD framework can be seen as kind of dual for the spoken language? For instance, could the braided flux tubes inside larger braided flux tubes inside... realize the parsing hierarchies of language, in particular topological quantum computer programs? And could the great differences between organisms at very different levels of evolution but having very similar genomes be understood in terms of widely different numbers of levels in the parsing hierarchy of braided flux tubes- that is in terms of magnetic bodies as indeed proposed. If the intronic portions of DNA connected by magnetic flux tubes to the lipids of lipid layers of nuclear and cellular membranes make them topological quantum computers, the parsing hierarchy could be realized at the level of braided magnetic bodies of DNA. The mathematics needed to describe the breaking of associativity at fundamental level seems to exist. The hierarchy of braid group algebras forming an operad combined with the notions of quasi-bialgebra and quasi-Hopf algebra discovered by Drinfeld are highly suggestive concerning the realization of weak breaking of associativity.

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Dark Matter Hierarchy and Hierarchy of EEGs

The emergence of zero energy ontology, the explanation of dark matter in terms of a hierachy of Planck constants requiring a generalization of the notion of imbedding space, the view about life as something in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds, and the notion of number theoretic entanglement negentropy led to a breakthrough in TGD inspired quantum biology and also to the recent view of qualia and sensory representations including hearing allowing a precise quantitative model at the level of cell membrane.

Also long range weak forces play a key role. They are made possible by the exotic ground state represented as almost vacuum extremal of Kähler action for which classical em and Z0 fields are proportional to each other whereas for standard ground state classical Z0 fields are very weak. This leads to a correct prediction for the frequencies of peak sensitivity for photoreceptors - something highly non-trivial remembering that also the large parity breaking effects in living matter find a natural explanation. Second quantitative key observation was that for electrons and quarks the time scales of causal diamonds correspond to fundamental biorhythms assignable to central nervous system.

The general model for EEG follows neatly from this picture combined with the general model of high Tc superconductivity. A fractal hierarchy of EEGs and its generalizations identified in terms of Josephson radiation is predicted with levels labeled by p-adic length scales and the value of hbar at various levels of dark matter hierarchy. Cell membrane would represent only one level in this hierarchy. Besides EEG one would have its counterparts for various organs, organelles and even cell. Also the possibility of ZEG, WEG and QEG corresponding to Z0 bosons, W bosons, and gluons must be considered.

1. Fractal hierarchy of EEGs

EEG is replaced with a fractal hierarchy of EEGs corresponding to various values of Planck constants involved.

  1. There are three contributions to EEG besides the contributions due to the neural noise and evoked potentials. These contributions correspond to Schumann frequencies, cyclotron frequencies fc of biologically important ions in magnetic field Bend=.2 Gauss, and to the Josephson frequencies fJ associated with Josephson junctions assigned with cell membranes. If Josephson radiation modulates cyclogtron radiation also the frqequencies mfJ+/- nfc appear in the spectrum.

  2. In standard model fJ=ZeV/hbar would determined by the membrane potential and would correspond to energy in infrared. This sounds completely reasonable. TGD however suggests that cell membrane as a critical system correspond to an almost vacuum extremal. This predicts classical Z0 field proportional to em field to which nuclei and neutrinos are assumed to couple. This would explain chiral selection in living matter and predict correctly the frequencies of peak sensitivity for photoreceptors as Josephson frequencies assignable to the biologically most important ions. The effective couplings of ions to membrane potential are modified and the Josephson frequencies correspond to energies in visible and UV range. Bio-photons and EEG could be seen as manifestations of one and same thing: Josephson radiation with a large value of Planck constant with energies of biophotons and frequencies of EEG.

  3. An important point is that the ions involved must behave like bosons. For cyclotron condensates either Cooper pairs of ordinary fermionic ions or exotic ions chemically similar to their standard counterparts obtained from neutral bosonic atom by making one or more neutral color flux tubes connecting nucleons charged. For Josephson radiation only the latter option works. TGD based nuclear physics indeed predicts this kind of nuclei and there is experimental evidence for their existence.

