Matter, Mind, Quantum

This chapter is devoted to the TGD inspired theory of consciousness. TGD inspired theory of consciousness could be seen as a generalization of quantum measurement theory to make observer, which in standard quantum measurement theory remains an outsider, a genuine part of physical system subject to laws of quantum physics. The basic notions are quantum jump identified as moment of consciousness and the notion of self: zero energy ontology (ZEO) is essential for the notion of self. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) defines the dynamics of consciousness and as a special case reproduces standard quantum measurement theory.

1. Quantum jump as moment of consciousness

TGD suggests that the quantum jump between quantum histories could identified as moment of consciousness and could therefore be for consciousness theory what elementary particle is for physics.

This means that subjective time evolution corresponds to the sequence of quantum jumps Ψi→ U Ψi → Ψf consisting of unitary process followed by state function process. In zero energy ontology (ZEO) U defines a unitary matrix between zero energy states and is naturally assignable to intentional actions whereas the ordinary S-matrix telling what happens in particle physics experiment (for instance) generalizes to M-matrix defining time-like entanglement between positive and negative energy parts of zero energy states. One might say that U process corresponds to a fundamental act of creation creating a quantum superposition of possibilities and the remaining steps generalizing state function reduction process select between them.

2. Negentropy Maximization Principle and the notion of self

U-process is followed by a cascade of state function reductions. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) states that in a given quantum state the entangled subsystem-complement pair with largest entanglement entropy can perform the quantum jump. More precisely: the reduction of the entanglement entropy in the quantum jump is as large as possible. This selects the pair in question and in case of ordinary entanglement entropy leads the selected pair to a product state. The interpretation of the reduction of the entanglement entropy as conscious information gain makes sense. The sequence of state function reductions decomposes at first step the entire system to two parts in such a manner that the reduction entanglement entropy is maximal. This process repeats itself for subsystems. If the subsystem in question cannot be divided into a pair of entangled free system the process stops since energy conservation does not allow it to occur (binding energy) or the resulting entanglement is negentropic for all sub-system-complement divisions.

The original definition of self was as a subsystem able to remain unentangled under state function reductions associated with subsequent quantum jumps. Everything is consciousness but consciousness can be lost. Second aspect of self was assumed to be the integration of subsequent quantum jumps to coherent whole giving rise to the experienced flow of time.

What is the precise identification of self allowing to understand both of these aspects turned out to be difficult problem. I became aware the solution of the problem in terms of ZEO only quite recently (2014). Self indeed corresponds to a sequence of quantum jumps integrating to single unit, but these quantum jumps correspond to state function reductions to a fixed boundary of causal diamond (CD) leaving the corresponding parts of zero energy states invariant. In positive energy ontology these repeated state function reductions would have no effect on the state but in TGD framework there occurs a change for the second boundary and gives rise to the experienced flow of time and its arrow and gives rise to self. The first quantum jump to the opposite boundary corresponds to the act of free will or wake-up of self.

p-Adic physics as correlate for cognition and intention leads to the notion of negentropic entanglement possible in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds involves experience about expansion of consciousness. Consistency with standard quantum measurement theory forces negentropic entanglement to correspond to density matrix proportional to unit matrix. Unitary entanglement typical for quantum computing systems gives rise to unitary entanglement.

The first state function reduction - wake-up of self- at given boundary of CD is a hierarchical cascade proceeding from long to short scales. The reduction process can stop also if the self in question allows only decompositions to pairs systems with negentropic entanglement. This does not require that that the system forms a bound state for any pair of subsystems so that the systems decomposing it can be free (no binding energy). This defines a new kind of bound state not describable as a jail defined by the bottom of a potential well. Subsystems are free but remain correlated by negentropic entanglement.

Ordinary state function reductions imply dissipation crucial for self organization and quantum jump could be regarded as the basic step of an iteration like process leading to the asympotic self-organization patterns. One could regard dissipation as a Darwinian selector as in standard theories of self-organization. NMP predicts that self organization and hence presumably also fractalization can occur inside selves. NMP would favor the generation of negentropic entanglement. This notion is highly attractive since it could allow to understand how quantum self-organization generates larger coherent structures. Note that state function reduction for negentropic entanglement is highly deterministic since the number of degenerate states with same negative entanglement entropy is expected to be small. This could allow to understand how living matter is able to develop almost deterministic cellular automaton like behaviors. In ZEO this self-organization is for 4-D spatio-temporal patterns since 3-surfaces are pairs of space-like surfaces at the boundaries of CD and maxima of Kähler function are selected in the process. These temporal patterns correspond to behaviors and functions in living matter.

The chapter is devoted to the discussion of detailed implications of these general ideas. The topics to be discussed include following basic questions.

  1. How the general structure for the contents of consciousness of self are determined? The basic assumption is that self hierarchy in which subselves define mental images of self is responsible for the general structure of conscious experience. ZEO allows to derive the space-time correlates of selves.

  2. How the physical realization of the hardware of consciousness differs from that assumed in neuroscience? Here the notion of magnetic body as intentional agent using biological body as motor instrument and sensory receptor is central.

  3. What is the precise relationship between the geometric time of physicist and subjective time identified in terms of a sequence of quantum jumps? ZEO gives the most convincing answer to this question found hitherto.

  4. What can one one say about various types of conscious experience in the proposed framework. This includes p-adic description of cognition and intentional action, model for sensory experience and sensory qualia, model for Boolean mind in terms of fermions, a model for directed attention, ideas about emotions, and also a general interpretation for altered states of consciousness based on the special features of negentgropic entanglement.

  5. Can one provide solutions to the paradoxes of quantum physics, theories of consciousness, and logic in the proposed conceptual framework?

The discussion differs considerably from the earlier one. The reason is that the developments occurred during period 2005-2010 (ZEO, hierarchy of Planck constants assigned to dark matter, hyper-finite factors of type II1, the implications of the number theoretical negentropies) are introduced from the beginning to the formulation of the theory rather than as additions to the existing text so that the representation is more coherent and the number of internal inconsistencies is minimized. The latest progress relates to the understanding of the notions of psychological time and self (2012-2014).

