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TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness

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Year 2015

Psychedelic induced experiences as key to the understanding of the connection between magnetic body and information molecules?

There is a book about psychedelics titled as "Inner paths to outer space: Journies to Alien Worlds through Psychedelics and Other Spiritual Technics" written by Rick Strassman, Slawek Wojtowicz, Luis Eduardo Luna and Ede Frecska (see this). The basic message of the book is that psychedelics might make possible instantaneous remote communications with distant parts of the Universe. The basic objection is that light velocity sets stringent limits on classical communications. Second objection is that the communications require huge amount of energy unless they are precisely targeted. The third objection is that quantum coherence in very long, even astrophysical scales is required. In TGD framework this argument does not apply.

In Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) communications in both directions of geometric time are possible and kind of time-like zig-zag curves make possible apparent superluminal velocities. Negentropic quantum entanglement provides second manner to share mental images, say sensory information remotely. The proposed model leads to a general idea that the attachment of information molecules such as neurotransmitters and psychedelics to a receptor as a manner to induce a remote connection involving transfer of dark potons signals in both directions of geometric time to arbitrarily long distances. The formation of magnetic flux tube contact is a prerequisite for the connection having interpretation as direct attention or sense of presence. One can see living organisms as systems continually trying to build this kind of connections created by a reconnection of U-shaped flux tubes serving as magnetic tentacles. Dark matter as a hierarchy of phases with arbitrary large value of Planck constants guarantees quantum coherence in arbitrary long scales.

The natural TGD inspired hypothesis about what happens at the level of brain to be discussed in sequel in detail goes as follows.

  1. Psychedelics bind to the same receptors as the neurotransmitters with similar aromatic rings (weaker assumption is that neurotransmitters in question possess aromatic rings). This is presumably consistent with the standard explanation of the effect of classical psychedelics as a modification of serotonin uptake. This binding replaces the flux tube connection via neurotransmitter to some part of the personal magnetic body with a connection via psychedelic to some other system, which might be even in outer space. A communication line is created making among other things possible remote sensory experiences.

    Magnetic fields extending to arbitrary large distances in Maxwell's theory are replaced with flux tubes in TGD framework. The magnetic bodies of psychedelics would carry very weak magnetic fields and would have very large heff - maybe serving as a kind of intelligence quotient.

  2. This would be like replacing the connection to the nearby computer server with a connection to a server at the other side of the globe. This would affect the usual function of transmitter and possibly induce negative side effects. Clearly, TGD inspired hypothesis gives for the psychedelics much more active role than standard hypothesis.
  3. Phychedelics can be classified into two groups depending on whether they contain derivative of amino-acid trp with two aromatic rings or phe with one aromatic ring. Also DNA nucleotide resp. its conjugate have 2 resp. 1 similar aromatic rings. This suggests that the coupling between information molecule and receptor is universal and same as the coupling between the two bases in DNA double strand and consists of hydrogen bonds. This hypothesis is testable since it requires that the trp:s/phe:s of the information molecule can be brought to same positions as phe:s/trp:s in the receptor. If also protein folding relies on this coupling, one might be able to predict the folding to a high degree.
  4. A highly suggestive idea is that molecules with aromatic rings are fundamental conscious entities at the level of molecular biology, and that more complex conscious entities are created from them by reconnection of flux tubes. DNA/RNA sequences and microtubules would be basic examples about this architecture of consciousness. If so, protein folding would be dictated by the formation trp-phe contacts giving rise to larger conscious entities.
See the chapter TGD based model for OBEs or the revised article Psychedelic induced experiences as key to the understanding of the connection between magnetic body and information molecules?.

Quantum measurement and quantum computation in TGD Universe

In classical computation, the simplest manner to control errors is to take several copies of the bit sequences. In quantum case no-cloning theorem prevents this. Error correcting codes code n information qubits to the entanglement of N>n physical qubits. Additional contraints represents the subspace of n-qubits as a lower-dimensional sub-space of N qubits. This redundant representation is analogous to the use of parity bits. The failure of the constraint to be satisfied tells that the error is present and also the character of error. This makes possible the automatic correction of the error is simple enough - such as the change of the phase of spin state or or spin flip.

Negentropic entanglement (NE) obviously gives rise to a strong reduction in the number of states of tensor product. Consider a system consisting of two entangled systems consisting of N1 and N2 spins. Without any constraints the number of states in state basis is 2N1× 2N2 and one as N1+N2 qubits. The elements of entanglement matrix can be written as EA,B, A== ⊗i=1N1 (mi,si), B== ⊗k=1N2 (mk,sk) in order to make manifest the tensor product structure. For simplicity one can consider the situation N1=N2=N.

The un-normalized general entanglement matrix is parametrized by 2× 22N independent real numbers with each spin contributing two degrees of freedom. Unitary entanglement matrix is characterized by 22N real numbers. One might perhaps say that one has 2N real bits instead of almost 2N+1 real qubits. If the time evolution according to ZEO respects the negentropic character of entanglement, the sources of errors are reduced dramatically.

The challenge is to understand what kind of errors NE eliminates and how the information bits are coded by it. NE is respected if the errors act as unitary transformations E→ UEU of the unitary entanglement matrix. One can consider two interpretations.

  1. The unitary automorphisms leave information content unaffected only if they commute with E. In this case unitary automorphisms acting non-trivially would give rise genuine errors and an error correction mechanism would be needed and would be coded to quantum computer program.
  2. One can also consider the possibility that the unitary automorphisms do not affect the information content so that the diagonal form of entanglement matrix coded by N phases would carry of information. Clearly, the unitary automorphisms would act like gauge transformations. Nature would take care that no errors emerge. Of course, more dramatic things are in principle allowed by NMP: for instance, the unitary entanglement matrix could reduce to a tensor product of several unitary matrices. Negentropy could be transferred from the system and is indeed transferred as the computation halts.

    By number theoretic universality the diagonalized entanglement matrix would be parametrized by N roots of unity with each having n possible values so that nN different NEs would be obtained and information storage capacity would be I=log(n)/log(2) × N bits for n=2k one would have k× N bits. Powers of two for n are favored. Clearly the option for which only the eigenvalues of E matter, looks more attractive realization of entanglement matrices. If overall phase of E does not matter as one expects, the number of full bits is k× N-1. This option looks more attractive realization of entanglement matrices.

    In fact, Fermat polygons for which cosine and sine for the angle defining the polygon are expressible by iterating square root besides basic arithmetic operations for rationals (ruler and compass construction geometrically) correspond to integers, which are products of a power of two and of different Fermat primes Fn=22n+1. l