  4. For cyclotron frequencies the extremals are assumed to be far from vacuum extremals carrying very small classical Z0 fields but nonvanishing classical W fields and color fields (with U(1) holonomy). The corresponding flux quanta would naturally correspond to flux sheets traversing through DNA strands while Josephson radiation would propagate along flux tubes parallel to the cell membrane. Far from biological body one expects both kinds of flux quanta to fuse to form larger ones so that one has parallel space-time sheets carrying cyclotron resp. Josephson radiation. Wormhole contacts between Josephson and cyclotron flux sheets would induce a non-linear interaction giving rise to a superposition of harmonics of Josephson and cyclotron frequencies.

  5. Josephson frequencies are assignable to the cell membrane and would naturally correspond to the communication of sensory data to the magnetic body. This would suggest that cyclotron frequencies are assignable to the magnetic flux sheets going through DNA strands responsible for quantum control via genome expression. This picture might be too naive. Josephson radiation would induce transitions between cyclotron states should generate sensory representations at magnetic body so that both frequencies would be involved with sensory representations. Furthermore, the identification of motor action as time reversal of sensory perception allwed by zero energy ontology would mean that same mechanisms are at work for negative energies (phase conjugate radiation). Resonance is achieved if the condition mfJ=nfc is satisfied. For small values of integers m and n the condition is quite restrictive. Schumann frequencies can be assigned with the magnetic body of Earth and would correlate with the collective aspects of consciousness.

  6. The model of hearing forces to assume quite a wide spectrum of Planck constants- at least the values coming as powers of two and the safest assumption is that at least integer multiples of the ordinary Planck constant are possible. Josephson radiation and cyclotron radiation have same scale if Bend ∝ 1/hbar proportionality holds true. For 5 Hz Josephson frequency and membrane potential and for V=.70 mV corresponding to the resting potential of neuron one obtains r=(0.96, 1.20, 1.34, 1.01)× 247. For Ca++ ion r is very near to a power of 2.

2. Basic aspects of EEG

Consider now how one could understand basic characteristics of EEG during wake-up and sleep in this framework.

  1. For small amplitudes and for the lowest harmonics this implies that alpha band to which the cyclotron frequencies most biologically important bosonic ions corresponds has as satellites theta and beta bands. Higher harmonics correspond to gamma and higher bands having also satellites.

  2. For large amplitudes EEG becomes chaotic which is indeed the property of beta band during say intense concentration or anxiety. The findings of Nunez about narrow 1-2 Hz wide bands at 3,5,7 Hz and 13,15,17 Hz confirm with the prediction of satellite bands and fix the Josephson frequency to 5 Hz. This picture explains the general characteristics of EEG in wake-up state qualitatively and quantitatively.

  3. In order to understand the characteristics during various stages of deep sleep one must assume that the cyclotron frequency scale of ions is scaled down by a factor of 1/2. The simplest explanation is that the value of Planck constant increases by a factor 2 in a phase transition having interpretation as a leakage of cell membrane space-time sheet between the pages of Big Book defined by the generalized imbedding space. During stage 4 sleep only only DNA cyclotron frequencies in delta band are around 1 Hz and just above the thermal threshold are predicted to be present. This stage could correspond to a value of Planck constant which is 4 times its value in wake-up state.

The generalization of the model for EEG hierarchy to the case of ZEGs is straightforward and Josephson frequency spectrum is the same. Any atom, almost always boson, has an exotically charged counterpart with same statistics so that very rich spectrum of Bose-Einstein condensates results.

3. The effects of ELF em fields on brain

The experimental data about the effects of ELF em fields at cyclotron frequencies of various ions in Earth's magnetic field on vertebrate brains were crucial for the development of the model of EEG. As a matter fact, it was the attempt to explain these effects, which eventually led to the discovery of the fractal hierarchy of EEGs and its generalizations.

The reported effects occur for harmonics of cyclotron frequencies of biologically important ions in Earth's magnetic field. They occur only in amplitude windows. The first one is around 10-7 V/m and second corresponds to the range 1-10 V/m: the amplitudes of EEG waves are in the range 5-10 V/m. The effects are present only in the temperature interval 36-37 C.

  1. Cyclotron frequencies led to the vision about cyclotron condensates of biologically important ions and their Cooper pairs at the flux quanta of dark magnetic field with so large Planck constant that the energies of cyclotron photons are above thermal threshold. The model for EEG and biophotons in terms of Josephson radiation from cell membrane which is almost vacuum extremal allows to make this model more quantitative.

  2. The temperature window has one interpretation in terms of a competion of almost vacuum extremal property of cell membrane possible above some critical temperature and high Tc super-conductivity possible below some critical temperature.