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Negentropy Maximization Principle and TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness

In TGD Universe the moments of consciousness are associated with quantum jumps between quantum histories. The proposal is that the dynamics of consciousness is governed by Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP), which states the information content of conscious experience is maximal. The formulation of NMP is the basic topic of this chapter.

NMP codes for the dynamics of standard state function reduction and states that the state function reduction process following U-process gives rise to a maximal reduction of entanglement entropy at each step. In the generic case this implies at each step a decomposition of the system to unique unentangled subsystems and the process repeats itself for these subsystems. The process stops when the resulting subsystem cannot be decomposed to a pair of free systems since energy conservation makes the reduction of entanglement kinematically impossible in the case of bound states. The natural assumption is that self loses consciousness when it entangles via bound state entanglement.

There is an important exception to this vision based on ordinary Shannon entropy. There exists an infinite hierarchy of number theoretical entropies making sense for rational or even algebraic entanglement probabilities. In this case the entanglement negentropy can be negative so that NMP favors the generation of negentropic entanglement (NE), which is not bound state entanglement in standard sense since the condition that state function reduction leads to an eigenstate of density matrix requires the final state density matrix to be a projection operator.

NE might serve as a correlate for emotions like love and experience of understanding. The reduction of ordinary entanglement entropy to random final state implies second law at the level of ensemble. For the generation of NE the outcome of the reduction is not random: the prediction is that second law is not a universal truth holding true in all scales. Since number theoretic entropies are natural in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds, this suggests that life resides in this intersection. The existence effectively bound states with no binding energy might have important implications for the understanding the stability of basic bio-polymers and the key aspects of metabolism. A natural assumption is that self experiences expansion of consciousness as it entangles in this manner. Quite generally, an infinite self hierarchy with the entire Universe at the top is predicted.

There are two options to consider. Strong form of NMP, which would demand maximal negentropy gain: this would not allow morally responsible free will if ethics is defined in terms of evolution as increase of NE resources. Weak form of NMP would allow self to choose also lower-dimensional sub-space of the projector defining the final state sub-space for strong form of NMP. Weak form turns out to have several highly desirable consequences: it favours dimensions of final state space coming as powers of prime, and in particular dimensions which are primes near powers of prime: as a special case, p-adic length scale hypothesis follows. Weak form of NMP allows also quantum computations, which halt unlike strong form of NMP.

Besides number theoretic negentropies there are also other new elements as compared to the earlier formulation of NMP.

  1. ZEO modifies dramatically the formulation of NMP since U-matrix acts between zero energy states and can be regarded as a collection of orthonormal M-matrices, which generalize the ordinary S-matrix and define what might be called a complex square root of density matrix so that kind of a square root of thermodynamics at single particle level justifying also p-adic mass calculations based on p-adic thermodynamics is in question.
  2. The hierarchy of Planck constants labelling a hierarchy of quantum criticalities is a further new element having important implications for conciousness and biology.
  3. Hyper-finite factors of type II1 represent an additional technical complication requiring separate treatment of NMP taking into account finite measurement resolution realized in terms of inclusions of these factors.
NMP has wide range of important implications.
  1. In particular, one must give up the standard view about second law and replace it with NMP taking into account the hierarchy of CDs assigned with ZEO and dark matter hierarchy labelled by the values of Planck constants, as well as the effects due to NE. The breaking of second law in standard sense is expected to take place and be crucial for the understanding of evolution.
  2. Self hierarchy having the hierarchy of CDs as imbedding space correlate leads naturally to a description of the contents of consciousness analogous to thermodynamics except that the entropy is replaced with negentropy.
  3. In the case of living matter NMP allows to understand the origin of metabolism. NMP demands that self generates somehow negentropy: otherwise a state function reduction to tjhe opposite boundary of CD takes place and means death and re-incarnation of self. Metabolism as gathering of nutrients, which by definition carry NE is the manner to avoid this fate. This leads to a vision about the role of NE in the generation of sensory qualia and a connection with metabolism. Metabolites would carry NE and each metabolite would correspond to a particular qualia (not only energy but also other quantum numbers would correspond to metabolites). That primary qualia would be associated with nutrient flow is not actually surprising!
  4. NE leads to a vision about cognition. Negentropically entangled state consisting of a superposition of pairs can be interpreted as a conscious abstraction or rule: negentropically entangled Schrödinger cat knows that it is better to keep the bottle closed.
  5. NMP implies continual generation of NE. One might refer to this ever expanding universal library as "Akaschic records". NE could be experienced directly during the repeated state function reductions to the passive boundary of CD - that is during the life cycle of sub-self defining the mental image. Another, less feasible option is that interaction free measurement is required to assign to NE conscious experience. As mentioned, qualia characterizing the metabolite carrying the NE could characterize this conscious experience.
  6. A connection with fuzzy qubits and quantum groups with NE is highly suggestive. The implications are highly non-trivial also for quantum computation allowed by weak form of NMP since NE is by definition stable and lasts the lifetime of self in question.

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Self and Binding: Part I

This chapter is the first part of a representation devoted to the notion of self. The original definition of self was as a subsystem able to remain unentangled under state function reductions associated with subsequent quantum jumps. Everything is consciousness but consciousness can be lost if self develops bound state entanglement during U process so that state function reduction to smaller un-entangled pieces is impossible. A second aspect of self was assumed to be the integration of subsequent quantum jumps to coherent whole giving rise to the experienced flow of time. This view had however problems, which are rather obvious and it seems that new physics is needed.

The TGD based notion of self involves several new physics ingredients. These include Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO), hierarchy of Planck constants labelling a fractal hierarchy of quantum critical systems, and adelic view about quantum physics fusing real and various p-adic physics serving as correlates of cognition to single coherent whole.

Negentropic entanglement is a crucial notion. There exists an infinite hierarchy of number theoretical entropies making sense for rational or even algebraic entanglement probabilities. In this case the entanglement negentropy can be negative so that Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) favors generation of negentropic entanglement, which need not be bound state entanglement in standard sense. This leads to the vision that negentropic entanglement defines kind of Akashic records, kind of library storing potentially conscious information becoming conscious in interaction free measurement. Akashic records could define self model as opposed to self. Consistency with standard quantum measurement theory requires that density matrix for negentropic entanglement is projector and thus proportional to unit matrix associated to unitary entanglement matrix associated with quantum computation.