This picture can be related to much bigger picture.
  1. In TGD framework number theoretical universality requires discretization in terms of algebraic extension of rationals. This is not performed at space-time level but for the parameters characterizing space-time surfaces at the level of WCW. Strong form of holography is also essential and allows to consider partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets as basic objects. Number theoretical universality (adelic physics) forces a discretization of phases and number theoretically allowed phases are roots of unity defined by some algebraic extension of rationals. Discretization can be also interpreted in terms of finite measurement resolution. Notice that the condition that roots of unity are in question realizes finite measurement resolution in the sense that errors have minimum size and are thus detectable.
  2. Hierarchy of quantum criticalities corresponds to a fractal inclusion hierarchy of isomorphic sub-algebras of the super-symplectic algebra acting as conformal gauge symmetries. The generators in the complement of this algebra can act as dynamical symmetries affecting the physical states. Infinite hierarchy of gauge symmetry breakings is the outcome and the weakening of measurement resolution would correspond to the reduction in the size of the broken gauge group. The hierarchy of quantum criticalities is accompanied by the hierarchy of measurement resolutions and hierarchy of effective Planck constants heff=n× h.
  3. These hierarchies are argued to correspond to the hierarchy of inclusions for hyperfinite factors of type II1 labelled by quantum phases and quantum groups. Inclusion defines finite measurement resolution since included sub-algebra does induce observable effects on the state. By Mac-Kay correspondence the hierarchy of inclusions is accompanied by a hierarchy of simply laced Lie groups which get bigger as one climbs up in the hierarchy. There interpretation as genuine gauge groups does make sense since their sizes should be reduced. An attractive possibility is that these groups are factor groups G/H such that the normal subgroup H (necessarily so) is the gauge group and indeed gets smaller and G/H is the dynamical group identifiable as simply laced group which gets bigger. This would require that both G and H are infinite-dimensional groups. An interesting question is how they relate to the super-symplectic group assignable to "light-cone boundary" δ M4+/-× CP2. I have proposed this interpretation in the context of WCW geometry earlier.
  4. Here I have spoken only about dynamical symmetries defined by discrete subgroups of simply laced groups. I have earlier considered the possibility that discrete symmetries provide a description of finite resolution, which would be equivalent with quantum group description.
Summarizing, these arguments boil down to the conjecture that discrete subgroups of these groups act as effective symmetry groups of entanglement matrices and realize finite quantum measurement resolution. A very deep connection between quantum information theory and these hierarchies would exist.

Gauge invariance has turned out to be a fundamental symmetry principle, and one can ask whether unitary entanglement matrices assuming that only the eigenvalues matter, could give rise to a simulation of discrete gauge theories. The reduction of the information to that provided by the diagonal form be interpreted as an analog of gauge invariance?

  1. The hierarchy of inclusions of hyper-finite factors of type II1 suggests strongly a hierarchy of effective gauge invariances characterizing measurement resolution realized in terms of hierarchy of normal subgroups and dynamical symmetries realized as coset groups G/H. Could these effective gauge symmetries allow to realize unitary entanglement matrices invariant under these symmetries.
  2. A natural parametrization for single qubit errors is as rotations of qubit. If the error acts as a rotation on all qubits, the rotational invariance of the entanglement matrix defining the analog of S-matrix is enough to eliminate the effect on information processing.

    Quaternionic unitary transformations act on qubits as unitary rotations. Could one assume that complex numbers as the coefficient field of QM is effectively replaced with quaternions? If so, the multiplication by unit quaternion for states would leave the physics and information content invariant just like the multiplication by a complex phase leaves it invariant in the standard quantum theory.

    One could consider the possibility that quaternions act as a discretized version of local gauge symmetry affecting the information qubits and thus reducing further their number and thus also errors. This requires the introduction of the analog of gauge potential and coding of quantum information in terms of SU(2) gauge invariants. In discrete situation gauge potential would be replaced with a non-integrable phase factors along the links of a lattice in lattice gauge theory. In TGD framework the links would correspond the fermionic strings connecting partonic two-surfaces carrying the fundamental fermions at string ends as point like particles. Fermionic entanglement is indeed between the ends of these strings.

  3. Since entanglement is multilocal and quantum groups accompany the inclusion, one cannot avoid the question whether Yangian symmetry crucial for the formulation of quantum TGD (see this) could be involved.
For details see the chapter Negentropy Maximization Principle or the article Quantum Measurement and Quantum Computation in TGD Universe.

Quantum measurement and quantum computation in TGD Universe

During years I have been thinking how quantum computation could be carried out in TGD Universe (see this). There are considerable deviations from the standard view. Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO), weak form of NMP dictating the dynamics of state function reduction, negentropic entanglement (NE), and hierarchy of Planck constants define the basic differences between TGD based and standard quantum measurement theory. TGD suggests also the importance of topological quantum computation (TQC) like processes with braids represented as magnetic flux tubes/strings along them.

The natural question that popped in my mind was how NMP and Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) could affect the existing view about TQC. The outcome was a more precise view about TQC. The basic observation is that the phase transition to dark matter phase reduces dramatically the noise affecting quantum quits. This together with robustness of braiding as TQC program raises excellent hopes about TQC in TGD Universe. The restriction to negentropic space-like entanglement (NE) defined by a unitary matrix is something new but does not seem to have any fatal consequences as the study of Shor's algorithm shows.

NMP strongly suggests that when a pair of systems - the ends of braid - suffer state function reduction, the NE must be transferred somehow from the system. How? The model for quantum teleportation allows to identify a possible mechanism allowing to achieve this. This mechanism could be fundamental mechanism of information transfer also in living matter and phosphorylation could represent the transfer of NE according to this mechanism: the transfer of metabolic energy would be at deeper level transfer of negentropy. Quantum measurements could be actually seen as transfer of negentropy at deeper level.

For details see the chapter Negentropy Maximization Principleor the article Quantum Measurement and Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

Quantum cognition

The talks in the conference Towards Science of Consciousness 2015 held in Helsinki produced several pleasant surprises, which stimulated more precise views about TGD inspired theory of consciousness. Some of the pleasant surprises were related to quantum cognition. It is a pity that I lost most of the opening talk of Harald Atmanspacher (see this).

The general idea is to look whether one could take the formalism of quantum theory and look whether it might allow to construct testable formal models of cognition. Quantum superposition, entanglement, and non-commutativity, are the most obvious notions to be considered. The problems related to quantum measurement are however present also now and relate to the basic questions about consciousness.