  3. The amplitude window 10-7 V/mfollows from a quantized form of Faraday law whose existence is supported by the fact that space-time sheets are analogs of Bohr orbits in exact sene. The quantisation condition relates the amplitude of electric field to Planck constant and frequency. For the value r=hbar/hbar0= 247 of Planck constant required by 5 Hz Josephson frequency the 10-7 V/m amplitude is predicted correctly.

  4. The amplitude window around 1-10 V/m (EEG amplitudes are in the range 5-10 V/m) follows if the values of Planck constant in the range 107r-108r can be justified. A possible justification is based on the observation that for r1=108r the Compton wave length of intermediate gauge bosons corresponds to k=163 defining Gaussian Mersenne and wavelength corresponding to 2 eV energy for photon which also corresponds to bio-photon energies assignable to 70 mV resting potential of neuron membrane. Electron's Compton length corresponds for r1=108r to 28 cm, which defines the size scale of brain. One might hope that these findings could allow to build an internally consistent story about what happens.

4. Vision about biological evolution and evolution of brain

The proposed model for EEG, the idea that Gaussian Mersennes (four of them are in the range 10 nm-2.5 micrometers) define p-adic length scales allowing exotic variants of color and electro-weak physics with light intermediate gauge bosons at space-time sheets near vacuum extremals, and the assumption that the preferred values of Planck constant are such that they relate these p-adic scales to each other leads to a detailed quantitative vision about evolution of life as emergence of longer scales belonging to this hierarchy and as special case also to a vision about evolution of cell, nervous system, EEG, and long term memory. The model predicts a hierarchy of preferred size scales for various sub-systems of organisms and corresponding time scales identifiable in terms of bio-rhythms and memory span.

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Quantum model of EEG

In the previous chapter the overall TGD based view about EEG was discussed. According to this view, the basic function of EEG is to induce cyclotron phase transitions at the magnetic body and thus to produce what might be called higher level sensory qualia identified as emotions and cognitions. In this chapter the relationship between EEG and nerve pulse patterns is discussed in TGD framework.

The relationship between nerve pulse patterns and EEG (also ZEG) is one of the basic challenges of the theory. The question is whether nerve pulse patterns could give rise to EEG patterns and vice versa, and what could be the underlying mechanisms. The deep difference between TGD and the conventional neuroscience is the presence of the hierarchy of magnetic bodies, cyclotron transitions, and MEs. This makes possible to consider alternatives for the identification of EEG resonance frequencies as resonance frequencies of nerve circuits.

Nerve pulses generate EEG MEs and the frequency of the nerve pulses determines the rate at which EEG MEs are generated rather than the frequency of EEG MEs. Pendulum metaphor suggests how spike patterns amplify EEG waves at frequencies, which appear as resonances in the autocorrelation function of the spike sequence: when the pendulum is kicked at correct half of its period its oscillation frequency remains unchanged but amplitude and phase suffer discontinuous changes. The EEG waves generated by subsequent nerve pulses tend to interfere constructively resulting in amplification if the EEG frequency corresponds to a resonance frequency of the spike autocorrelation function.

1. Generalization of the model for sensory receptor and new view about hearing

The relationship between nerve pulse patterns and EEG (also ZEG) is one of the basic challenges of the theory. The question is whether nerve pulse patterns could give rise to EEG patterns and vice versa, and what could be the underlying mechanisms. In TGD framework on ecan consider alternatives for the identification of EEG resonance frequencies as resonance frequencies of nerve circuits and dark matter hierarchy challenges the earlier speculative TGD inspired models for sensory qualia and sensory organ. An updating of the capacitor model of the sensory receptor by replacing the capacitor with Josephson junctions between sensory organ and its magnetic body must be considered. The question arises whether sensory organs define not only sensory, but also corresponding cognitive and emotional representations.

The fact that nerve pulses tend to destroy the temporal coherence of cognitive and emotional representations encourages the identification of glial cells and their magnetic bodies as carriers of higher level cognitive and emotional representations. The model of hearing leads to further ideas. For instance, the transformation of the sensory input to signals propagating along axonal microtubuli could make possible to feed sensory input into brain and possibly back to sensory organs at least in the case of vision and hearing.