What is the precise identification of self allowing to understand both of the above mentioned aspects turned out to be difficult problem. I became aware the solution of the problem in terms of ZEO only rather recently (2014). Self indeed corresponds to a sequence of quantum jumps integrating to single unit, but these quantum jumps correspond to state function reductions to a fixed boundary of CD leaving the corresponding parts of zero energy states invariant. In positive energy ontology these repeated state function reductions would have no effect on the state but in TGD framework there occurs a change for the second boundary and gives rise to the experienced flow of time and its arrow and gives rise to self. The first quantum jump to the opposite boundary corresponds to the act of free will and death of self and its re-incarnation at the opposite boundary CD. Also the arrow of geometric time is changed.

Self is assumed to experience sub-selves as mental images identifiable as "averages" of their mental images. This implies the notion of ageing of mental images as being due to the growth of ensemble entropy as the ensemble sub-sub-selves increases.

The sub-selves of two unentangled selves can entangle although selves remain unentangled. This is possible by the modification of the subsystem concept forced by the p-adic length scale cutoff. The entanglement of sub-selves means fusion and sharing of mental images providing a universal telepathy like quantum communication mechanism and presumably making possible both molecular, cellular, and human societies.

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Self and Binding: Part II

This chapter is second part of a representation devoted to the notion of self as it is understood in TGD framework.

The possibility of negentropic entanglement has profound implications. It leads to a vision about learning as a basic quantum process possible in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds and made possible because state function reduction ceases to be a random process for negentropically quantum states. Quite concrete ideas about the role of synaptic transmission and neural transmitters for consciousness emerge. Music experience provides an especially interesting application for the vision about consciousness and zero energy ontology together with number theoretical vision inspires several concrete interpretations. Synchronous firing of neurons- in particular at 40 Hz frequency- is an attractive correlate for the negentropic entanglement and synesthesia can be interpreted as a particular manifestations of negentropic entanglement.

In TGD framework it is not at all obvious that the highest levels of our personal self hierarchy should correspond to the size of the physical body. Various empirical facts, in particular the observations related to the special effects of excitations of geomagnetic fields and ELF em fields in EEG frequency range on brain, inspire the hypothesis that our selves correspond to topological field quanta of em fields associated with EEG frequencies and thus by Uncertainty Principle have size scale of Earth. Indeed, the notion of magnetic body as a space-time correlate of self has become a key concept in TGD inspired biology. Magnetic body carrying dark matter identified as lare heff phases can be seen as intentional agent using biological body as motor instrument and sensory receptor.

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Quantum model for sensory representations

One of the toughest challenges of quantum theories of consciousness is to understand how sensory representations are constructed at quantum level. It became as a surprise that the vision about sensory representation which resulted from a long lasting thought experimentation is actually very much what the original experience about myself as a computer sitting at its own terminal, when taken very literally in some aspects, actually suggests. This vision adds to the standard view about brain an additional layer responsible for the sensory representations and brings in the quantum level of control so that nerve pulse patterns are only part of the control loop. In fact, it has turned out that the same basic theory applies to both geometric memories, precognition, sensory perception, and motor actions. The vision goes as follows.

  1. As far as our consciousness is considered, primary sensory organs are the seats of sensory qualia and brain only constructs cognitive and symbolic representations. Various objections against this hypothesis can be circumvented by assuming that sensory organs entangle with the brain. The question how imagination differs from the sensory experience becomes trivial, and dreams and hallucinations can be understood as resulting via the back-projection of the imagined mental images to the primary sensory organs.

  2. Libet's findings about passive aspects of consciousness lead to the view that sensory percept can be regarded as a geometric memory in time scale of .5 seconds involving entanglement with the geometric past mediated by negative energy MEs. Libet's experiments about the active aspects of consciousness in turn lead to realization that motor actions and sensory perceptions are in a well-defined sense time-reversals of each other: pre-cognition is a definite aspect of motor action. One can say that motor action at the level of negative energy MEs is initiated from the level of muscles rather than brain and motor imagination is just a motor action starting from some level higher than muscles. The transformation of a p-adic ME to negative energy ME realizes the transformation of intention to action in a precisely targeted manner and the emission of negative energy makes possible extreme flexibility by buy now-let others pay mechanism of remote metabolism. This process is the basic step initiating motor action, neural activity leading to imagery, and active memory recall. This picture also explains why geometric memories occur more or less spontaneously whereas precognition is a rare phenomenon (pre-cognizer must receive negative energy MEs).

  3. In TGD framework one can assign to any material structure a magnetic body having much large size. The closed flux loops composing magnetic bodies allow an elegant realization of the long term memories in terms of negative and positive energy MEs. A stronger hypothesis is that various magnetic bodies define sensory canvases at which various sensory representations are realized. Motor action can be seen as a geometric time reversal of sensory perception. Cortex can be seen as a collection of pre-existing symbolic and cognitive features possibly entangled with sensory mental images at sensory organs, and activated when they appear in the perceptive field or form a part of motor action. The basic task of the central nervous system is to identify these features from the sensory input. The mental images associated with various parts of the physical body are entangled with the points of the corresponding magnetic bodies representing objects of the perceptive field by sharing of mental images and in this manner define attributes of these objects. There is an entire hierarchy of representations corresponding to the hierarchy of magnetic bodies, and also sensory perception involves active selections by entangling a sequences of mental images defining paths along the tree-like structure defined by the hierarchy of magnetic bodies beginning from the personal magnetic body and ending at the roots defined by magnetic bodies of sensory organs. This explains phenomena like sensory rivalry.

  4. The decomposition of the perceptive field to objects is one of the basic aspects of sensory experiencing and TGD provides a mechanism generating these objects as mind like space-time sheets: the boundaries of these objects correspond to regions of strong Kähler electric field whose strength is assumed to correlate with the intensity of the neural input. It might be that even the objects of perceptive field or thoughts could be regarded as features. In zero energy ontology causal diamonds become the imbedding space correlates of mental images and one can ask whether Negentropy Maximization Principle -perhaps suitably generalized- could force their generation.