  1. For instance, non-commutativity of observables could relate to the order effects in cognitive measurements. Also the failure of classical probability to which Bell inequalities relate could have testable quantum cognitive counterpart. This requires that one should be able to speak about the analogs of quantization axis for spin in cognition. Representation of Boolean logic statements as tensor product of qubits would resolve the problem and in TGD framework fermionic Fock state basis defines a Boolean algebra: fermions would be interpretation as quantum correlates of Boolean cognition.
  2. The idea about cognitive entanglement described by density matrix was considered and the change of the state basis was suggested to have interpretation as a change of perspective. Here I was a little bit puzzled since the speakers seemed to assume that density matrix rather than only its eigenvalues has an independent meaning. This probably reflects my own assumption that density matrix is always assignable to a system and its complement regarded as subsystems of large system in pure state. The states are purifiable - as one says. This holds true in TGD but not in the general case.
  3. The possibility that quantum approach might allow to describe this breaking of uniqueness in terms of entanglement - or more precisely in terms of density matrix, which in TGD framework can be diagonalized and in cognitive state function reduction reduces in the generic case to a 1-D density matrix for one of the meanings. The situation would resemble that in hemispheric rivalry or for illusions in which two percepts appear as alternatives. One must be of course very cautious with this kind of models: the spoken and written language do not obey strict rules. I must however admit that I failed to get the gist of the arguments completely.
One particular application discussed in the conference was to a problem of linguistics.
  1. One builds composite words from simpler ones. The proposed rule in classical linguistics is that the composites are describable as unique functions of the building bricks. The building brick words can however have several meanings and meaning is fixed only after one tells to which category the concept to which the world refers belongs. Therefore also the composite word can have several meanings.
  2. If the words have several meanings, they belong to at least n=2 two categories. The category associated with the word is like spin n=2 and one can formally treat the words as spins, kind of cognitive qubits. The category-word pairs - cognitive spins- serve building bricks for 2 composite worlds analogous to two-spin systems.
  3. A possible connection with Bell's inequalities emerges from the idea that if word can belong to two categories it can be regarded as analogous to spin with two values. If superpositions of same word with different meanings make sense, the analogs for the choice of spin quantization axis and measurement of spin in particular quantization direction make sense. A weaker condition is that the superpositions make sense only for the representations of the words. In TGD framework the representations would be in terms of fermionic Fock states defining quantum Boolean algebra.
    1. Consider first a situation in which one has two spin measurement apparatus A and B with given spin quantization axis and A' and B' with different spin quantization axis. One can construct correlation functions for the products of spins s1 and s2 defined as outcomes of measurements A and A' and s3 and s4 defined as outcomes of B and B'. One obtains pairs 13, 14, 23, 24.
    2. Bell inequalities give a criterion for the possibility to model the system classically. One begins from 4 CHSH inequalities follow as averages of inequalities holding for individual measurement always (example: -2≤ s1s3 + s1s4+s2s3- s2s4≤ 2) outcomes by assuming classical probability concept implying that the probability distributions for sisj are simply marginal distributions for a probability distribution P(s1,22,s3,s4). CHSH inequalities are necessary conditions for the classical behavior. Fine's theorem states that these conditions are also sufficient. Bell inequalities follow from these and can be broken for quantum probabilities.
    3. Does this make sense in the case of cognitive spins? Are superpositions of meanings really possible? Are conscious meanings really analogous to Schrödinger cats? Or should one distinguish between meaning and cognitive representation? Experienced meanings are conscious experiences and consciousness identified as state function reduction makes the world look classical in standard quantum measurement theory. I allow the reader to decide but represent TGD view below.
What about quantum cognition in TGD framework? Does the notion of cognitive spin make sense? Do the notions of cognitive entanglement and cognitive measurement have sensible meaning? Does the superposition of meanings of words make sense or does it make sense for representations only?
  1. In TGD quantum measurement is measurement of density matrix defining the universal observable leading to its eigenstate (or eigen space when NE is present in final state) meaning that degenerate eigenvalues of the density matrix are allowed). In the generic case the state basis is unique as eigenstates basis of density matrix and cognitive measurement leads to a classical state.

    If the density matrix has degenerate eigenvalues situation changes since state function can take place to a sub-space instead of a ray of the state space. In this sub-space there is no preferred basis. Maybe "enlightened" states of consciousness could be identified as this kind of states carrying negentropy (number theoretic Shannon entropy is negative for them and these states are fundamental for TGD inspired theory of consciousness. Note that p-adic negentropy is well-defined also for rational (or even algebraic) entanglement probabilities but the condition that quantum measurement leads to an eigenstate of density matrix allows only projector as a density matrix for the outcome of the state function reduction. In any case, in TGD Universe the outcome of quantum measurement could be enlightened Schrödinger cat which is as much dead as olive.

    Entangled states could represent concepts or rules as superpositions of their instances consisting of pairs of states. For NE generated in state function reduction density matrix would be a projector so that these pairs would appear with identical probabilities. The entanglement matrix would be unitary. This is interesting since unitary entanglement appears also in quantum computation. One can consider also the representation of associations in terms of entanglement - possibly negentropic one.

  2. Mathematician inside me is impatiently raising his hand: it clearly wants to add something. The restriction to a particular extension of rationals - a central piece of the number theoretical vision about quantum TGD - implies that density matrix need not allow diagonalization. In eigen state basis one would have has algebraic extension defined by the characteristic polynomial of the density matrix and its roots define the needed extension which could be quite well larger than the original extension. This would make state stable against state function reduction.

    If this entanglement is algebraic, one can assign to it a negative number theoretic entropy. This negentropic entanglement is stable against NMP unless the algebraic extension associated with the parameters characterizing the parameters of string world sheets and partonic surfaces defining space-time genes is allowed to become larger in a state function reduction to the opposite boundary of CD generating re-incarnated self and producing eigenstates involving algebraic numbers in a larger algebraic extension of rationals. Could this kind of extension be an eureka experience meaning a step forwards in cognitive evolution?

    If this picture makes sense, one would have both the unitary NE with a density matrix, which is projector and the algebraic NE with eigen values and NE for which the eigenstates of density matrix outside the algebraic extension associated with the space-time genes. Note that the unitary entanglement is "meditative" in the sense that any state basis is possible and therefore in this state of consciousness it is not possible to make distinctions. This strongly brings in mind koans of Zen buddhism. The more general algebraic entanglement could represent abstractions as rules in which the state pairs in the superposition represent the various instances of the rule.

  3. Can one really have superposition of meanings in TGD framework where Boolean cognitive spin is represented as fermion number (1,0), spin, or weak isospin in TGD, and fermion Fock state basis defines quantum Boolean algebra.

    In the case of fermion number the superselection rule demanding that state is eigenstate of fermion number implies that cognitive spin has unique quantization axis.

    For the weak isopin symmetry breaking occurs and superpositions of states with different em charges (weak isospins) are not possible. Remarkably, the condition that spinor modes have a well-defined em charge implies in the generic case their localization to string world sheets at which classical W fields carrying em charge vanish. This is essential also for the strong form of holography, and one can say that cognitive representations are 2-dimensional and cognition resides at string world sheets and their intersections with partonic 2-surfaces. Electroweak quantum cognitive spin would have a unique quantization axes?

    But what about ordinary spin? Does the presence of Kähle magnetic field at flux tubes select a unique quantization direction for cognitive spin as ordinary spin so that it is not possible to experience superposition of meanings? Or could the rotational invariance of meaning mean SU(2) gauge invariance allowing to rotate given spin to a fixed direction by performing SU(2) gauge transformation affecting the gauge potential?

  4. A rather concrete linguistic analogy from TGD inspired biology relates to the representation of DNA, mRNA, amino-acids, and even tRNA in terms of dark proton triplets. One can decompose ordinary genetic codons to letters but dark genetic codons represented by entangled states of 3 linearly order quarks and do not allow reduction to sequence of letters. It is interesting that some eastern written languages have words as basic symbols whereas western written languages tend to have as basic units letters having no meaning as such. Could Eastern cognition and languages be more holistic in this rather concrete sense?
For details see the chapter p-Adic physics as physics of cognitionand imaginationor the article Impressions created by TSC 2015 conference.

Two kinds of negentropic entanglements

The most general view is that negentropic entanglement NE corresponds to algebraic entanglement with entanglement coefficients in some algebraic extension of rationals. The condition that the outcome of state function reduction is eigenspace of density matrix fixes the density matrix of the final state to be a projector with identical eigenvalues defining the probabilities of various states.

But what if the eigenvalues and thus also eigenvectors of the density matrix, which are algebraic numbers, do not belong to the algebraic extensions involved. Can state function reduction reduction occur at all so that this kind of NE would be stable?

The following argument suggests that also more general algebraic entanglement could be reasonably stable against NMP, namely the entanglement for which the eigenvalues of the density matrix and eigenvectors are outside the algebraic extension associated with the parameters characterizing string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces as space-time genes.

The restriction to a particular extension of rationals - a central piece of the number theoretical vision about quantum TGD - implies that density matrix need not allow diagonalization. In eigen state basis one would have has algebraic extension defined by the characteristic polynomial of the density matrix and its roots define the needed extension which could be quite well larger than the original extension. This would make state stable against state function reduction.

