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Topological Geometrodynamics: an Overview
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The existence of large cold spot in CMB) is a serious problem for the inflationary cosmology. The explanation as apparent cold spot due to Sachs-Wolfe effect caused by gravitational redshift of arriving CMB photons in so called super voids along the line of sight has been subjected to severe criticism. TGD based explanation as a region with genuinely lower temperature and average density relies on the view about primordial cosmology as cosmic string dominated period during which it is not possible to speak about space-time in the sense of general relativity, and on the analog of inflationary period mediating a transition to radiation dominated cosmology in which space-time in the sense of general relativity exists. The fluctuations for the time when this transition period ended would induce genuine fluctuations in CMB temperature and density. This picture would also explain the existence super voids.
See the chapter TGD inspired cosmology or the article CBM cold spot as problem of the inflationary cosmology .
The problem is following. In the usual scenario for the star formation the stars would have formed almost instantaneously and star formation would not continue anymore significantly. Stars with the age of our sun however exist and star formation is still taking place: more than one half of galaxies is forming stars. So called starburst galaxies do this very actively. The standard story is that since stars explode as supernovae, the debris from supernovae condenses to stars of later generations. Something like this certainly occurs but this does not seem to be the whole story.
Remark: It seems incredible that astrophysics would still have unsolved problems at this level. During years I have learned that standard reductionistic paradigm is full of holes.
The notion of star formation quenching has been introduced: it would slow down the formation of stars. It is known that quenched galaxies mostly have a super-massive blackhole in their center and that quenching starts at the centers of galaxies. Quenching would preserve star forming material for future generations of stars.
To study this process a team of astronomers led by Tabatabaei turned their attention to NCG 1079 located at distance of 45 million light years. It is still forming stars in central regions but shows signs of quenching and has a super-massive blackhole in its center. What was found that large magnetic fields, probably enhanced by the central black hole, affect the gas clouds that would normally collapse into stars, thereby inhibiting their collapse. These forces can even break big clouds into smaller ones, she says, ultimately leading to the formation of smaller stars.
This is highly interesting from TGD point of view. I have already considered a TGD based model for star formation (see this). In the simplest TGD based model galaxies are formed as knots of long cosmic strings. Stars in turn would be formed as sub-knots of these galactic knots. There is also alternative vision in which knots are just closed flux tubes bound to long strings containing galaxies as closed flux tubes like pearls in necklace. These closed flux tubes could emerge from long string by reconnection and form elliptic galaxies. The signature would be non-flatness for the velocity spectrum of distant stars. Also in the case of stars similar reconnection process splitting star as sub-knot of galactic string can be imagined.
If stars are sub-knots in knots of galactic string representing the galaxies, the formation of star would correspond to a formation of knot. This would involve reconnection process in which some portions of knot go "through each other". This is the manner how knots are reduced to trivial knot in knot cobordism used to construct knot invariants in knot theory (see this). Now it would work in opposite direction: to build a knots.
This process is rather violent and would initiate star formation with dark matter from the cosmic string forming the star. This process would continue forever and would allow avoid the instantaneous transformation of matter into stars as in the standard model. At deeper level star formation would be induced by a process taking place at the level of dark matter for magnetic flux tubes: similar vision applies in TGD inspired biology. One could perhaps see these knots as seeds of a phase transition like process leading to a formation of star. This reconnection process could take place also in the formation of spiral galaxies. In Milky Way there are indeed indications for the reconnection process, which could be related to the formation of Milky as knot.
The role of strong magnetic fields supposed to be amplified by the galactic blackhole is believed to be essential in quenching. They would be associated with dark flux tubes, possibly as return fluxes at ordinary space-time sheets carrying visible matter (flux lines must be closed). These magnetic fields would somehow prevent the collapse of gas clouds to stars. They could also induce a splitting of the gas cloud to smaller clouds. The ratio of mass to magnetic flux ratio for clouds is studied and the clouds are found to be magnetically critical or stable against collapse to a core regions needed for the formation of star. The star formation efficiency of clouds drops with increasing magnetic field strength.
Star formation would begin as the magnetic field has strength below a critical value. If the reconnection plays a role in the process, this would suggest that reconnection is probable for magnetic field strengths below critical value. Since the thickness of the magnetic flux tube associated with its M4projection increases when magnetic field strength decreases, one can argue that the reconnection probability increases so that star formation becomes more probable. The development of galactic blackhole would amplify the magnetic fields. During cosmic evolution the flux tubes would thicken so that also the field strength would be reduced and eventually the star formation would begin if the needed gas clouds are present. At distant regions the thickness of flux tube loops can be argued to be larger since the p-adic length scale in question is longer since magnetic field strength is expected to scale like inverse of p-adic length scale squared (also larger value for heff/h=n would imply this). This would explain star formation in distant regions. This is just what observations tell.
A natural model for the galactic blackhole is as a highly wounded portion of cosmic string. The blackhole Schwartschild radius would be R=2GM and the mass due to dark energy of string (there would be also dark matter contribution) to mass would be M≈ TL, where T is roughly T≈ 2-11. This would give the estimate L≈ 210R.