  5. The computational activities associated with the construction of the sensory representations (say estimating distances and directions of the objects of perceptive field) and virtual sensory representations representing the goals of motor action are presumably realized as iterated processes in which virtual sensory inputs characterizing the expected experiences are compared with the real world sensory input. In a similar manner the goal of the motor action is compared with the sensory representation resulting from effect of a virtual motor action on the representation of the recent state of world and body. This comparison does not necessarily require sensory representation at any level of the self hierarchy and could be based on comparison circuits defined by parallel supra currents in which the inputs which are sufficiently near to each other generate constructive interference giving rise to a large Josephson current.

  6. Zero energy ontology together with the notion of causal diamond ($CD$) identified as imbedding space correlate of self and the moduli space of $CD$s, the description of dark matter in terms of a hierarchy of Planck constants implying a generalization of the notion of the imbedding space, and the vision about living matter as something residing in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds and carrying positive entanglement negentropy allow to make this vision more detailed and lead to surprisingly precise quantitative predictions and connect the basic biological time scales to those assignable to elementary particles in zero energy ontology. The notion of spectroscopy of consciousness can be formulated for the geometric aspects of conscious experience in terms of the moduli space of causal diamonds and the frequencies of the generalized EEG.

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Time and consciousness

In moments of consciousness as quantum jumps between quantum histories picture the basic challenge is to explain how psychological time arises: why the contents of at least sensory experiences are concentrated around definite value of geometric time and what is the origin of the arrow of psychological time. It has become gradually clear that TGD cannot reproduce the common sense conception of time and that one can only require that the generalized view is consistent with our restricted conscious experiences and shows our position in the hierarchy of consciousness.

The understanding of the notion of psychological time and its arrow - or equivalently, the relationship between subjective and geometric time - turned out to be quite difficult challenge and led to a handful of proposals based on the identification of space-time sheet as a correlate of self and the idea that the experienced flow of geometric correspond to some kind of motion in space-time or in imbedding space. These identifications did not lead to anything practical and generated paradoxes.

The most recent proposal involves no ad hoc assumptions and relies on the recent formulation of quantum TGD using zero energy ontology. The correlate of self is now so called causal diamond (pair of future and past directed light-cones) which is 8-D sub-manifold of the imbedding space rather than space-time sheet. The flow of geometric time is apparent and due the change of quantum state in quantum jump which in the first approximation means a shift of the quantum superposition of space-time surfaces to the direction of the geometric past of the imbedding space. This proposal allows to understand the asymmetry between geometric future and past at the level of conscious experience and makes also precise quantitative predictions. Also a unification of the definition of self identifying it as a sequence of quantum jumps and of the definition based on the reduction of self hierarchy to a fractal hierarchy of quantum jumps within quantum jumps becomes possible.

The concept of self led to the understanding of the subjective memory as an average over experiences of self experienced after its "wake-up". Subjective memories are always about past. Geometric memories are predictions for the future/past assuming that no quantum jumps would occur after/had occurred before the one giving rise to the geometric memory. Pre-cognitions can be seen as geometric memories about future. Intentions are p-adic variants of precognitions. It seems that long term memories must correspond to geometric memories: this hypothesis, when combined with the spin glass model of brain, the notion of quantum self-organization, and some key aspects of many-sheeted physics, allows to understand the basic aspects of the long term memory and avoids the basic difficulties of the neural net models.

"Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" principle suggests that the structure of the many-sheeted space-time represents the structure of the cosmology of consciousness. This heuristic principle together with the concept of self, the hypothesis that also infinite primes are present in the topological condensate and association sequence concept, leads to a Grand Scenario for the cosmology of consciousness. There is no need to assume that different irreducible sub-experiences associated with given moment of consciousness correspond to a common value of the psychological time. Most naturally, the values of psychological time extending from zero to strictly infinite values of time and beyond(!) are present. This means that cosmology of consciousness has fractal like structure: there are subcosmologies which know nothing about each other's existence except in quantum jumps involving entanglement with larger space-time sheets: in this case the conscious experience could be regarded as a religious or mystic experience. Both future and past civilizations participate in each quantum jump. The allowance of infinite primes suggested strongly by various arguments, means that conscious intelligences which are God like as compared to us, participate in each quantum jump.

An especially important general consequence is the paradigm of 4-dimensional brain.

  1. This paradigm trivializes the problem of long term memory. The desire to remember would be quantum communicated from the geometric now to the geometric past by sharing of mental images made possible by time-like quantum entanglement of sub-selves. In the case of episodal memories the sharing of mental images gives already rise to the memory. For non-episodal memories the memory is communicated classically to the geometric future. An essential element of the mechanism are negative energy MEs ("massless extremals") which are ideal for generating time-like quantum entanglement with the geometric past. Positive energy MEs are in turn involved with classical communications.

  2. Second consequence is a model of cognition relying on the concept of cognitive neutrino pair: cognitive neutrino pair has almost vanishing total energy and consists of neutrino and antineutrino residing at different space-time sheets. The cornerstone of the model is the negative energy of the condensed matter neutrinos deriving from the classical Z0 interaction with nuclear Z0 charges. Thus one can say that TGD predicts that k=169 space-time sheet (L(169) @ 5 microns) is the length scale in which cognitive consciousness emerges.

  3. Quantum jumps between quantum histories concept explains the peculiar time delays of consciousness revealed in the experiments relating to active and passive roles of consciousness and the causal anomalies revealed by the experiments of Radin and Bierman. TGD predicts "tribar effect" as a general signature for the quantum jump between quantum histories concept.

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Quantum model for memory

The neural realization of long term memories has remained to a high extent a mystery in the framework of the standard brain science. The TGD based quantum model for memory have developed gradually from the basic realization that in TGD framework the identification of quantum states as quantum histories makes it un-necessary to store information about the geometric past to the geometric now. The process was not by no means a mechanical deduction of the consequences of some basic postulates. For instance, the understanding of the relationship between geometric and subjective time developed through several erratic models and only a formulation of quantum TGD led to a quantitative formulation.

