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HYPER-FINITE FACTORS, P-ADIC LENGTH SCALE HYPOTHESIS, AND DARK MATTER HIERARCHY
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The conclusion of the article is that almost all animals, 9 out of 10 animal species on Earth today, including humans, would have emerged about 100,000 200,000 years ago. According to Wikipedia all animals are assumed to have emerged about 650 million years ago from a common ancestor. Cambrian explosion began around 542 million years ago. According to Wikipedia Homo Sapiens would have emerged 300,000-800,000 years ago.
On basis of Darwin's theory based on survival of the fittest and adaptation to a new environment, one would expect that the species such as ants and humans with large populations distributed around the globe become genetically more diverse over time than the species living in the same environment. The study of so called neutral mutations not relevant for survival and assumed to occur with some constant rate however finds that this is not the case. The study of so called mitochondrial DNA barcodes across 100,000 species showed that the variation of neutral mutations became very small about 100,000-200,00 years ago. One could say that the evolution differentiating between them began (or effectively began) after this time. As if mitochondrial clocks for these species would have been reset to zero at that time as the article states it This is taken as a support for the conclusion that all animals emerged about the same time as humans.
The proposal of (at least ) the writer of popular article is that the life was almost wiped out by a great catastrophe and extraterrestrials could have helped to start the new beginning. This brings in mind Noah's Ark scenario. But can one argue that humans and the other animals emerged at that time: were they only survivors from a catastrophe. One can also argue that the rate of mitochondrial mutations increased dramatically for some reason at that time.
Could one think that great evolutionary leap initiating the differentiation of mitochondrial genomes at that time and that before it the differentiation was very slow for some reason? Why this change would have occurred simultaneously in almost all animals? Something should have happened to the mitochondria and what kind of external evolutionary pressure could have caused it?
Sini Kunnas sent a link to a video telling about experiments of Masaru Emoto (see this) with water, which is at criticality with respect to freezing and then frozen. Emoto reports is that words expressing emotions are transmitted to water: positive emotions tend to generate beautiful crystal structures and negative emotions ugly ones. Also music and even pictures are claimed to have similar effects. Emoto has also carried out similar experiments with rice in water. Rice subjected to words began to ferment and water subject to words expressing negative emotions began to rotten.
Remark: Fermentation is a metabolic process consuming sugar in absence of oxygen. Metabolism is a basic signature of life so that at least in this aspect the water+rice system would become alive. The words expressing positive emotions or even music would serve as a signal "waking up" the system.
One could define genuine skeptic as a person who challenges existing beliefs and pseudo-skeptic (PS in the sequel) as a person challenging - usually denying - everything challenging the mainstream beliefs. The reception of the claims of Emoto is a representative example about the extremely hostile reactions of PSs as aggressive watchdogs of materialistic science towards anything that challenges their belief system. The psychology behind this attitude is same as behind religious and political fanatism.
I must emphasize that I see myself as a thinker and regard myself as a skeptic in the old-fashioned sense of the word challenging the prevailing world view rather than phenomena challenging the prevailing world view. I do not want to be classified as believer or non-believer. The fact is that if TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology describes reality, a revolution in the world view is unavoidable. Therefore it is natural to consider the working hypothesis that the effects are real and see what the TGD based explanation for them could be.
The Wikipedia article about Masaru Emoto (see this) provides a good summary of the experiments of Emoto and provides a lot of links so that I will give here only a brief sketch. According to the article Emoto believed that water was a "blueprint for our reality" and that emotional "energies" and "vibrations" could change the physical structure of water. The water crystallization experiments of Emoto consisted of exposing water in glasses to different words, pictures or music, and then freezing and examining the aesthetic properties of the resulting crystals with microscopic photography. Emoto made the claim that water exposed to positive speech and thoughts would result in visually "pleasing" crystals being formed when that water was frozen, and that negative intention would yield "ugly" crystal formations.
In 2008, Emoto and collaborators published and article titled "Double-Blind Test of the Effects of Distant Intention on Water Crystal Formation" about his about experiments with water in the Journal of Scientific Exploration, a peer reviewed scientific journal of the Society for Scientific Explorations (see this). The work was performed by Masaru Emoto and Takashige Kizu of Emoto’s own IHM General Institute, along with Dean Radin and Nancy Lund of the Institute of Noetic Sciences, which is on Stephen Barrett's Quackwatch (see this) blacklist of questionable organizations. PSs are the modern jesuits and for jesuits the end justifies the means.