Dark matter in TGD sense corresponds to heff/h=n phases of ordinary matter associated with magnetic flux tubes carrying monopole flux. These flux tubes are n-sheeted covering spaces, and n corresponds to the dimension of the extension of rationals in which Galois group acts. The evidence for this interpretation of dark matter is accumulating. Here I discuss 4 latest galactic anomalies supporting the proposed view.
I learned in FB about very interesting finding about the angular rotation velocities of stars near the edges of the galactic disks (see this). The rotation period is about one giga-year. The discovery was made by a team led by professor Gerhardt Meurer from the UWA node of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR). Also a population of older stars was found at the edges besides young stars and interstellar gas. The expectation was that older stars would not be present.
The rotation periods are claimed to in a reasonable accuracy same for all spiral galaxies irrespective of the size. The constant velocity spectrum for distant stars implies ω ∝ 1/r for r>R. It is important do identify the value of the radius R of the edge of the visible part of galaxy precisely. I understood that outside the edge stars are not formed. According to Wikipedia, the size R of Milky Way is in the range (1-1.8)× 105 ly and the velocity of distant stars is v=240 km/s. This gives T∼ R/v∼ .23 Gy, which is by a factor 1/4 smaller than the proposed universal period of T=1 Gy at the edge. It is clear that the value of T is sensitive to the identification of the edge and that one can challenge the identification Redge=4× R.
In the following I will consider two TGD inspired arguments. The first argument is classical and developed by studying the velocity spectrum of stars for Milky Way, and leads to a rough view about the dynamics of dark matter. Second argument is quantal and introduces the notion of gravitational Planck constant hbargr and quantization of angular momentum as multiples of hbargr. It allows to predict the value of T and deduce a relationship between the rotation period T and the average surface gravity of the galactic disk.
In the attempts understand how T could be universal in TGD framework, it is best to look at the velocity spectrum of Milky Way depicted in a Wikipedia article about Milky Way (see this).
A team led by Maria Bergemann from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, has studied a small population of stars in the halo of the Milky Way (MW) and found its chemical composition to closely match that of the Galactic disk (see this). This similarity provides compelling evidence that these stars have originated from within the disc, rather than from merged dwarf galaxies. The reason for this stellar migration is thought to be theoretically proposed oscillations of the MW disk as a whole, induced by the tidal interaction of the MW with a passing massive satellite galaxy.
One can divide the stars in MW to the stars in the galactic disk and those in the galactic halo. The halo has gigantic structures consisting of clouds and streams of stars rotating around the center of the MW. These structures have been identified as a kind of debris thought to reflect the violent past of the MW involving collisions with smaller galaxies.
The scientists investigated 14 stars located in two different structures in the Galactic halo, the Triangulum-Andromeda (Tri-And) and the A13 stellar over-densities, which lie at opposite sides of the Galactic disc plane. Earlier studies of motion of these two diffuse structures revealed that they are kinematically associated and could relate to the Monoceros Ring, a ring-like structure that twists around the Galaxy. The position of the two stellar over-densities could be determined as each lying about 5 kiloparsec (14000 ly) above and below the Galactic plane. Chemical analysis of the stars made possible by their spectral lines demonstrated that they must must originate from MW itself, which was a complete surprise.
The proposed model for the findings is in terms of vertical vibrations of galactic disk analogous to those of drum membrane. In particular the fact that the structures are above and below of the Monoceros Ring supports this idea. The vibrations would be induced by the gravitational interactions of ordinary and dark matter of galactic halo with a passing satellite galaxy. The picture of the the article (see this) illustrates what the pattern of these vertical vibrations would look like according to simulations.
In TGD framework this model is modified since dark matter halo is replaced with cosmic string. Due to the absence of the dark matter halo, the motion along cosmic string is free apart from gravitational attraction caused by the galactic disk. Cosmic string forces the migrated stars to rotate around to the cosmic string in plane parallel to the galactic plane and the stars studied indeed belong to ring like structures: the prediction is that these rings rotate around the axis of galaxy.
One can argue that if one has stars are very far from galactic plane - say dwarf galaxy - the halo model of dark matter suggests that the orbital plane arbitrary but goes through galactic center since spherically symmetric dark matter halo dominates in mass density. TGD would predict that the orbital plane is parallel to to the galactic plane.
Are the oscillations of the galactic plane necessary in TGD framework?
Dark matter in TGD sense corresponds to heff/h=n phases of ordinary matter associated with magnetic flux tubes. These flux tubes would be n-sheeted covering spaces, and n would correspond to the dimension of the extension of rationals in which Galois group acts. The evidence for this interpretation of dark matter is accumulating. Here I discuss one of the latest anomalies - 21-cm anomaly.
Sabine Hossenfelder told about the article discussing the possible interpretation of so called 21-cm anomaly associated with the hyperfine transition of hydrogen atom and observed by EDGES collaboration.