The new view about time has deep implications concerning the understanding of memory.

  1. It is possible to separate genuine geometric memory recall from apparent memory recalls such as feature recognition, associations, and implicit and procedural memories. There are no memory storages in brain and only memory representations abstracting the essential aspects of experience are needed.

  2. The models of long term memory based on the assumption that information about the geometric past is stored in the recent state of the system predict that the new memories should mask the old ones. It is however known that childhood memories are the stablest ones. In TGD framework this ceases to be a problem.

Mirror mechanism provides a very general mechanism of long term memory. To remember something at a temporal distance T in the geometric past is to look at a mirror at a distance cT/2. If the mirror is quantum mirror only a timelike entanglement (allowed by the non-determinism of Kähler action) of the mental image of the geometric past with a mental image in brain now is needed. The un-necessity to communicate memories classically implies extreme generality of the mechanism: all kinds of memories: sensory, cognitive, verbal,.. can be recalled in this manner. Even the mechanism of memory recall by cue can be generalized since the notion of tele association makes in principle sense.

The basic objections against this over-simplified picture is that there is no guarantee that the reflected ME returns to the brain and that there is no control over the time span of long term memories. The notion of magnetic body allows a more realistic formulation. Brain or the personal magnetic body generates spontaneously negative energy MEs with all fundamental frequencies. These MEs can be also curved and are parallel to the closed flux tubes defining the personal magnetic body and connect geometric now with the brain of the geometric past: multiple reflections are probably required to achieve this. The length of the closed magnetic loop defines the time span of the corresponding long term memory. The sharing of mental images by timelike entanglement allows to communicate the desire to remember to the geometric past, and gives rise to the memory recall in the case of episodal memories. In the case of non-episodal/declarative memories the memory is communicated from the brain of the geometric past by classical communications using positive positive energy MEs which propagate with an effective phase velocity much lower than light velocity along closed magnetic flux tubes and generate in the receiving end symbolic representation of the memory.

Macro-temporal quantum coherence is further important piece of the model. The understanding of how macro-temporal quantum coherence is made possible by the spin glass degeneracy led to a concrete realization of the mirror model and also provided a connection with the ideas of Hameroff and Penrose. When a bound state is formed the zero modes of the bound state entangled subsystems become quantum fluctuating degrees of freedom. This means that state function reduction and state preparation cease to occur in these degrees of freedom. The bound state is in a kind of long-lasting multiverse state, or state of 'oneness' experientially, and the sequence of quantum jumps defined by the duration of the bound state behaves effectively as a single quantum jump. Macro-temporal quantum coherence making possible supercomputer like activities becomes possible.

The spin glass degeneracy associated with the join along boundaries bonds (the space-time correlates for the bound state formation) lengthens the lifetimes of the bound states dramatically and solves thus the basic objections against quantum consciousness. The spin glass degeneracy is due to classical gravitational energy of the system. The quantum jumps between different classical gravitational configurations involve the emission of gravitational (equivalently Z0) MEs and the intention to remember is realized as a transformation of p-adic ME to negative energy gravitational ME. The fact that classical gravitational fields couple to classical gauge fields with a coupling which is about 108 stronger than the ordinary gravitational coupling, could play an important role too. Water clusters and macromolecules with sizes in the range of cell membrane thickness and cell size are good candidates for generating gravitonic MEs responsible for all geometric memories. Also classical Z0 interaction might be involved since gravitonic MEs can be regarded also as Z0 MEs.

This picture was not yet quite enough. A generalization of quantum theory based on the introduction of a hierarchy of Planck constants realized in terms of generalization of the concept of imbedding space motivated by anomalies of astrophysics and biology led to a quantitative model for how macroscopic and macro-temporal quantum coherence could be realized in living matter. Also a quantitative view about memory emerges. A rather detailed neuro level model of long term memory is developed and the model conforms nicely with the basic facts known about the relationship of hippocampus and long term memory.

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About the Nature of Time

The identification of the experienced time te and geometric time tg involves well-known problems. Physicist is troubled by the reversibility of tg contra irreversibility of te, by the conflict between determinism of Schrödinger equation and the non-determinism of state function reduction, and by the poorly understood the origin of the arrow of tg. In biology the second law of thermodynamics might be violated in its standard form for short time intervals. Neuroscientist knows that the moment of sensory experience has a finite duration, does not understand what memories really are, and is bothered by the Libet's puzzling finding that neural activity seems to precede conscious decision. These problems are discussed in the framework of Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD) and TGD inspired theory of consciousness constructed as a generalization of quantum measurement theory. In TGD space-times are regarded as 4-dimensional surfaces of 8-dimensional space-time H=M4×CP2 and obey classical field equations. The basic notions of consciousness theory are quantum jump and self. Subjective time is identified as a sequence of quantum jumps. Self has as a geometric correlate a fixed volume of H- "causal diamond"-defining the perceptive field of self. Quantum states are regarded as quantum superpositions of space-time surfaces of H and by quantum classical correspondence assumed to shift towards the geometric past of H quantum jump by quantum jump. This creates the illusion that perceiver moves to the direction of the geometric future. Self is curious about the geometric future and induces the shift bringing it to its perceptive field. Macroscopic quantum coherence and the identification of space-times as surfaces in H play a crucial role in this picture allowing to understand also other problematic aspects in the relationship between experienced and geometric time.

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Conscious information and intelligence

The notions of information and intelligence are discussed in TGD framework. Possible definitions for the information measures of the configuration space spinor field and information gain of conscious experience as well as the information theoretic interpretation of Kähler action are discussed in detail the first sections of the chapter.

  1. The key element of the approach is the number theoretic generalization of entanglement entropy. Quantum entanglement between real and p-adic degrees of freedom makes sense if entanglement coefficients are rational or even algebraic numbers. In this case one can define entanglement entropy using the p-adic variant of the logarithm. p-Adic entropy can be also negative, and the states for which the entropy is negative are stable against self measurements (NMP) and define macrotemporally quantum coherent states. The number-theoretic entropy serves as an information measure for cognitive entanglement, and positive entanglement negentropy can be interpreted as a correlate for the experience of understanding. Number theoretic entanglement measures are natural in what might be called the intersection of real and p-adic worlds (partonic 2-surfaces have mathematical representations making sense both p-adically and in real sense) and this leads to a vision about life as something residing in this intersection.

