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Year 2017 
Some TGD inspired comments related to quantum measurement theoryIn the following some TGD inspired comments on quantum measurement theory inspired by FB discussions. Does the analog of repeated second quantization take place at the level of WCW? The world of classical worlds (WCW) is the basic structure of quantum TGD. It can be said to be the space of 3surfaces consisting of pairs of (not necessarily connected 3surfaces) at the boundaries of causal diamond (CD) and connected by a not necessarily connected 4surface. 4 surface defines the interaction between the states associated with the 3surfaces. The state associated with given 3surface correspond to WCW spinor and one has modes of WCW spinor fields. WCW decomposes to subWCWs assignable to CDs and effectively the universe reduces to CD. The key idea is that the WCW spinor fields are purely classical spinor fields. No second quantization is performed for them. Second quantization of induced spinor fields at spacetime level is however carried out and gamma matrices of WCW anticommuting to its Kähler metric are linear combinations of fermionic oscillator operators. The classicality of WCW spinor fields looks somewhat problematic.
One could think the situation in terms of (X^{3},Y^{3}) ∈ WCW× WCW in which case one can speak of entanglement between WCW spinor modes associated with X^{3} and Y^{3} reduced by the measurement of density matrix. Second interpretation as a localization of wave function of Z^{3}=X^{3}∪ Y^{3}∈ WCW. About the notion of observable In ordinary quantum theory observables are hermitian operators and their eigenvalues representing the values of observables are real. In TGD using M^{4}× CP_{2} picture the gauge coupling strengths are complex and therefore also classical Noether charges are complex. This should be the case also for quantum observables. Total quantum numbers could be still real but single particle quantum numbers complex. I have proposed that this is true for conformal weights and talked about conformal confinement. Also in ordinary twistor approach virtual particles are on mass shell and thus massless but complex. Same is expected in TGD for 8momenta so that one obtains particles massive in 4D sense but massless in 8D sense: this is absolutely crucial for the generalization of twistor approach to 8D context. Virtual momenta could be massless in 8D sense but complex but total momenta would be real. This would apply to all quantal charges, which for Cartan algebra are identical with classical Noether charges. I learned also a very interesting fact about normal operators for which operator and its hermitian conjugate commute. As the author mentions, this trivial fact has remained unknown even for professionals. One can assign to a normal operator real and imaginary parts, which are commuting as hermitian operators so that  according to the standrd quantum measurement theory  they can be measured simultaneously. For instance, complex values of various charge predicted by twistor lift of TGD would therefore in principle be allowed even without the assumption that the total charges are real ( total charges as hermitian operators). Combining the two ideas one would have that single particle charges are complex and represented by normal operators and total charges are real and represented by hermitian operators. What does amplification process in quantum measurement mean? Quantum measurement involves an amplification process amplifying the outcome of state function reduction at single particle level to a macroscopic effect. This aspect of quantum measurement theory is poorly understood at fundamental level and is usually though to be unessential concerning the calculation of the predictions of quantum theory. The intuitive expectation is that the amplification is made possible by criticality  I would suggest quantum criticality  and involves the analog of a phase transition generated by seed. This is like the change for a direction of single spin in magnet at criticality inducing change of the magnetization direction. Quantum criticality involves long range fluctuations and correlations for which h_{eff}/h=n serves as a mathematical description in terms of adelic physics in TGD framework. Long range correlations would make possible the classical macroscopic state characterizing the pointer. This large h_{eff}/h=n aspect would naturally correspond to the presence of intellligent observer: h_{eff} indeed closely relates to the description of not only sensory but also cognitive aspects of existence and has number theoretic interpretation as a measure for what might be called IQ of the system. If this is tge case, one cannot build proper quantum measurement theory in the framework of standard quantum mechanics, which is unable to say anything interesting about cognition and observer. A theory of consciousness is required for this and ZEO based quantum measurement theory is also a theory of consciousness. Zero energy ontology and Afshar experiment Afshar experiment challenges Copenhagen and manyuniverse interpretations and it is interesting to look how it can be understood in zero energy ontology (ZEO). Consider first the experimental arrangement of Afshar.

NMP and selfThe preparation of an article about number theoretic aspects of TGD forced to go through various related ideas and led to a considerable integration of the ideas. In this note ideas related directly to consciousness and cognition are discussed.