If this entanglement is algebraic, one can assign to it a negative number theoretic entropy. This negentropic entanglement is stable against NMP unless the algebraic extension associated with the parameters characterizing the parameters of string world sheets and partonic surfaces defining space-time genes is allowed to become larger in a state function reduction to the opposite boundary of CD generating re-incarnated self and producing eigenstates involving algebraic numbers in a larger algebraic extension of rationals. Could this kind of extension be an eureka experience meaning a step forwards in cognitive evolution?

If this picture makes sense, one would have both the unitary NE with a density matrix, which is projector and the algebraic NE with eigen values and NE for which the eigenstates of density matrix outside the algebraic extension associated with the space-time genes. Note that the unitary entanglement is "meditative" in the sense that any state basis is possible and therefore in this state of consciousness it is not possible to make distinctions. This strongly brings in mind koans of Zen buddhism and enlightment experience. The more general irreducible algebraic entanglement could represent abstractions as rules in which the state pairs in the superposition represent the various instances of the rule.

For details see the chapter Negentropy Maximization Principle or the article Impressions created by TSC2015 conference.

How imagination could be realized p-adically?

The vision about p-adic physics as physics of cognition and imagination has gradually established itself as one of the key idea of TGD inspired theory of consciousness. There are several motivations for this idea.

The strongest motivation is the vision about living matter as something residing in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds. One of the earliest motivations was p-adic non-determinism identified tentatively as a space-time correlate for the non-determinism of imagination. p-Adic non-determinism follows from the fact that functions with vanishing derivatives are piecewise constant functions in the p-adic context.

More precisely, p-adic pseudo constants depend on the pinary cutoff of their arguments and replace integration constants in p-adic differential equations. In the case of field equations this means roughly that the initial data are replaced with initial data given for a discrete set of time values chosen in such a manner that unique solution of field equations results. Solution can be fixed also in a discrete subset of rational points of the imbedding space. Presumably the uniqueness requirement implies some unique pinary cutoff. Thus the space-time surfaces representing solutions of p-adic field equations are analogous to space-time surfaces consisting of pieces of solutions of the real field equations. p-Adic reality is much like the dream reality consisting of rational fragments glued together in illogical manner or pieces of child's drawing of body containing body parts in more or less chaotic order.

The obvious looking interpretation for the solutions of the p-adic field equations would be as a geometric correlate of imagination. Plans, intentions, expectations, dreams, and cognition in general could have p-adic space-time sheets as their geometric correlates. A deep principle could be involved: incompleteness is characteristic feature of p-adic physics but the flexibility made possible by this incompleteness is absolutely essential for imagination and cognitive consciousness in general.

The original idea was that p-adic space-time regions can suffer topological phase transitions to real topology and vice versa in quantum jumps replacing space-time surface with a new one is given up as mathematically awkward: quantum jumps between different number fields do not make sense. The new adelic view states that both real and p-adic space-time sheets are obtained by continuation of string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces to various number fields by strong form of holography.

The idea about p-adic pseudo constants as correlates of imagination is however too nice to be thrown away without trying to find an alternative interpretation consistent with strong form of holography. Could the following argument allow to save p-adic view about imagination in a mathematically respectable manner?

  1. Construction of preferred extremals from data at 2-surfaces is like boundary value problem. Integration constants are replaced with pseudo-constants depending on finite number pinary digits of variables depending on coordinates normal to string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces.
  2. Preferred extremal property in real context implies strong correlations between string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces by boundary conditions a them. One cannot choose these 2- surfaces completely independently. Pseudo-constant could allow a large number of p-adic configurations involving string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces not allowed in real context and realizing imagination.
  3. Could imagination be realized as a larger size of the p-adic sectors of WCW? Could the realizable intentional actions belong to the intersection of real and p-adic WCWs? Could the modes of WCW spinor fields for which 2-surfaces are extandable to space-time surfaces only in some p-adic sectors make sense? The real space-time surface for them be somehow degenerate, for instance, consisting of string world sheets only.

    Could imagination be search for those collections of string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces, which allow extension to (realization as) real preferred extremals? p-Adic physics would be there as an independent aspect of existence and this is just the original idea. Imagination could be realized in state function reduction, which always selects only those 2-surfaces which allow continuation to real space-time surfaces. The distinction between only imaginable and also realizable would be the extendability by using strong form of holography.

I have the feeling that this view allows respectable mathematical realization of imagination in terms of adelic quantum physics. It is remarkable that strong form of holography derivable from - you can guess, strong form of General Coordinate Invariance (the Big E again!), plays an absolutely central role in it.

See the article the chapter p-Adic physics as physics of cognition and imagination or the article How Imagination Could Be Realized p-Adically?.

Time reversed self

The basic predictions of ZEO based quantum measurement theory is that self corresponds to a sequence of state function reductions to a fixed boundary of CD (passive boundary) and that the first reduction to the opposite boundary means death of self and re-incarnation at the opposite boundary. The re-incarnated self has reversed arrow of geometric time. This applies also to sub-selves of self giving rise to mental images. One can raise several questions.

Do we indeed have both mental images and time-reversed mental images? How the time-reversed mental image differs from the original one? Does the time flow in opposite direction for it? The roles of boundaries of CD have changed. The passive boundary of CD define the static back-ground the observed whereas the non-static boundary defines kind of dynamic figure. Does the change of the arrow of time change the roles of figure and background?

I have also proposed that motor action and sensory perception are time reversals of each other. Could one interpret this by saying that sensory perception is motor action affecting the body of self (say emotional expression) and motor action sensory perception of the environment about self.

In the sequel reverse speech and figure-background illusion is represented as examples of what time reversal for mental images could mean.

Time reversed cognition

Time reflection yields time reversed and spatially reflected sensory-cognitive representations. When mental image dies it is replaced with its time-reversal at opposite boundary of its CD. The observation of these representations could serve as a test of the theory.

There is indeed some evidence for this rather weird looking time and spatially reversed cognition.

  1. I have a personal experience supporting the idea about time reversed cognition. During the last psychotic episodes of my "great experience" I was fighting to establish the normal direction of the experienced time flow. Could this mean that for some sub-CDs the standard arrow of time had reversed as some very high level mental images representing bodily me died and was re-incarnated?
  2. The passive boundary of CD corresponds to static observing self - kind of background - and active boundary the dynamical - kind of figure. Figure-background division of mental image in this sense would change as sub-self dies and re-incarnates since figure and background change their roles. Figure-background illusion could be understood in this manner.
  3. The occurrence of mirror writing is well known phemonenon (my younger daughter was reverse writer when she was young). Spatial reflections of MEs are also possible and might be involved with mirror writing. The time reversal would change the direction of writing from right to left.
  4. Reverse speech would be also a possible form of reversed cognition. Time reversed speech has the same power spectrum as ordinary speech and the fact that it sounds usually gibberish means that phase information is crucial for storing the meaning of speech. Therefore the hypothesis is testable.

Reverse speech

Interestingly, the Australian David Oates claims that so called reverse speech is a real phenomenon, and he has developed entire technology and therapy (and business) around this phenomenon. What is frustrating that it seems impossible to find comments of professional linguistics or neuro-scientits about the claims of Oates. I managed only to find comments by a person calling himself a skeptic believer but it became clear that the comments of this highly rhetoric and highly arrogant commentator did not contain any information. This skeptic even taught poor Mr. Oates in an aggressive tone that serious scientists are not so naive that they would even consider the possibility of taking seriously what some Mr. Oates is saying. The development of science can often depend on ridiculously small things: in this case one should find a shielded place (no ridiculing skeptics around) to wind tape recorder backwards and spend few weeks or months to learn to recognize reverse speech if it really is there! Also computerized pattern recognition could be used to make speech recognition attempts objective since it is a well-known fact that brain does feature recognition by completing the data into something which is familiar.