  2. Various measures for the information contents of consciousness are discussed.
    1. The reduction of entanglement entropy defines a natural measure for conscious information gain in single step of the state of state function reduction process decomposing subsystem to a pair of un-entangled sub-systems. If entanglement is negentropic the entanglement negentropy either increases or the system is stable against state function reduction.
    2. It seems natural to assume that the information measures are associated with the entire cascade and that they are additive in the sense that information gain is sum over the information gains of the steps of the cascade and that a given step contributes by the sum of the information gains associated with unentangled subsystems which are subject to self measurement in a given step of the cascade.
    3. One can also assign information measures to the resulting indecomposable systems. For subsystem which is bound state in the normal sense and thus has entropic entanglement, one can consider all possible decomposition of the system to a sub-system and its complement and define the entanglement negentropy as the negative for the minimum value of entropy obtained in this manner. If the system is negentropically entangled one can define entanglement negentropy as the maximum of entanglement negentropy obtained in this manner. This means that one can assign to the final state of state function reduction unique negentropy as the sum of the negative contributions associated with selves which are internally bound state entangled and positive contributions of negentropic selves.
    4. The information content of the conscious experience associated with self is more interesting practically. Since self defines a statistical ensemble, it is straightforward to define entropies associated with the increments of quantum numbers and zero modes defining non-geometric and geometric qualia. These entropies characterize the fuzziness of the quale and are 'negative' information measures. One can also assign to non-decomposable subselves the information measures and they give either positive or negative contribution to the information content of self.
    5. In principle this allows to define also the net information gain of quantum jump as the difference of the total negentropies of the final and initial states of quantum jump identified as those produced by the state function reduction process. Initial and final state negentropies would characterize spinor fields of WCW ("world of classical worlds").

  3. Information theoretic interpretation of the Kähler function is discussed in detail. Quantum classical correspondence suggests that the magnetic part of Kähler action would correspond to information content of negentropic entanglement and electric part to the negative information content of entropic bound state entanglement. Kähler functiond defined as the negative of the Kähler action can be interpreted as an entropy type measure for the information content of the space-time surface. Without quantum criticality entropic configurations carrying strong Kähler electric fields would be favored. The proposal is that the quantum criticality of Kähler action possible for the critical value of Kähler coupling strength makes possible large degeneracy of the negentropic extremals carrying large Kähler magnetic action and makes TGD universe maximally interesting and maximizes its intelligence so that even infinite negentropy is possible. Number theoretical criticality would relate to this criticality very closely. The proposal that living matter is near vacuum extremal so that the degeneracy of negentropic configurations is high is discussed.

Concerning the modelling of conscious intelligence the following aspects are important.

  1. Zero energy states -which replace the earlier notion of association sequence inspired by the failure of strict determinism for Kähler action in standard sense - can be seen as memes with M-matrices characterizing the time-like entanglement representing "laws of physics". Negentropic time like entanglement makes possible for fully state function reduced states to represent rules as quantum superposition of state pairs representing instances a → b for a general rule A → B. Also space-like negentropic quantum entanglement is important piece of the story. For fermion Fock states this gives Boolean rules as a special case. Zero energy states represent geometric memories, simulations for time development whereas selves represent subjective memories and conscious experience involves always the comparison of geometric and subjective memories telling whether expectations were realized. Quantum theory of self-organization applies also to the evolution of consciousness understood as self-organization in the ensemble of association sequences/selves and implies Darwinian selection also at the level of selves and conscious experiences.

  2. TGD Universe is quantum computer in a very general sense. Negentropic quantum entanglement stabilizes qubits but makes them fuzzy. This leads to a modification of the standard paradigm of quantum comptuation . Quantum computationalism is shown to reproduce the relevant aspects of computationalism and connectionism without reducing conscious brain to a deterministic machine. Holographic brain is also one of the dominating ideas of neuroscience. TGD based realization of memory allows to reduce hologram idea to its essentials: what matters is that piece of hologram is like a small window giving same information as larger window but in less accurate form. This inspires the concept of neuronal window: each neuron has small window to the perceptive landscape and is typically specialized to detect particular feature in the landscape. Coherent photons emitted by mindlike space-time sheets and propagating along axonal microtubules serving as wave guides, realize neuronal windows quantum physically. Massless extremals allow rather precise definition for the notion of quantum hologram.

    A more refined formulation of these ideas is based on the notion of conscious hologram. Many-sheeted space-time is essentially a fractal Feynmann diagram with lines thicknened to 4-surfaces. The lines are like wave guides carrying laser beams and vertices are like nodes where these laser beams interfere and generate the points of the hologram. The 3-dimensionality of the ordinary hologram generalizes to stereo consciousness resulting in the fusion of mental images associated with various nodes of the conscious hologram. An essential element is the possibility of negative energy space-time sheets analogous to the past directed lines of the Feynmann diagram: negative energy MEs are the crucial element of sensory perception, motor action, and memory.

  3. An important element is effective four-dimensionality of brain making possible to understand long term memories, planning and motor activities in a completely new manner. Further important ideas are music metaphor already described and the vision about brain as an associative net. Zero energy ontology and the notion of CD (causal diamond) provides justification for the memetic code and relates it to fundamental elementary particles time scales. The codewords of the memetic code consist of sequences of 126 bits and are represented in terms of nerve pulse sequences or membrane oscillations and time varying quark magnetization, is the key essential element of brain as cognitive system. Codewords can be interpreted either as elements of a Boolean algebra or as bits in the binary expansion of an integer in the range (0,2126) so that memetic code makes brain able to assign numbers with qualia. An attractive and testable identification for the memetic codewords is as phonemes of language.