The view about Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) has coevolved with the notion of self and I have considered many variants of NMP.
Number theoretical Shannon entropy can serve as a measure for genuine information assignable to a pair of entanglement systems. Entanglement with coefficients in the extension is always negentropic if entanglement negentropy comes from padic sectors only. It can be negentropic if negentropy is defined as the difference of padic negentropy and real entropy. The diagonalized density matrix need not belong to the algebraic extension since the probabilities defining its diagonal elements are eigenvalues of the density matrix as roots of N:th order polynomial, which in the generic case requires ndimensional algebraic extension of rationals. One can argue that since diagonalization is not possible, also state function reduction selecting one of the eigenstates is impossible unless a phase transition increasing the dimension of algebraic extension used occurs simultaneously. This kind of NE could give rise to cognitive entanglement. There is also a special kind of NE, which can result if one requires that density matrix serves a universal observable in state function reduction. The outcome of reduction must be an eigen space of density matrix, which is projector to this subspace acting as identity matrix inside it. This kind NE allows all unitarily related basis as eigenstate basis (unitary transformations must belong to the algebraic extension). This kind of NE could serve as a correlate for "enlightened" states of consciousness. Schrödingers cat is in this kind of state stably in superposition of dead and alive and state basis obtained by unitary rotation from this basis is equally good. One can say that there are no discriminations in this state, and this is what is claimed about "enlightened" states too. The vision about number theoretical evolution suggests that NMP forces the generation of NE resources as NE assignable to the "passive boundary of CD for which no changes occur during sequence of state function reductions defining self. It would define the unchanging self as negentropy resources, which could be regarded as kind of Akashic records. During the next "reincarnation after the first reduction to opposite boundary of CD the NE associated with the reduced state would serve as new Akashic records for the time reversed self. If NMP reduces to the statistical increase of h_{eff}/h=n the consciousness information contents of the Universe increases in statistical sense. In the best possible world of SNMP it would increase steadily. Does NMP reduce to number theory? The heretic question that emerged quite recently is whether NMP is actually needed at all! Is NMP a separate principle or could NMP reduced to mere number theory? Consider first the possibility that NMP is not needed at all as a separate principle.
Hitherto I have postulated NMP as a separate principle. Strong form of NMP (SNMP) states that Negentropy does not decrease in "big" state function reductions corresponding to death and reincarnations of self. One can however argue that SNMP is not realistic. SNMP would force the Universe to be the best possible one, and this does not seem to be the case. Also ethically responsible free will would be very restricted since self would be forced always to do the best deed that is increase maximally the negentropy serving as information resources of the Universe. Giving up separate NMP altogether would allow to have also "Good" and "Evil". This forces to consider what I christened weak form of NMP (WNMP). Instead of maximal dimension corresponding to Ndimensional projector self can choose also lowerdimensional subspaces and 1D subspace corresponds to the vanishing entanglement and negentropy assumed in standard quantum measurement theory. As a matter fact, this can also lead to larger negentropy gain since negentropy depends strongly on what is the large power of p in the dimension of the resulting eigen subspace of density matrix. This could apply also to the purely number theoretical reduction of NMP. WNMP suggests how to understand the notions of Good and Evil. Various choices in the state function reduction would correspond to Boolean algebra, which suggests an interpretation in terms of what might be called emotional intelligence . Also it turns out that one can understand how padic length scale hypothesis  actually its generalization  emerges from WNMP.
For details see the chapter Negentropy Maximization Principle or the article Reexamination of the basic notions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness. 
WCW and the notion of intentional free willThe preparation of an article about number theoretic aspects of TGD forced to go through various related ideas and led to a considerable integration of the ideas. In this note ideas related directly to consciousness and cognition are discussed.
The original definition of self was as a subsystem able to remain unentangled under state function reductions associated with subsequent quantum jumps. The density matrix was assumed to define the universal observable. Note that a density matrix, which is power series of a product of matrices representing commuting observables has in the generic case eigenstates, which are simultaneous eigenstates of all observables. Second aspect of self was assumed to be the integration of subsequent quantum jumps to coherent whole giving rise to the experienced flow of time. The precise identification of self allowing to understand both of these aspects turned out to be difficult problem. I became aware the solution of the problem in terms of ZEO (ZEO) only rather recently (2014).
For details see the chapter Negentropy Maximization Principle or the article Reexamination of the basic notions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness. 