The basic claims of Oates are following.

  1. Reverse speech contains temporal mirror images of ordinary words and even metaphorical statements, that these words can be also identified from Fourier spectrum, that brain responds in unconscious manner to these words and that this response can be detected in EEG. Oates classifies these worlds to several categories. These claims could be tested and pity that no professional linguist nor neuroscientist (as suggested by web search) has not seen the trouble of finding whether the basic claims of Oates are correct or not.
  2. Reverse speech is complementary communication mode to ordinary speech and gives rise to a unconscious (to us) communication mechanism making lying very difficult. If person consciously lies, the honest alter ego can tell the truth to a sub-self understanding the reverse speech. Reverse speech relies on metaphors and Oates claims that there is general vocabulary. Could this taken to suggest that reverse speech is communication of right brain whereas left brain uses ordinary speech? The notion of semitrance used to model bicameral mind suggests that reverse speech could be communication of higher levels of self hierarchy dispersed inside the ordinary speech. There are also other claims relating the therapy using reverse speech, which sound rather far-fetched but one should not confuse these claims to those which are directly testable.
Physically reverse speech could correspond to phase conjugate sound waves which together with their electromagnetic counterparts can be produced in laboratory . Phase conjugate waves have rather weird properties due the fact that second law applies in a reversed direction of geometric time. For this reason phase conjugate waves are applied in error correction. ZEO predicts this phenomenon.

Negative energy topological light rays are in a fundamental role in the TGD based model for living matter and brain. The basic mechanism of intentional action would rely on time mirror mechanism utilizing the TGD counterparts of phase conjugate waves producing also the nerve pulse patterns generating ordinary speech. If the language regions of brain contain regions in which the the arrow of psychological time is not always the standard one, they would induce phase conjugates of the sound wave patterns associated with the ordinary speech and thus reverse speech.

ZEO based quantum measurement theory, which is behind the recent form of TGD inspired theory of consciousness, provides a rigorous basis for this picture. Negative energy signals can be assigned with sub-CDs representing selves with non-standard direction of geometric time and every time when mental image dies, a mental images with opposite arrow of time is generated. It would be not surprising if the reverse speech would be associated with these time reversed mental images.

Figure-background rivalry and time reversed mental images

The classical demonstration of figure-background rivalry is is a pattern experienced either as a vase or two opposite faces. This phenomenon is not the same thing as bi-ocular rivalry in which the percepts associated with left and right eyes produced by different sensory inputs are rivalling. There is also an illusion in which one perceices the dancer to make a pirouette in either counter-clockwise or clockwise direction althought the figure is static. The direction of pirouette can change. In this case time-reversal would naturally change the direction of rotation.

Figure-background rivalry gives a direct support for the TGD based of self relying on ZEO if the following argument is accepted.

  1. In ZEO the state function reduction to the opposite boundary of CD means the death of the sensory mental image and birth of new one, possibly the rivalling mental image. During the sequence of state function reductions to the passive boundary of CD defining the mental image a boundary quantum superposition of rivalling mental images associated with the active boundary of CD is generated.

    In the state function reduction to the opposite boundary the previous mental image dies and is replaced with new one. In the case of bin-ocular rivalry this might be the either of the sensory mental images generated by the sensory inputs to eyes. This might happen also now but also different interpretation is possible.

  2. The basic questions concern the time reversed mental image. Does the subject person as a higher level self experience also the time reversed sensory mental image as sensory mental image as one might expect. If so, how the time reversed mental image differs from the mental image? Passive boundary of CD defines quite generally the background - the static observer - and active boundary the figure so that their roles should change in the reduction to the opposite boundary.In sensory rivalry situation this happens at least in the example considered (vase and two faces).

    I have also identified motor action as time reversal of sensory percept. What this identification could mean in the case of sensory percepts? Could sensory and motor be interpreted as an exchange of experiencer (or sub-self) and environment as figure and background?

If this interpretation is correct, figure-background rivalry would tell something very important about consciousness and would also support ZEO. Time reversal would permute figure and background. This might happen at very abstract level. Even subjective-objective duality and first - and third person aspects of conscious experience might relate to the time reversal of mental images. In near death experiences person sees himself as an outsider: could this be interpreted as the change of the roles of figure and background indentified as first and third person perspectives? Could the first moments of the next life be seeing the world from the third person perspective?

An interesting question is whether right- and left hemispheres tend to have opposite directions of geometric time. This would make possible metabolic energy transfer between them making possible kind of flip-flop mechanism. The time-reversed hemisphere would receive negative energy serving as metabolic energy resource for it and the hemisphere sending negative energy would get in this manner positive metabolic energy. Deeper interpretation would be in terms of periodic transfer of negentropic entanglement. This would also mean that hemispheres would provide two views about the world in which figure and background would be permuted.

See the article the chapter p-Adic physics as physics of cognition and imagination or the article Time Reversed Self.

Updated Negentropy Maximization Principle

Quantum TGD involves "holy trinity" of time developments. There is the geometric time development dictated by the preferred extremal of Kähler action crucial for the realization of General Coordinate Invariance and analogous to Bohr orbit. There is what I originally called unitary "time development" U: Ψi→ UΨi→ Ψf, associated with each quantum jump. This would be the counterpart of the Schrödinger time evolution U(-t,t→ ∞). Quantum jump sequence itself defines what might be called subjective time development.

Concerning U, there is certainly no actual Schrödinger equation involved: situation is in practice same also in quantum field theories. It is now clear that in Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) U can be actually identified as a sequence of basic steps such that single step involves a unitary evolution inducing delocalization in the moduli space of causal diamonds CDs) followed by a localization in this moduli space selecting from a superposition of CDs single CD. This sequence replaces a sequence of repeated state function reductions leaving state invariant in ordinary QM. Now it leaves in variant second boundary of CD (to be called passive boundary) and also the parts of zero energy states at this boundary. There is now a very attractive vision about the construction of transition amplitudes for a given CD, and it remains to be see whether it allows an extension so that also transitions involving change of the CD moduli characterizing the non-fixed boundary of CD.

A dynamical principle governing subjective time evolution should exist and explain state function reduction with the characteristic one-one correlation between macroscopic measurement variables and quantum degrees of freedom and state preparation process. Negentropy Maximization Principle is the candidate for this principle. In its recent form it brings in only a single little but overall important modification: state function reductions occurs also now to an eigen-space of projector but the projector can now have dimension which is larger than one. Self has free will to choose beides the maximal possible dimension for this sub-space also lower dimension so that one can speak of weak form of NMP so that negentropy gain can be also below the maximal possible: we do not live in the best possible world. Second important ingredient is the notion of negentropic entanglement relying on p-adic norm.

The evolution of ideas related to NMP has been slow and tortuous process characterized by misinterpretations, over-generalizations, and unnecessarily strong assumptions, and has been basically evolution of ideas related to the anatomy of quantum jump and of quantum TGD itself.

Quantum measurement theory is generalized to theory of consciousness in TGD framework by replacing the notion of observer as outsider of the physical world with the notion of self. Hence it is not surprising that several new key notions are involved.