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p-Adic physics as physics of cognition and intention

TGD as a generalized number theory vision supports the interpretation of the p-adic physics in terms of physical correlates of cognition and intentionality so that matter-mind dichotomy would correspond to real--p-adic dichotomy at the level of the geometric correlates of mind. This interpretation has far reaching implications for both TGD inspired theory of consciousness and for the general world view provided by TGD. Cognition is predicted to be present in all length scales and the success of the p-adic physics in elementary particle length scales forces to conclude that cognition and intention are present even at this level.

The vision about life and conscious information and intelligence as something in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds is the key guiding principle also in TGD inspired quantum biology. The very fact that the notion of conscious information makes sense only in this intersection supports the proposed interpretation of p-adic physics. Zero energy ontology and the notion of causal diamond (CD) with zero energy states having interpretation as memes in very general sense is also of central importance, and allows a quantitative formulation reducing the fundamental bio-rhythms to fundamental elementary particle time scales. The hierarchy of Planck constants as an explanation of dark matter and energy as macroscopic quantum phases even in astrophysical scales and implying that dark matter is a key actor in the drama of life is the third key element.

In this chapter the implications of this vision are studied from the point of view of cognitive consciousness. The basic ideas behind the proposed vision about intentionality and cognition are following.

  1. p-Adic space-time sheets are identified as the correlates of cognition and intention. The possibility to identify the inherent non-determinism of the p-adic field equations as the non-determinism of imagination makes this identification attractive. Only the p-adic space-time sheets in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds allow the transformation of intentions to actions and sensory input to cognitions. Cognitions and intentions are related by time reversal in zero energ ontology. The common algebraic points of real and p-adic partonic 2-surfaces in the algebraic extension or rationals guaranteing that the representation of 2-surface makes sense both in real and p-adic senses define fundamental cognitive representations as finite point sets.

  2. The 'phase transition' of a p-adic space-time sheet to a real space-time sheet taking place in quantum jump between quantum histories corresponds to the transformation of a thought into action or sensory experience (during dreams and hallucinations) whereas the reverse transformation corresponds to the transformation of the sensory input into cognition. This transition can be thought to occur in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds where the mathematical representations of partonic 2-surface make sense both in real and p-adic sense. Motor action would correspond to the transformation of p-adic space-time sheets to their real counterparts and during sensory experience the reversal of this transformation would take place. In zero energy ontology these transformations could reduce to quark and lepton level as is suggested by the fact that the time scales assignable to quarks and leptons correspond to 1 ms and .1 s defining fundamental time scales of nerve pulse activity and EEG.

  3. The obvious question is how to test p-adic physics empirically. First of all, thinking could be interpreted as p-adic sensory experiencing. Hence the reduction of theories--experimental science dichotomy to p-adic--real dichotomy seems natural: just like experimental science is an extension of everyday real sensory experience, theories represent an extension of everyday p-adic sensory experience (common sense thinking). Thus the basic test is how well p-adic physics based theories describe cognition. Secondly, the p-adic models for physical systems are strictly speaking models for cognitive models for real physics. The successes of these highly predictive models (consider only p-adic elementary particle mass calculations involving only very few integer valued parameters) supports the vision about p-adic physics as physics of cognition. p-Adic--real phase transitions as models for how thought is transformed to action and sensory input to thought provide a further testing ground for the new paradigm.

The following topics are discussed in the chapter.

  1. The relationship between p-adic physics, intentionality, and cognition are discussed on general level. Basic cognitive functions such as imagination, hallucinations, formation of cognitive representations, Boolean mind, and learning are discussed in this conceptual framework.

  2. Possible -necessarily indirect- evidence for p-adic cognition is considered.

  3. In the mathematical sections the relationship between intentionality, cognition and number theory is discussed. Also the relation between p-adic and real physics is discussed at general level with basic vision being that the intersection of real and p-adic space-time sheets in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds consists of points belonging to the algebraic extension of rational needed to guarantee that the mathematical representation of the partonic 2-surface makes sense both in real and p-adic sense.

  4. Frontal lobes are known to be the seat of the higher level intentional action and are discussed from p-adic point of view.

  5. A generalization of the memetic code to cognitive codes is discussed and some proposals about codes are made. This generalization is based on p-adic length scale hypothesis. If the time scales involved correspond to time scales assignable to the CDs of the known elementary particles, the generalization is not favored. On the other hand, dark matter sector could allow entire fractal hierarchy of elementary particle physics whose existence is reflected as fundamental bio-rhytms and cognitive codes.

  6. The intersection of real and p-adic partonic 2-surfaces defining space-like cognitive representations consist of algebraic points. The hypothesis that these intersections obey various kind of symmetries identifiable as molecular symmetries is discussed.

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Quantum model for paranormal phenomena

The general quantum model for bio-systems leads to a model for bio-control which applies to a very wide variety of hard-to-understand bio-chemical phenomena such as molecular recognition mechanisms, water memory, and homeopathy and leads to a generalization of genetic code explaining the mystery of introns. The same model generalizes to a model of paranormal phenomena such as psychokinesis, remote sensing, remote healing, telepathy, communications with deceased, and instrumental transcommunications. The basic difference is that magnetic body receives information and controls "foreign" biological (or even magnetic) body or "dead" matter system.

The basic notions of the model are magnetic body as an intentional agent controlling biological body and receiving data from living body or even "dead" matter system with massless extremals (MEs) mediating these communications, zero energy ontology and the related notion of causal diamond (CD) serving as an imbedding space correlate of self and assigning to elementary particles fundamental macroscopic time and length scales as those of CD, the hierarchy of Planck constants making possible macroscopic quantum phases and zoom-ups of quantum systems, and the vision about living matter as something residing in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds and the closely related notion of negentropic entanglement crucial for the functioning of living matter and conscious intelligence in TGD Universe.

Negentropic entanglement, which can be both space-like and time-like in zero energy ontology, makes possible quantum superposition of macroscopically different configurations of the target system correlated with the states of operator system. The operator should be able to achieve the negentropic entanglement and intentionally increase the amplitude of the desired outcome in this superposition. Negentropic entanglement need not involve binding energy and I have proposed this as a deeper level explanation for the nebulous notion of high energy phosphate bond crucial for metabolism in living matter. Quite generally, negentropic entanglement would make possible for the operator to transfer metabolic energy and momentum to the target. The hierarchy of values of Planck constant would make possible this process in long time and length scales.