2. Features

Walter Freeman has identified spatially amplitude modulated synchronous but non-periodic EEG patterns serving as correlates for conscious percepts. The identification as MEs is possible and the spectrum of durations for the synchronous time patterns encourages the interpretation of these patterns as an electromagnetic realization of genetic code words. A compression of memetic code words defined by the nerve pulse patterns giving rise to abstraction and classification would be in question. The representation would be achieved by the amplitude modulation of the alpha waves by higher harmonics of alpha frequencies. In the case of hearing the contraction seems to be un-necessary and memetic code could perhaps be realized also at the level of features. This would explain the completely exceptional role of the language in cognition.

3. Synchronization

Synchronization in and between various cortical areas is known to occur with millisecond precision. Also disjoint brain regions can be in synchrony. This is difficult to understand without synchronizing agent oscillating at kHz frequency. In TGD framework magnetic body is the natural agent inducing the synchrony and MEs could induce the synchronization. Synchronization would naturally occur at the frequency corresponding to a duration of the bit of the memetic code.

4. Stochastic resonance

Concerning the mapping of EEG frequencies to nerve pulse patterns, stochastic resonance promotes itself as a basic mechanism. In bistable systems stochastic resonance allows to amplify very weak periodic signals by utilizing white noise. Stochastic resonance is known to be relevant also at the neuronal level as demonstrated by the autocorrelation functions for spike sequences exhibiting peaks at the harmonics of the signal frequency. Neuron is however far from being bistable system, and this raises the question whether bi-stability might be present at some deeper quantal level.

5. Temporal codings

The conventional view that the information content of conscious experience is determined completely by rate coding from nerve pulse patterns does not seem plausible in TGD framework. Indeed, p-adic cognitive codes define an entire hierarchy of binary codes associated with the p-adic frequencies and frequency coding would apply only to the average intensity of the sensory input. For high stimulus intensities the duration of the bit of the p-adic cognitive codeword tends to become shorter. This is comparable to the increase of the speech rate during a high state of arousal, and conforms with the observed shift of EEG towards higher frequencies in this kind of situation. There is a lot of experimental evidence supporting the existence of various kinds of temporal codings, and these codings are discussed in TGD framework.

6. Scaling law

Scaling law provides bird's eye view about transitions which can represent conscious-to-us qualia at given level of the p-adic self hierarchy. The law relates two levels of self hierarchy corresponding to mental images associated with magnetic bodies of astrophysical size and with physical bodies, the latter with size not much larger than brain size. Scaling law assumes that self sizes L at given p-adic level k are between the p-adic length scales L(k) and L(k(next)). Scaling law is of form L=v/f and relates ELF self size characterized by ELF frequency f to the self size L and to the effective phase velocity v of the EEG wave.

Scaling law also suggested by the experimental work with the effects of ELF radiation in water. Scaling law can be explained in terms of phase transitions transforming large hbar photons to ordinary ones and vice versa. The chapter ends with the discussion about possible implications of the scaling law concerning EEG.

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Quantum model for nerve pulse

The basic idea behind the model of nerve pulse is that some kind of quantum jump reduces the magnitude of membrane potential below the threshold leading to the generation of nerve pulse. Several identification of this quantum jump have been discussed during years but no really convincing option has been found. The evolution of ideas about dark matter hierarchy and associated hierarchy of Planck constants led to a breakthrough in several sectors. The assignment of long ranged classical weak and color gauge fields to dark matter hierarchy was the crucial step and led among other things to a model of high Tc superconductivity predicting the basic scales of cell, to a generalization of the genetic code to a hierarchy of genetic codes.

1. Background

The basic philosophy behind the model is following.

  1. In TGD Universe the function of EEG and its variants is to make possible communications from the cell membrane to the magnetic body and the control of the biological body by the magnetic body via magnetic flux sheets traversing DNA by inducing gene expression. This leads to the notions of super- and hyper-genome predicting coherent gene expression at level of organs and population.

  2. The assignment the predicted ranged classical weak and color gauge fields to dark matter hierarchy was a crucial step in the evolution of the model, and led among other things to a model of high Tc superconductivity predicting the basic scales of cell, and also to a possible generalization of EXG to a hierarchy of ZXGs, WXGs, and GXGs corresponding to Z0, W bosons and gluons.