  1. ZEO is in central role and brings in a completely new element: the arrow of time changes in the counterpart of standard quantum jump involving the change of the passive boundary of CD to active and vice versa. In living matter the changes of the of time are inn central role: for instance, motor action as volitional action involves it at some level of self hierarchy.
  2. The fusion of real physics and various p-adic physics identified as physics of cognition to single adelic physics is second key element. The notion of intersection of real and p-adic worlds (intersection of sensory and cognitive worlds) is central and corresponds in recent view about TGD to string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces whose parameters are in an algebraic extension of rationals. By strong form of of holography it is possible to continue the string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces to various real and p-adic surfaces so that what can be said about quantum physics is coded by them. The physics in algebraic extension can be continued to real and various p-adic sectors by algebraic continuation meaning continuation of various parameters appearing in the amplitudes to reals and various p-adics.

    An entire hierarchy of physics labeled by the extensions of rationals inducing also those of p-adic numbers is predicted and evolution corresponds to the increase of the complexity of these extensions. Fermions defining correlates of Boolean cognition can be said so reside at these 2-dimensional surfaces emerging from strong form of holography implied by strong form of general coordinate invariance (GCI).

    An important outcome of adelic physics is the notion of number theoretic entanglement entropy: in the defining formula for Shannon entropy logarithm of probability is replaced with that of p-adic norm of probability and one assumes that the p-adic prime is that which produces minimum entropy. What is new that the minimum entropy is negative and one can speak of negentropic entanglement (NE). Consistency with standard measurement theory allows only NE for which density matrix is n-dimensional projector.

  3. Strong form of NMP states that state function reduction corresponds to maximal negentropy gain. NE is stable under strong NMP and it even favors its generation. Strong form of NMP would mean that we live in the best possible world, which does not seem to be the case. The weak form of NMP allows self to choose whether it performs state function reduction yielding the maximum possible negentropy gain. If n-dimensional projector corresponds to the maximal negentropy gain, also reductions to sub-spaces with n-k-dimensional projectors down to 1-dimensional projector are possible. Weak form has powerful implications: for instance, one can understand how primes near powers of prime are selected in evolution identified at basic level as increase of the complexity of algebraic extension of rationals defining the intersection of realities and p-adicities.
  4. NMP gives rise to evolution. NE defines information resources, which I have called Akashic records - kind of Universal library. The simplest possibility is that under the repeated sequence of state function reductions at fixed boundary of CD NE at that boundary becomes conscious and gives rise to experiences with positive emotional coloring: experience of love, compassion, understanding, etc... One cannot exclude the possibility that NE generates a conscious experience only via the analog of interaction free measurement but this option looks un-necessary in the recent formulation.
  5. Dark matter hierarchy labelled by the values of Planck constant heff=n× h is also in central role and interpreted as a hierarchy of criticalities in which sub-algebra of super-symplectic algebra having structure of conformal algebra allows sub-algebra acting as gauge conformal algebra and having conformal weights coming as n-ples of those for the entire algebra. The phase transition increasing heff reduces criticality and takes place spontaneously. This implies a spontaneous generation of macroscopic quantum phases interpreted in terms of dark matter. The hierarchies of conformal symmetry breakings with n(i) dividing n(i+1) define sequences of inclusions of HFFs and the conformal sub-algebra acting as gauge algebra could be interpreted in terms of measurement resolution.

    n-dimensional NE is assigned with heff=n× h and is interpreted in terms of the n-fold degeneracy of the conformal gauge equivalence classes of space-time surfaces connecting two fixed 3-surfaces at the opposite boundaries of CD: this reflects the non-determinism accompanying quantum criticality. NE would be between two dark matter system with same heff and could be assigned to the pairs formed by the n sheets. This identification is important but not well enough understood yet. The assumption that p-adic primes p divide n gives deep connections between the notion of preferred p-adic prime, negentropic entanglement, hierarchy of Planck constants, and hyper-finite factors of type II1.

  6. Quantum classical correspondence (QCC) is an important constraint in ordinary measurement theory. In TGD QCC is coded by the strong form of holography assigning to the quantum states assigned to the string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces represented in terms of super-symplectic Yangian algebra space-time surfaces as preferred extremals of Kähler action, which by quantum criticality have vanishing super-symplectic Noether charges in the sub-algebra characterized by integer n. Zero modes, which by definition do not contribute to the metric of "world of classical worlds" (WCW) code for non-fluctuacting classical degrees of freedom correlating with the quantal ones. One can speak about entanglement between quantum and classical degrees of freedom since the quantum numbers of fermions make themselves visible in the boundary conditions for string world sheets and their also in the structure of space-time surfaces.
NMP has a wide range of important implications.
  1. In particular, one must give up the standard view about second law and replace it with NMP taking into account the hierarchy of CDs assigned with ZEO and dark matter hierarchy labelled by the values of Planck constants, as well as the effects due to NE. The breaking of second law in standard sense is expected to take place and be crucial for the understanding of evolution.
  2. Self hierarchy having the hierarchy of CDs as imbedding space correlate leads naturally to a description of the contents of consciousness analogous to thermodynamics except that the entropy is replaced with negentropy.
  3. In the case of living matter NMP allows to understand the origin of metabolism. NMP demands that self generates somehow negentropy: otherwise a state function reduction to tjhe opposite boundary of CD takes place and means death and re-incarnation of self. Metabolism as gathering of nutrients, which by definition carry NE is the manner to avoid this fate. This leads to a vision about the role of NE in the generation of sensory qualia and a connection with metabolism. Metabolites would carry NE and each metabolite would correspond to a particular qualia (not only energy but also other quantum numbers would correspond to metabolites). That primary qualia would be associated with nutrient flow is not actually surprising!
  4. NE leads to a vision about cognition. Negentropically entangled state consisting of a superposition of pairs can be interpreted as a conscious abstraction or rule: negentropically entangled Schrödinger cat knows that it is better to keep the bottle closed.
  5. NMP implies continual generation of NE. One might refer to this ever expanding universal library as "Akaschic records". NE could be experienced directly during the repeated state function reductions to the passive boundary of CD - that is during the life cycle of sub-self defining the mental image. Another, less feasible option is that interaction free measurement is required to assign to NE conscious experience. As mentioned, qualia characterizing the metabolite carrying the NE could characterize this conscious experience.
  6. A connection with fuzzy qubits and quantum groups with NE is highly suggestive. The implications are highly non-trivial also for quantum computation allowed by weak form of NMP since NE is by definition stable and lasts the lifetime of self in question.
For details see the chapter Negentropy Maximization Principle.

Does the flow of time correspond to the increase of the effective Planck constant?

I like answering questions. It gives a lot of meaning to the life of a theoretician who is not allowed to enjoy the pleasures of academic existence. Career builder would of course argue that writing again and again similar answers is a waste of time: I should be building social networks to important people instead. This activity however allows to make important observations and little discoveries. This time I answered to the questions relating to non-determinism of Kähler action. How this non-determinism relates to quantum non-determinism? How the non-determinism in elementary particle scales relates to that in biology?