  1. Magnetic mirrors (ME-magnetic flux tube pairs) connecting the sender and receiver make possible a universal mechanism for the transfer of intent and action. The pair of flux tubes forms a kind of sensory-motor loop. In biology the fundamental realization could be by a pair of flux sheets going through the strands of DNA with passive strand sending sensory data to the magnetic body and active strand receiving control commands leading to various forms of gene expresion. MEs are ideal for the transfer of both classical information and momentum.

  2. p-Adic MEs represent the transfer of a mere intent and real MEs represent a transfer of action. p-Adic ME can be transformed to real ME either by receiver or some higher level magnetic self. This makes sense only in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds.

  3. The transfer of intent gives rise to mechanism of remote interaction which can act both endo- and exogenously. Magnetic mirrors characterized by their fundamental frequencies make possible bridges between sender and receiver (say healer and healee) and allow a resonant interaction in which healer can initiate various control commands acting as 4-dimensional templates represented as holograms. Also smaller MEs can be send along the MEs serving as bridges (this is like throwing balls with light velocity!).

  4. The ME-magnetic flux tube pair connecting sender and receiver can act as a reference wave which can initiate an arbitrarily complex hologram representing biological program. Sender has the ability to generate and amplify the frequencies which induce holograms representing the control commands. In particular, in living matter sender can initiate complex biological programs without knowing anything about their functioning.

One can distinguish between psychokinesis applied to living matter and "dead" matter.

  1. When the target consists of living matter the mechanisms would be same as in communications between magnetic and biological bodies making possible bio-control of biological body by magnetic body and the receival of sensory input from biological body by magnetic body. Hypnosis would be one example of this kind of interaction.

  2. Remote mental interactions in the case "dead" could use simpler variants of the fundamental mechanisms utilized in living matter. For instance, zero energy ontology assigns with the CDs of electron and quarks time scales .1 s and 1 ms defining fundamental biorhythms. The CDs assignable to elementary particles could be involved also with psychokinesis. Negentropic entanglement could be essential for the transfer of metabolic energy (say in simple psychokinesis moving an object) and for control actions -say in intentional change of sequences of binary digits produced by random number generator. Target system would not be completely "dead". Thermodynamical restrictions favor large values of Planck constant.

The basic problem in many remote mental interactions such as the intentional effect on random number generator is "Who knows how?". How the mere intent can be transformed to action without any knowledge about the details of the action? The attempt to understand how neuro-feedback affect the behavior of single neuron leads to the same question.

  1. Magnetic mirrors make possible also feedback and this feedback could make possible learning. For instance, in psychokinesis (especially so in micro PK), this learning would be crucial and analogous to that what occurs when we learn to drive a car. In healing this kind of feedback might help to find the healing frequency by trial and error.

  2. It is quite possible that also multibrained and -bodied higher level colletive selves actively participate in the process as a third party such that the remote mental interactions would act as a relay states. I have suggested similar explanation for Sheldrake's findings about learning at the lelel of species and Tiller's findings about the "transfer of intent". This could make possible coherent amplification effects (TEM, prayer groups) and could make available information resources of all brains involved with the group. This could for instance explain the ability of a remote viewer to see an object on basis of data which need not have any meaning for her.

  3. A fast amplitude modulation of alpha waves introducing higher harmonics to the carrier wave is a good candidate for mediating communication between brains and higher level multibrained selves. Mesoscopic 'features' in brain involve precisely this kind of amplitude modulation and might represent just this kind of messages. Interestingly, also speech is produced by a fast amplitude modulation of 10 Hz basic vibration frequency of speech organs (assignable to electron CD as a fundamental frequency) and kHz (quarks) frequency is a special frequency from the point of view of hearing.

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TGD Based Model for OBEs

Out-of-body experiences (OBEs) are often understood as experience of seeing oneself from a position outside of the body. OBEs are poorly understood in the framework of neuro science and pose a challenge for the reductionistic world view.

In TGD framework the notion of magnetic body provides an attractive starting point in attempts to understand what OBEs and related experiences are. The basic idea is that magnetic body serves effectively as a mirror defining a third person view as a cognitive representation also in ordinary wake-up state and that during OBEs this representation becomes sensory representation. Magnetic body need not always be a personal magnetic body but could correspond to a magnetic body receiving information from several brains (collective consciousness), magnetic body of another person, or be even associated with "dead" matter.

The progress in identifying dark matter as a phase of matter with large value of Planck constant making possible macroscopic quantum coherence has led to the vision about dark matter at magnetic flux quanta as quantum controller of ordinary matter in living systems. The Bose-Einstein condensates of dark photons decaying via decoherence to ordinary photons mediate interactions between ordinary and dark matter and the hypothesis is that dark photon "laser" beams from body and brain reflected at magnetic flux quanta give rise to third person aspect of consciousness which in OBEs and related experiences are realized as sensory representations. The identification of bio-photons as end products of the de-coherence of dark photon beams is natural.

Zero energy ontology and the notion of causal diamond (or CD defined roughly as the intersection of future and past directed lightcones) brings additional quantitative ingredients to the model. Sub-CDs define imbedding space (M4× CP2) correlates for selves and by holography the 2-D partonic 2-surfaces at the light-like future and past boundaries of CDs are the ultimate space-time correlates for mental images. The moduli space for CDs makes possible a more detailed view about sensory representations.

A further new element is the vision about life as something in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds. The most important outcome is that the notion of number theoretic entanglement negentropy making sense in this situation is positive so that entanglement carries conscious information. The fusion of selves (in particular mental image) by negentropic entanglement is experienced as expansion of consciousness. It is negentropic entanglement between parts of biological body and corresponding parts of the magnetic body and biological body which makes living system living. This negentropic entanglement between magnetic body and biological body is important also for OBEs.

The model leads also to a model for dreams, hallucinations, sensory feedback from brain to sensory organs, and directed attention. Concrete models for how dark photons can give rise to experiences in various sensory modalities such as vision, hearing, olfaction, and tactile senses, are proposed.

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