  3. Dark matter hierarchy and the associated hierarchy of Planck constants plays a key role in the model. For instance, in the case of EEG Planck constant must be so large that the energies of dark EEG photons are above thermal energy at the physiological temperature. The assumption that a considerable fraction of the ionic currents through the cell membrane are dark currents flowing along the magnetic flux tubes explains the strange findings about ionic currents through cell membrane. Concerning the model of nerve pulse generation, the newest input comes from the model of DNA as a topological quantum computer and experimental findings challenging Hodgkin-Huxley model as even approximate description of the situation.

  4. The identification of the cell interior as gel phase containing most of water as structured water around cytoskeleton - rather than water containing bio-molecules as solutes as assumed in Hodkin-Huxley model - allows to understand many of the anomalous behaviors associated with the cell membrane and also the different densities of ions in the interior and exterior of cell at qualitative level. The proposal of Pollack that basic biological functions involve phase transitions of gel phase generalizes in TGD framework to a proposal that these phase transitions are induced by quantum phase transitions changing the value of Planck constant. In particular, gel-sol phase transition for the peripheral cytoskeleton induced by the primary wave would accompany nerve pulse propagation. This view about nerve pulse is not consistent with Hodkin-Huxley model.

  5. Pollack's experiments demonstrate the existence of what he calls the fourth phase of water. This phase contains negatively charged regions - exclusion zones - serving in TGD Universe as candidates for prebiotic cells. The positive charge resides outside the exclusion region at the flux tubes of the magnetic body associated with the exclusion zones as dark proton strings defining dark nuclei realizing vertebrate genetic code. This vision leads to a generalization of the model of cell membrane Josephson junctions assignable to transmembrane proteins. Josephson energy becomes sum of Coulombic term and difference of cyclotron energies at the two sides of the membrane. The thermodynamical model for cell membrane is replaced with its "square root" forced by Zero Energy Ontology, and means the replacement of Boltzmann weights with their square roots appearing in the wave functions for dark particles. The phase transitions changing Planck constant change the equilibrium distributions of ions and this process should be behind the generation of nerve pulse.

2. New view about nerve pulse generation

The basic hypothesis has been that quantum jump takes the resting potential below the threshold for the generation of nerve pulse. One can imagine several manners for how this could happen. Quite recently I learned that nerve pulse propagation seems to be an adiabatic process and thus does not dissipate: the authors propose that 2-D acoustic soliton is in question. Adiabaticity is what one expects if the ionic currents are dark currents (large hbar and low dissipation) or even supra currents. Furthermore, Josephson currents are oscillatory so that no pumping is needed. Combining this input with the model of DNA as topological quantum computer (tqc) leads to a rather precise model for the generation of nerve pulse.

  1. The system would consist of two superconductors- microtubule space-time sheet and the space-time sheet in cell exterior- connected by Josephson junctions represented by magnetic flux tubes defining also braiding in the model of tqc. The phase difference between two super-conductors would obey Sine-Gordon equation allowing both standing and propagating solitonic solutions. A sequence of rotating gravitational penduli coupled to each other would be the mechanical analog for the system. Soliton sequences having as a mechanical analog penduli rotating with constant velocity but with a constant phase difference between them would generate moving kHz synchronous oscillation. Also moving oscillations in EEG range can be considered and would require larger value of Planck constant in accordance with vision about evolution as gradual increase of Planck constant.

    In the microscopic description continuous Josephson junction is replaced with a distribution of Josephson junctions defined by transmembrane proteins such acting as pumps and channels.

  2. During nerve pulse one pendulum would be kicked so that it would start to oscillate instead of rotating and this oscillation pattern would move with the velocity of kHz soliton sequence. The velocity of kHz wave and nerve pulse is fixed by periodic boundary conditions at the ends of the axon implying that the time spent by the nerve pulse in traveling along axon is always a multiple of the same unit: this implies kHz synchrony. The model predicts the value of Planck constant for the magnetic flux tubes associated with Josephson junctions and the predicted force caused by the ionic Josephson currents is of correct order of magnitude for reasonable values of the densities of ions. The model predicts kHz em radiation as Josephson radiation generated by moving soliton sequences. EEG would also correspond to Josephson radiation: it could be generated either by moving or standing soliton sequences (latter are naturally assignable to neuronal cell bodies for which hbar should be correspondingly larger): synchrony is predicted also now.