The unexpected fruit was a little discovery: the mechanism generating the arrow of geometric time in zero energy ontology might rely in crucial manner to a sequence of phase transitions increasing the value of Planck constant heff/h=n and hence the size of the causal diamond (CD) characterized by quantum average temporal distance. Since the second boundary of CD is fixed, the second one moves to future in average sense: hence the flow of experienced time and its arrow. Conscious entities become more intelligent as they age! It became also clear that large heff/h characterizes macroscopically quantum coherent many-particle system rather than single particle. This leads to view in which intelligent consciousness involving the experienced about the flow of time emerges as the complexity of the systems measured by the number of fundamental particles increases.

1. The non-determinism of Kähler action and quantum non-determinism

The first question was about the relationship between non-determinism of preferred extremals and quantum non-determinism. As a matter of fact, I like to use the phrase "partial failure of determinism for Kähler action" rather than "non-determinism of Kähler action".

A possible interpretation could be as a correlate for quantum non-determinism. Second interpretation would be in terms of quantum criticality implying non-determinism. I do not know whether the interpretations are actually equivalent.

I certainly do not believe that one could get rid of quantum non-determinism and there is no need for it. The generalisation of quantum-classical correspondence is however natural in ZEO, where basic objects are 4-D surfaces- classical time evolutions serving as space-time correlates for quantal evolutions.

The origin of non-determinism is following. Kähler action has a huge vacuum degeneracy. For instance, for space-time surfaces, which are maps from M4 to at most 2-D Lagrangian manifold of CP2 having by definition vanishing induced Kähler form (configuration space and momentum space are Lagrangian manifolds in the context of classical mechanics) induced Kähler form of course vanishes. These vacuum extremals define an analog of gauge degeneracy of Maxwell action for vacuum extremals. For non-vacuum externals it is expected to be lifted at least partially. Hence 4-dimensional spin glass degeneracy is more appropriate analogy. One could say that classical gravitation breaks the analog of gauge invariance for non-vacuum extremals.

For CP2 type vacuum externals one has also non-determinism, which corresponds directly to Virasoro conditions expressing the light-likeness of 1-D M4 projection of the CP2 type vacuum extremal. Now induced Kähler form does not vanish.

Zero energy ontology (ZEO) and causal diamond (CD) are essential notions concerning the interpretation but I will not try to explain it here but leave it as an exercise for the reader. The ends of vacuum extremal at light-like boundaries of CD are connected by infinite number of vacuum externals. One expects that some vacuum degeneracy is present also non-vacuum externals. Part of this degeneracy must be analogous to gauge degeneracy since by strong form of general coordinate invariance (GCI) implying strong form of holography, only the partonic 2-surfaces and their 4-D tangent space data fix the physics since WCW metric depends only on this data. Hence the interiors of 3-surfaces carry very little information about quantum states.

2. Identification of gauge degeneracy as hierarchy of broken conformal gauge invariances

The conjecture is that conformal symmetries acting as partially broken gauge symmetries realize this vision. TGD allows several kinds of conformal symmetries, and a huge generalisation of string model conformal symmetries (including Kac-Moody) but I will not go to this here. Suffice it to say that the generalization of conformal symmetries means replacement of AdS/CFT correspondence with a correspondence which looks intuitively much more realistic (see this).

Classical conformal charges would vanish for sub-algebra for which the conformal weights are multiples of some integer n, n=1,2,…. These conditions would give the long-sought-for precise content to the notion of preferred extremal. These conditions would be the classical counterparts of corresponding quantum conditions and define a Bohr orbitology. This hierarchy would correspond to the hierarchy of Planck constants heff= n× h and to the hierarchy of dark matters. There would be infinite number of hierarchies (1, n1, n2, . .., ni,...) such that ni would divide ni+1 . They would correspond to the hierarchies of inclusions of hyper-finite factors of type II1 (HFFs). Included algebra defines measurement resolution, which would thus realized as conformal gauge symmetries. Evolution would correspond to a sequence of symmetry breakings: this is not a new idea but emerges naturally if $n$ serves as a quantum "IQ".

The proposal is that that there is a finite number n=heff/h of conformal equivalence classes of four-surfaces with fixed 3-D ends at the opposite boundaries of CD so that the non-determinism with gauge fixing would be finite and would correspond to the hierarchy of Planck constants and hierarchy of conformal symmetry breaking defined by the hierarchy of sub-algebras of various conformal algebras with weights comings as integer multiples of integer n=1,2,,…. These n surfaces would be analogous to Gribov copies for gauge conditions in non-Abelian gauge theories.

3. The non-determinisms of particle physics and biology

There was also a question about the non-determinism of partcle physics contra that of biology, where it manifests itself as partially free will.

3.1. NMP

Before continuing it is good make clear that a new principle is involved: Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP). Also a new kind of entanglement entropy based p-padic norm is involved. This entanglement entropy is negative unlike ordinary entanglement entropy and characterizes two-particle system rather than single particle system. By consistency with quantum measurement theory it corresponds to identical entanglement probabilities pi=1/n. This entanglement is assumed to be associated with the n-sheeted coverings (at least these) defined by the space-time surfaces in n conformal equivalence classes associated with n=heff/h and connecting same 3-surfaces at the ends of space-time surface. Two systems of this kind can entangle negentropically. Unitary entanglement matrix associated with quantum computation gives rise to negentropic entanglement. Also n-partite negentropic entanglement makes sense.

3.2. What could be common for particle physics and biology?

Basically the non-determinism of particle physics and of biology could be essentially the same thing but for living matter whose behave is dictated by dark matter the value of heff/h=n would be large and make possible macroscopic quantum coherence in spatio-temporal scales, which are longer by factor n. Note that n could characterize macroscopic quantum phase rather than single particle system: this distinction is important as will be found.

The hierarchy of CDs brings additional spatio-temporal scale identified as secondary p-adic scale characterising the minimal size of CD (that for n=1). This size scales like heff/h=n and one can think of a superposition of CDs with different values of n and that the average value of n measuring the age of self increases during the sequence of quantum jumps. Since n is kind of IQ, NMP says that conscious entities should become wiser as they get older: maybe this is too optimistic hypothesis in the case of human kind but maybe electrons are different!;-) I swear that this interpretation is not due to the fact that I have passed the magic threshold of 60 years when one begins to feel that the ageing means growing wisdom;-). I must confess that the interpretation of experience time flow in terms of increasing heff/h charactering CD scaling has not come into my mind earlier. One could even consider the possibility that there is no superposition - just a sequence of heff/h increasing (in average sense) phase transitions, kind of spiritual growth even at the level of elementary particles.

For instance, for electron characterised by Mersenne prime M127=2127-1 the minimal CD time scale is .1 seconds (note that it defines a fundamental biorhythm of 10 Hz) and thus macrotemporal. Corresponding size scale is of the order of Earth circumference. This size scale could characterize quite generally the magnetic body of the elementary particle or the magnetic body at which macroscopic quantum phase of particles resides. In both cases there would be a direct connection between elementary particle physics and macroscopic physics becoming manifest in living matter via alpha rhythm for instance. Only the interpretation in terms of macroscopic quantum phase seems to make sense.

3.3. What distinguishes between particle physics and biology?

There are essential differences between elementary particle physics and biology. The first differences comes from quantum measurement theory in ZEO.