Emoto has also carried experiments with rice samples in water. There are 3 samples. First sample "hears" words with positive emotional meaning, second sample words with negative emotional meaning, and the third sample serving as a control sample. Emoto reports (see this) that the rice subjected to words with positive emotional content began to ferment whereas water subject to words expressing negative emotions began to rotten. The control sample also began to rotten but not so fast.
In the article The experiments of Masaru Emoto with emotional imprinting of water I will consider the working hypothesis that the effects are real, and develop an explanation based on TGD inspired quantum biology. The basic ingredients of the model are following: magnetic body (MB) carrying dark matter as heff/h=n phases of ordinary matter; communications between MB and biological body (BB) using dark photons able to transform to ordinary photons identifiable as bio-photons; the special properties of water explained in TGD framework by assuming dark component of water implying that criticality for freezing involves also quantum criticality, and the realization of genetic code and counterparts of the basic bio-molecules as dark proton sequences and as 3-chords consisting of light or sound providing a universal language allowing universal manner to express emotions in terms of bio-harmony realized as music of light or sound. The entanglement of water sample and the subject person (with MBs included) realized as flux tube connections would give rise to a larger conscious entity expressing emotions via language realized in terms of basic biomolecules in a universal manner by utilizing genetic code realized in terms of both dark proton sequences and music of light of light and sound.
See the chapter Dark Nuclear Physics and Condensed Matter or the article The experiments of Masaru Emoto with emotional imprinting of water.
The title of the popular article How molecules in cells 'find' one another and organize into structures expresses an old problem of biology. Now the group led by Amy S. Gladfelter has made experimental progress in this problem. The work has been published in Science (see this).
It is reported that RNA molecules recognize each other to condense into the same droplet due to the specific 3D shapes that the molecules assume. Molecules with complementary base pairing can find each other and only similar RNAs condense on same droplet. This brings in mind DNA replication, transcription and translation. Furthermore, the same proteins that form liquid droplets in healthy cells, solidify in diseases like neurodegenerative disorders.
Some kind of phase transition is involved with the process but what brings the molecules together remains still a mystery. The TGD based solution of this mystery is one of the first applications of the notion of many-sheeted space-time in biology, and relies on the notion of magnetic flux tubes connecting molecules to form networks.
Consider first TGD based model about condensed and living matter. As a matter fact, the core of this model applies in all scales. What is new is there are not only particles but also bonds connecting them. In TGD they are flux tubes which can carry dark particles with nonstandard value heff/h=n of Planck constant. In ER-EPR approach in fashion they would be wormholes connecting distance space-time regions. In this case the problem is instability: wormholes pinch and split. In TGD monopole magnetic flux takes care of the stability topologically.
The flux tube networks occur in all scales but especially important are biological length scales.
See the chapter Quantum Criticality and Dark Matter.
The view about condensed matter as a network with nodes identifiable as molecules and bonds as flux tubes is one of the basic predictions of TGD and obviously means a radical modification of the existing picture. In the sequel two old anomalies of standard physics are explained in this conceptual framework. The first anomaly was known already at the time of Maxwell. In critical region for gas liquid-phase transition van der Waals equation of state fails. Empirically the pressure in critical region depends only on temperature and is independent on molecular volume whereas van der Waals predicting cusp catastrophe type behavior predicts this dependence. This problem is quite general and plagues all analytical models based on statistical mechanics.
Maxwell's area rule and lever rule is the proposed modification of van der Waals in critical region. There are two phases corresponding to liquid and gas in the same pressure and the proportions of the phases vary so that the volume varies.
The lever rule used for metal allows allows to explain the mixture but requires that there are two "elements" involved. What the second "element" is in the case of liquid-gas system is poorly understood. TGD suggests the identification of the second "element" as magnetic flux tubes connecting the molecules. Their number per molecule varies and above critical number a phase transition to liquid phase would take place.
Second old problem relates to the numerous anomalies of water (see the web pages of Martin Chaplin). I have discussed these anomalies from TGD viewpoint in (see this). The most well-known anomalies relate to the behavior near freezing point. Below 4 degrees Celsius water expands rather than contracts as temperature is lowered. Also in the freezing an expansion takes place.
A general TGD based explanation for the anomalies of water would be the presence of also dark phases with non-standard value of Planck constant heff/h=n (see this). Combining this idea with the above proposal this would mean that flux tubes associated with hydrogen bonds can have also non-standard value of Planck constant in which case the flux tube length scales like n. The reduction of n would shorten long flexible flux tubes to short and rigid ones. This reduce the motility of molecules and also force them nearer to each other. This would create empty volume and lead to an increase of volume per molecule as temperature is lowered.