  3. Nerve pulse itself would correspond to a phase transition changing the value of Planck constant heff at the either side or both sides of the cell membrane at the flux tube associated with the transmembrane protein. This would induce transition to a new ionic equilibrium since cyclotron energies for ions change. This transition would give rise to the change of the membrane potential. Cyclotron energy difference would however dominate in the generalized Josephson energy. This phase transition should be adiabatic and should not require heat or generate it.

  4. The previous view about microtubules in nerve pulse conduction can be sharpened. Microtubular electric field (always in the same direction) could explain why kHz and EEG waves and nerve pulse propagate always in same direction and might also feed energy to system so that solitonic velocity could be interpreted as drift velocity. This also inspires a generalization of the model of DNA as tqc sine also microtubule-cell membrane systems are good candidates for performers of tqc. Cell replication during which DNA is out of game seems to require this and microtubule-cell membrane tqc would represent higher level tqc distinguishing between multi-cellulars and mono-cellulars.

  5. New physics would enter in several manners. Ions should form Bose-Einstein cyclotron condensates. The assumption of only bosonic ions leads to a highly predictive model. The new nuclear physics predicted by TGD predicts that ordinary fermionic ions (such as K+, Na+, Cl-) have bosonic chemical equivalents with slightly differing mass number. Anomalies of nuclear physics and cold fusion provide experimental support for the predicted new nuclear physics. Electronic supra current pulse from microtubules could induce the kick of pendulum inducing nerve pulse and induce a small heating and expansion of the axon. The return flux of ionic Josephson currents would induce convective cooling of the axonal membrane. A small transfer of small positive charge into the inner lipid layer could induce electronic supra current by attractive Coulomb interaction. The exchange of exotic W bosons which are scaled up variants of ordinary W+/- bosons is a natural manner to achieve this if new nuclear physics is indeed present.

3. The function of neural transmitters

TGD leads to a general view about the functions of membrane oscillations, nerve pulse and neural transmitters. Electromagnetic membrane oscillations induced by Z0 MEs provide a realization of the memetic code as a fundamental cognitive code. The binding of various information molecules to the corresponding receptors gives rise to neuronal qualia analogous to tastes and odors but providing information about external world whereas ordinary receptors give information about nearby environment. At our level of hierarchy these qualia probably correspond to emotions in consistency with the finding that neurotransmitters can be identified as information molecules. Neurotransmitters might be also seen as conscious links in quantum web. The view that inhibition actually requires active energy feed and that excitation occurs automatically in the absence of the energy feed and induces entanglement with environment, is defended. This view conforms with Huxley's vision about brain as a filter inhibiting conscious experiences.

4. Microtubular level

The view about what happens at the micro-tubular level during synchronous neuronal firing relies on a many-sheeted model for sol-gel phase transitions as conscious bits and on the seesaw mechanism of remote metabolism according to which sol-gel transitions induces gel-sol transitions elsewhere in the cell and vice versa. Micro-tubular surfaces can be seen as analogs of cortical sensory and motor areas providing kind of conscious log files about sensory and motor history of the cell in terms of conformational transitions of tubulin dimers representing conscious bits.

What happens at the micro-tubular level during the nerve pulse, how gel phase differs from sol phase, and what occurs in sol-gel transition, belong to the principal challenges for quantum theories of consciousness. Charge entanglement associated with various bosonic ions allows to tackle these questions. The Bose-Einstein condensates of hydrogen atoms at tubular k=139 space-time sheets form a bundle behaving like a liquid crystal identifiable as the gel phase. Positive and negative energy IR photons at energy of .1 eV belong to the predicted fractal hierarchy of metabolic currencies, and allow to control the stability of this B-E condensate so that a precisely targeted control of the cellular state by local sol-gel transitions becomes possible. Albrecht-Buehler has demonstrated that photons with this energy have a maximal effect on cells.

Negative energy MEs are especially important: they make possible intentional action at the micro-tubular level, they are crucial for the understanding of the micro-temporal quantum coherence, and have also inspired the notions of remote metabolism and quantum credit card. The newest discovery along this line is what might be called seesaw mechanism of energy metabolism. Seesaw mechanism minimizes dissipative losses and allows to understand how micro-tubular surfaces provide dynamical records for the cellular sol-gel transitions, and thus define fundamental micro-tubular representation of declarative long term memories. Also the notion of micro-tubuli as quantum antennae becomes precisely defined.