The EDGES Collaboration has recently reported the detection of a stronger-than-expected absorption feature in the global 21-cm spectrum, centered at a frequency corresponding to a redshift of z ≈ 17. This observation has been interpreted as evidence that the gas was cooled during this era as a result of scattering with dark matter. In this study, we explore this possibility, applying constraints from the cosmic microwave background, light element abundances, Supernova 1987A, and a variety of laboratory experiments. After taking these constraints into account, we find that the vast majority of the parameter space capable of generating the observed 21-cm signal is ruled out. The only range of models that remains viable is that in which a small fraction, ≈ 0.3-2 per cent, of the dark matter consists of particles with a mass of ≈ 10-80 MeV and which couple to the photon through a small electric charge, ε ≈ 10-6-10-4. Furthermore, in order to avoid being overproduced in the early universe, such models must be supplemented with an additional depletion mechanism, such as annihilations through a Lμ-Lτ gauge boson or annihilations to a pair of rapidly decaying hidden sector scalars.
What has been found is an unexpectedly strong absorption feature in 21-cm spectrum: the redshift is about z ≈ 17 which corresponds to a distance of about 2.27× 1011 ly. Dark matter interpretation would be in terms of scattering of the baryons of gas from dark matter at lower temperature. The anomalous absorption of 21 cm line could be explained with the cooling of gas caused by the flow of energy to a colder medium consisting of dark matter. If I understood correctly, this would generate a temperature difference between background radiation and gas and consequent energy flow to gas inducing the anomaly.
The article excludes large amount of parameter space able to generate the observed signal. The idea is that the interaction of baryons of the gas with dark matter. The interaction would be mediated by photons. The small em charge of the new particle is needed to make it "dark enough". My conviction is that tinkering with the quantization of electromagnetic charge is only a symptom about how desperate the situation is concerning interpretation of dark matter in terms of some exotic particles is. Something genuinely new physics is involved and the old recipes of particle physicists do not work.
In TGD framework the dark matter at lower temperature would be heff/h=n phases of ordinary matter residing at magnetic flux tubes. This kind of energy transfer between ordinary and dark matter is a general signature of dark matter in TGD sense, and there are indications from some experiments relating to primordial life forms for this kind of energy flow in lab scale (see this) .
The ordinary photon line appearing in the Feynman diagram describing the exchange of photon would be replaced with a photon line containing a vertex in which the photon transforms to dark photon. The coupling in the vertex - call it m2 - would have dimensions of mass squared. This would transform the coupling e2 associated with the photon exchange to e2 m2/p2, where p2 is photon's virtual mass squared. The slow rate for the transformation of ordinary photon to dark photon could be see as an effective reduction of electromagnetic charge for dark matter particle from its quantized value.
Remark: In biological systems dark cyclotron photons would transform to ordinary photons and would be interpreted as bio-photons with energies in visible and UV.
To sum up, the importance of this finding is that it supports the view about dark matter as ordinary particles in a new phase. There are electromagnetic interactions but the transformation of ordinary photons to dark photons slows down the process and makes these exotic phases effectively dark.
Sabine Hossenfelder had an inspiring post) about the problems of the halo dark matter scenario. My attention was caught by the title "Shut up and simulate". It was really to the point. People stopped first to think, then to calculate, and now they just simulate. Perhaps AI will replace them at the next step.
While reading I realized that Sabine mentioned a further strong piece of support for the TGD view about galaxies as knots along cosmic strings, which create cylindrically symmetric gravitational field orthogonal to the string rather than spherically symmetric field as in halo models. The string tension determines the rotation velocity of distant stars predicted to be constant constant up to arbitrarily long distances (the finite size of space-time sheet of course brings in cutoff length).
To express it concisely: Sabine told about galaxies, which have low surface brightness. In the halo model the density of both matter and dark matter halo should be low for these galaxies so that the velocity of distant stars should decrease and lead to a breakdown of so called Tully-Fisher relation. It doesn't. This is the message that the observational astrophysicist Stacy McGaugh is trying to convey in his blog: about this the post of Sabine mostly told.
I am not specialist in the field of astrophysics and it was nice to read the post and refresh my views about the problem of galactic dark matter.
Halo model of dark matter has also other problems.
Maybe it might be a good idea to start to think again. Using brains instead of computers is also must a more cost-effective option: I have been thinking intensely for four decades, and this hasn't cost a single coin for the society! Recommended!
The following is a comment to a FB posting by Sabine Hossenfelder giving a link to the most recent finding challenging the dark matter halo paradigm. The article titled "A whirling plane of satellite galaxies around Centaurus A challenges cold dark matter cosmology" published in Science can be found also in Archiv.
The halo model for dark matter encounters continually lethal problems as I have repeatedly tried to tell in my blog postings and articles. But still this model continues to add items to the curriculum vitae of the specialists - presumably as long as the funding continues. Bad ideas never die.
Halo model predicts that the dwarf galaxies around massive galaxies like Milky should move randomly. The newest fatal blow comes from the observation that dwarf galaxies move along neat circular orbits in the galactic plane of Centaurus A.
Just like the TGD based pearls-in-necklace model of galaxies as knots (pearls) of long cosmic strings predicts! The long cosmic string creates gravitational field in transversal direction and the dwarf galaxies move around nearly circular orbits. The motion along long cosmic string would be free motion and would give rise to streams. The prediction is that at large distances the rotational velocities approach constant just as in the case of distant stars.