Quite generally, the energy for particles with non-standard value of Planck constant is higher than for ordinary ones (see this). In freezing all dark flux tubes would transform to ordinary ones and the surplus energy would be liberated so that the latent heat should be anomalously high for all molecules forming hydrogen bonds. Indeed, for both water and NH3 having hydrogen bonds the latent heat is anomalously high. Hydrogen bonding is possible if molecules have atoms with lone electron pairs (electrons are not assignable to valence bonds). Lone electron pairs could form Cooper pairs at flux tube pairs assignable to hydrogen bonds and carrying the dark proton. Therefore also high Tc superconductivity could be possible.
See the chapter Quantum Criticality and Dark Matter of "Hyper-finite factors, p-adic length scale hypothesis, and dark matter hierarchy" or the article Maxwell's lever rule and expansion of water in freezing: two poorly understood phenomena.
People in Aalto University - located in Finland by the way - are doing excellent work: there is full reason to be proud! I learned from the most recent experimental discovery by people working in Aalto University from Karl Stonjek. The title of the popular article is Friction found where there should be none—in superfluids near absolute zero.
In rotating superfluid one has vortices and they should not dissipate. The researchers of Aalto University however observed dissipation: the finding by J. Mäkinen et al is published in Phys Rev B. Dissipation means that they lose energy to environment. How could one explain this?
What comes in mind for an inhabitant of TGD Universe, is the hierarchy of Planck constants heff =n×h labelling a hierarchy of dark matters as phases of ordinary matter. The reduction of Planck constant heff liberates energy in a phase transition like manner giving rise to dissipation. This kind of burst like liberation of energy is mentioned in the popular article ("glitches" in neutron stars). I have already earlier proposed an explanation of fountain effect of superfluidity in which superfluid flow seems to defy gravity. The explanation is in terms of large value of heff implying delocalization of superfluid particles in long length scale (see this).
Remark: Quite generally, binding energies are reduced as function of heff/h= n. One has 1/n2 proportionality for atomic binding energies so that atomic energies defined as rest energy minus binding energy indeed increase with n. Interestingly, dimension 3 of space is unique in this respect. Harmonic oscillator energy and cyclotron energies are in turn proportional to n. The value of n for molecular valence bonds depends on n and the binding energies of valence bonds decrease as the valence of the atom with larger valence increases. One can say that the valence bonds involving atom at the right end of the row of the periodic table carry metabolic energy. This is indeed the case as one finds by looking the chemistry of nutrient molecules.
The burst of energy would correspond to a reduction of n at the flux tubes associated with the superfluid. Could the vortices decompose to smaller vortices with a smaller radius, maybe proportional to n? I have proposed similar mechanism of dissipation in ordinary fluids for more than two decades ago. Could also ordinary fluids involve hierarchy of Planck constants and could they dissipate in the same manner?
In biology liberation of metabolic energy - say in motor action - would take place in this kind of "glitch". It would reduce heff resources and thus the ability to generate negentropy: this leads to smaller negentropy resources and one gets tired and thinking becomes fuzzy.
See the chapter Quantum criticality and dark matter.
There is an interesting experimental work related to the condensed matter simulation of physics in space-times with D=4 spatial dimensions meaning that one would have D=1+4=5-dimensional space-time (see this and this). What is simulated is 4-D quantum Hall effect (QHE). In M-theory D= 1+4-dimensional branes would have 4 spatial dimensions and also 4-D QH would be possible so that the simulation allows to study this speculative higher-D physics but of course does not prove that 4 spatial dimensions are there.
In this article I try to understand the simulation, discuss the question whether 4 spatial dimensions and even 4+1 dimensions are possible in TGD framework in some sense, and also consider the general idea of the simulation higher-D physics using 4-D physics. This possibility is suggested by the fact that it is possible to imagine higher-dimensional spaces and physics: maybe this ability requires simulation of high-D physics using 4-D physics.
See the chapter Quantum Hall effect and Hierarchy of Planck Constants or the article Condensed matter simulation of 4-D quantum Hall effect from TGD point of view.
Ulla gave in my blog a link to a very interesting work about Bose-Einstein condensation of quasi-particles known as exciton-polaritons. The popular article tells about a research article published in Nature by IBM scientists.
Bose-Einstein condensation happens for exciton-polaritons at room temperature, this temperature is four orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding temperature for crystals. This puts bells ringing. Could heff/h=n be involved?
One learns from Wikipedia that exciton-polaritons are electron hole pairs- photons kick electron to higher energy state and exciton is created.These quasiparticles would form a Bose-Einstein condensate with large number of particles in ground state. The critical temperature corresponds to the divergence of Boltzmann factor given by Bose-Einstein statistics.
Is this possible?
For background see the chapter Criticality and dark matter.