The model of DNA as topological quantum computer brings in a new element. Microtubule-axonal membrane system could perform topological quantum computation just as DNA-membrane (nuclear and perhaps also cell membrane) system has been proposed to do. The braiding of the magnetic flux tubes connecting microtubules to axon would define tqc programs and also provide a representations for sensory input from sensory organs in time scale shorter than millisecond if one assumes that gel-sol-gel transition of microtubule accompanies the nerve pulse. Whether one it one say that nerve pulse is initiated at microtubular or axonal level or by both collectively is not clear since the magnetic flux tubes connecting these two systems make them to act like single coherent whole.

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Sensory Perception and Motor Action as Time Reversals of Each Other: a Royal Road to the Understanding of Other Minds?

The notion of mirror neuron is extremely attractive because it could allow the understanding of the observed goal directed behaviors of living systems by inducing corresponding imagined or even real actions. The sensory input about behavior would automatically induce the neural activity representing intention about the behavior or imagined behavior. Mirror neuron hypothesis was derived originally for monkeys but has been considerably generalized. For instance, in the case of humans mirro neurons could allow an almost automatic understanding of intentions and emotions of other people.

In TGD framework the objections against mirror neuron hypothesis motivate its replacement with what I call time mirror hypothesis inspired by zero energy ontology, and stating that motor action and sensory perception are in a well-defined sense time reversals of each other. This hypothesis could explain the time anomalies assignable to mirror neurons if they are indeed involved (reactions tend assigned to mirror neurons tend to be "too fast") and also Libet's findings. This inspires the notion of quantum monadology: parts of brain would be continually time mirroring each other. Also magnetic body would be involved. The time mirror relationship could correspond to directed attention having as space-time correlates magnetic flux tubes carrying dark photon signals in both time directions. Time mirror hypothesis is applied to the entrainment of the speech motor regions with auditory areas at the opposite side of brain occurring at resonance frequency 4.5 Hz as discovered by Poeppel and Assaneo.

This vision allows to build a model of sensory memories with motivation coming from the findings challenging the standard view about them. This model in turn inspires a very general model of motor action applying also to basic biochemical processes such as transcription, replication, and translation as being induced by topological quantum computer programs running in non-standard time direction.

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TGD Based View about Classical Fields in Relation to Consciousness Theory and Quantum Biology

In TGD Universe gauge fields are replaced with topological field quanta. Examples are topological light rays, magnetic/electric flux tubes and sheets, and flux quanta carrying both magnetic and electric fields. Flux quanta form a fractal hierarchy in the sense that there are flux quanta inside flux quanta. It is natural to assume quantization of Kähler magnetic flux. Braiding and reconnection are the basic topological operations for flux quanta.

The basic question is how the basic notions assigned with the classical gauge and gravitational fields understood in standard sense generalize in TGD framework.

  1. Superposition and interference of the classical fields is very natural in Maxwell electrodynamics and certainly experimentally verified phenomena. Also the notion of hologram relies crucially on the notion of interference. How can one describe the effects explained in terms of superposition of fields in a situation in which the theory is extremely non-linear and all classical gauge fields are expressible in terms of CP2 coordinates and their gradients? It is also rather clear that the preferred extremals for Kähler action decompose to space-time regions representing space-time correlates for quanta. The superposition of classical fields in Maxwellian sense is impossible.

    How can one cope with this situation? The answer is based on simple observation: only the effects of the classical fields superpose. There is no need for the fields to superpose. Together with the notion of many-sheeted space-time this leads to elegant description of interference effects without any need to assume that linearization is a good approximation.

  2. Topological quantization brings in also braiding and reconnection of magnetic flux tubes as basic operations for classical fields. These operations for flux tubes have also Maxwellian counterparts at the level of field lines. Braiding and reconnection are in a central role in TGD Universe and especially so in in TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology. The challenge is to build a coherent overall phenomenological view about the role of topologically quantized classical fields in biology and neuroscience. For instance, one can ask what is the precise formulation for the notion of conscious hologram and whether magnetic flux tubes could serve as correlates of entanglement (or at least negentropic entanglement suggested by the number theoretic vision and identified as a basic signature of living matter).

  3. Topological quantization and the notion of magnetic body are especially important in TGD inspired model of EEG. The attempt to understand the findings of Persinger from the study of what is known as God helmet leads to a considerable progress in the understanding the possible role of topologically quantized classical fields in biology and neuro-science.

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