  1. The repeated state function reduction does nothing for the state in standard ontology. In TGD the state is invariant only at the second boundary at which the reduction occurs. For second boundary of CD the average value if n increases. This gives rise to the experienced flow of geometric time and the arrow of time. Self exists as long as reductions take place on same boundary of CD and dies as the first reduction to opposite boundary is forced by NMP.
  2. In particle physics context one expects that the duration of self identified as a sequence of state function reductions at the same boundary of CD is much shorter than in living matter. Otherwise one would have too strong breaking of reversibility in elementary particle time scales.
Objections usually help to make formulations more precise. Now the objection is that the increase of average heff/h so that particles darken gradually, should have been observed long time ago since reaction rates are independent of Planck constant only the lowest order in heff that is in classical approximation. The attempt to circumvent this objection leads to two crucial questions?
  1. Does heff characterize elementary particle (or fundamental fermion) or a magnetic/field body of physical system which could be also many-particle system.

    If heff/h=n corresponds to n-sheeted covering which becomes singular at the ends of space-time surface so that sheets co-incide at partonic 2-surfaces representing particles, it seems that large heff is a phenomenon assignable to the field/magnetic body inside CD rather than particle identified as partonic 2-surface or 3-surface at the end of CD. If so large heff effects would relate to the dynamics associated with the magnetic/field bodies carrying dark matter.

  2. Is darkness single particle phenomenon or many-particle phenomenon? For the latter option elementary particle physics would not be any challenge so that it looks the reasonable option. Note that negentropic entanglement requires at least one pair of (say) electrons and suggests macroscopic quantum phase - say high-Tc super-conductivity or super-fluidity.

    The idea about evolution of many-electron systems at dark magnetic body generating increasing value of heff makes sense, and would conform with the observation that electrons secondary p-adic time scale defines fundamental bio-rhythm. Dark magnetic bodies carrying dark particles are indeed in key role TGD inspired quantum biology. Bose-Einstein condensates and spontaneously magnetized dark phases at magnetic bodies would conform with the idea that dark matter is many-particle phenomenon.

    Large heff would not be seen in elementary particle physics. This challenges the idea that sparticles in TGD SUSY might have same p-adic mass scale as particles but be more stable in dark phase (this would be due to the scaling up of the size of CD) (see this). Note however that in TGD already elementary particles are many-fermion systems so that it might be possible to circumvent this objection.

  3. The original formulation for darkness was at single particle level so that heff characterizes elementary particles rather than many-particle systems. In elementary particle reactions the particles in the same vertex would always have the same value of heff/h. It was assumed that heff can change only in 2-vertex analogous to mass insertion vertex.

    The previous arguments suggest that darkness makes sense only for many-particle systems so that mass insertion vertex becomes phase transition. These phase transitions would occur routinely in living matter but as phase transitions involving large number of particles. For instance, bio-photons would result from dark photons in this manner. This picture seems to make sense at least at the level of many-particle systems but not necessary for Feynman graphs.

    This many-particle aspect would explain at very general level why the search for dark particles has been fruitless.

The average lifetime of elementary particle as a conscious entity cannot be longer than the life-time of particle in the sense of particle physics. In the case of electron having infinite lifetime as elementary particle the "biological" lifetime must be finite since otherwise the irreversibility would manifest itself as a breaking of time reversal invariance in electron scale. The temporal time scale of CD characterising the dimensions of the magnetic body of elementary particle is the first order of magnitude estimate for the lifetime of elementary particle self. The "biological death" of electron only means state function reduction in the sense of ordinary quantum measurement theory implying for instance localization of electron or giving eigenstate of spin in given quantization direction and these quantum jumps meaning that re-incarnations of electron certainly occur.

This time scale could give an idea about the geometric duration of elementary particle self (the growth of the temporal distance between tips of CD during the sequence of reductions or equivalently the increase of n). If this picture really makes sense, elementary particles would get more and more intelligent in TGD Universe and stable elementary particle like electron would be real sages! Could this relate to the fact that the minimal CD size for electron defines the fundamental biorhythm of 10 Hz? Strangely, I find is easier to regarded electron as intelligent creature than my working desk or a typical academic decision maker. For holographists it should be also relatively easy to think that electrons could serve as conscious holograms.

3.4. Could one regard elementary particle as a conscious entity?

The previous considerations support the view that it is macroscopic quantum phases of particles at magnetic flux tubes which can be seen as conscious and intelligent evolving entities experience the flow of time. In the case of single elementary particle previous arguments would suggest that only single state function reduction occurs at given boundary of CD so that the lifetime of elementary particle self would have zero duration! This in accordance with the absence of the arrow of time at elementary particle level. Strictly speaking this does not exclude consciousness but excludes intelligence and experience of time flow.

Could already systems with small particle number, be conscious entities and develop - not necessarily large - heff/h>1. Hadrons consist of quarks and I have considered the possibility that valence quarks and gluons at the color magnetic body are dark. Also nuclei as many-nucleon systems could be dark. In TGD even elementary particles consist of fundamental fermions so that one can ask whether elementary particles possess some elementary aspects of consciousness identified as the possibility of non-vanishing "biological" life-time. This kind of picture would conform with the idea about consciousness as something emerging as the complexity of the system increases.

The average lifetime of elementary particle as a conscious entity cannot be longer than the life-time of particle in the sense of particle physics. In the case of electron having infinite lifetime as elementary particle the "biological" lifetime must be finite since otherwise the irreversibility would manifest itself as a breaking of time reversal invariance in electron scale. The temporal time scale of CD characterising the dimensions of the magnetic body of the elementary particle is the first order of magnitude estimate for the lifetime of elementary particle self. The "biological death" of electron means state function reduction in the sense of ordinary quantum measurement theory implying for instance localization of electron or giving eigenstate of spin in given quantization direction and these quantum jumps meaning re-incarnations of electron certainly occur.

This time scale could give an idea about the geometric duration of elementary particle self (the growth of the temporal distance between tips of CD during the sequence of reductions or equivalently the increase of n). One expects that Δ n is by NMP rather small for single particle systems.

3.5. Could thermodynamical breaking of T symmetry relate to the CP/T breaking in particles physics?

Could the "thermodynamical" breaking of time reflection symmetry (T) correspond to the breaking of T as it is observed for elementary particles such as neutral kaon? I think that most colleagues tend to be skeptic about this kind of identification, and so do I.

The point is that particle physicist's T breaking could be purely geometric whereas thermodynamical breaking of T involves the notion of subjective time, state function reduction, and consciousness. One could however ask whether the particle physicist's T could serve as space-time correlate for thermodynamicist's T and whether systems exhibiting CP breaking could be seen as conscious entities in very primitive sense of the word (nf/ni>1 but small). An important point is that the time evolution for CDs corresponds to scaling so that usually exponential decay laws are replaced with their hyperbolic variants. Hyperbolic decay laws become an important signature of consciousness. For instance, bio-photon intensity decays in hyperbolic manner.

The mean lifetimes are of long-lived and short lived neutral kaon are τL= 1.2 × 10-8 seconds and τS= 8.9× 10-11 seconds: the ratio of the time scales is roughly 27. This does not conform with the naivest guess that the size of CD gives estimate for the duration of elementary particle self (increase of the temporal distance between tips of CD): the estimate would be τL= 10-7 seconds from the fact that the mass of neutral kaon is roughly 103 times electron mass. This is not too far from the lifetime of K0L but is about 27 times longer than the life-time of short-lived kaon. Why KS would be so short-lived? Could the lifetime be dictated by quark level: The longer time scale could be assigned as secondary p-adic time scale with the p-adic prime p≈ 2k, k=104, characterising b quark. Could the short life-time be understood in terms of loops involving heavier quarks with shorter lifetimes as conscious entities: they indeed appear in the description of CP/T breaking?

For details and background see the chapter About nature of time.

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