Category theory, quantum TGD, and TGD inspired theory of consciousness

Category theory has been proposed as a new approach to the deep problems of modern physics, in particular quantization of General Relativity. Category theory might provide the desired systematic approach to fuse together the bundles of general ideas related to the construction of quantum TGD proper. Category theory might also have natural applications in the general theory of consciousness and the theory of cognitive representations.

a) The ontology of quantum TGD and TGD inspired theory of consciousness based on the trinity of geometric, objective and subjective existences could be expressed elegantly using the language of the category theory. Quantum classical correspondence might allow a mathematical formulation in terms of structure respecting functors mapping the categories associated with the three kinds of existences to each other. Basic results are following.
i) Self hierarchy has indeed functorial map to the hierarchy of space-time sheets and also configuration space spinor fields reflect it. Thus the self referentiality of conscious experience has a functorial formulation (it is possible to be conscious about what one was conscious).
ii) The inherent logic for category defined by Heyting algebra must be modified in TGD context. Set theoretic inclusion is replaced with the topological condensation. The resulting logic is two-valued but since same space-time sheet can simultaneously condense at two disjoint space-time sheets the classical counterpart of quantum superposition has a space-time correlate so that also quantum jump should have space-time correlate in many-sheeted space-time.
iii) The category of light cones with inclusion as an arrow defining time ordering appears naturally in the construction of the configuration space geometry and realizes the cosmologies within cosmologies scenario. In particular, the notion of the arrow of psychological time finds a nice formulation unifying earlier two different explanations.
iv) The category of light cones with inclusion as an arrow defining time ordering appears naturally in the construction of the configuration space geometry and realizes the cosmologies within cosmologies scenario. In particular, the notion of the arrow of psychological time finds a nice formulation unifying earlier two different explanations.

b) Cognition is categorizing and category theory suggests itself as a tool for understanding cognition and self hierarchies and the abstraction processes involved with conscious experience. Also the category theoretical formulation for conscious communications is an interesting challenge.

c) Categories possess inherent generalized logic based on set theoretic inclusion which in TGD framework is naturally replaced with topological condensation: the outcome is quantum variants for the notions of sieve, topos, and logic. This suggests the possibility of geometrizing the logic of both geometric, objective and subjective existences and perhaps understand why ordinary consciousness experiences the world through Boolean logic and Zen consciousness experiences universe through three-valued logic. Also the right-wrong logic of moral rules and beautiful-ugly logic of aesthetics seem to be too naive and might be replaced with a more general quantum logic.

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Infinite primes and consciousness

Infinite primes are besides p-adicization and the representation of space-time surface as a hyper-quaternionic sub-manifold of hyper-octonionic space the basic pillars of the vision about TGD as a generalized number theory and will be discussed in the third part of the multi-chapter devoted to the attempt to articulate this vision as clearly as possible.

1. Why infinite primes are unavoidable

Suppose that 3-surfaces could be characterized by p-adic primes characterizing their effective p-adic topology. p-Adic unitarity implies that each quantum jump involves unitarity evolution U followed by a quantum jump. Simple arguments show that the p-adic prime characterizing the 3-surface representing the entire universe increases in a statistical sense. This leads to a peculiar paradox: if the number of quantum jumps already occurred is infinite, this prime is most naturally infinite. On the other hand, if one assumes that only finite number of quantum jumps have occurred, one encounters the problem of understanding why the initial quantum history was what it was. Furthermore, since the size of the 3-surface representing the entire Universe is infinite, p-adic length scale hypothesis suggest also that the p-adic prime associated with the entire universe is infinite.

These arguments motivate the attempt to construct a theory of infinite primes and to extend quantum TGD so that also infinite primes are possible. Rather surprisingly, one can construct what might be called generating infinite primes by repeating a procedure analogous to a quantization of a super symmetric quantum field theory. At given level of hierarchy one can identify the decomposition of space-time surface to p-adic regions with the corresponding decomposition of the infinite prime to primes at a lower level of infinity: at the basic level are finite primes for which one cannot find any formula.

2. Two views about the role of infinite primes and physics in TGD Universe

Two different views about how infinite primes, integers, and rationals might be relevant in TGD Universe have emerged.

  1. The first view is based on the idea that infinite primes characterize quantum states of the entire Universe. 8-D hyper-octonions make this correspondence very concrete since 8-D hyper-octonions have interpretation as 8-momenta. By quantum-classical correspondence also the decomposition of space-time surfaces to p-adic space-time sheets should be coded by infinite hyper-octonionic primes. Infinite primes could even have a representation as hyper-quaternionic 4-surfaces of 8-D hyper-octonionic imbedding space.

  2. The second view is based on the idea that infinitely structured space-time points define space-time correlates of mathematical cognition. The mathematical analog of Brahman=Atman identity would however suggest that both views deserve to be taken seriously.

3. Infinite primes and infinite hierarchy of second quantizations

The discovery of infinite primes suggested strongly the possibility to reduce physics to number theory. The construction of infinite primes can be regarded as a repeated second quantization of a super-symmetric arithmetic quantum field theory. Later it became clear that the process generalizes so that it applies in the case of quaternionic and octonionic primes and their hyper counterparts. This hierarchy of second quantizations means an enormous generalization of physics to what might be regarded a physical counterpart for a hierarchy of abstractions about abstractions about.... The ordinary second quantized quantum physics corresponds only to the lowest level infinite primes. This hierarchy can be identified with the corresponding hierarchy of space-time sheets of the many-sheeted space-time.

One can even try to understand the quantum numbers of physical particles in terms of infinite primes. In particular, the hyper-quaternionic primes correspond four-momenta and mass squared is prime valued for them. The properties of 8-D hyper-octonionic primes motivate the attempt to identify the quantum numbers associated with CP2 degrees of freedom in terms of these primes. The representations of color group SU(3) are indeed labelled by two integers and the states inside given representation by color hyper-charge and iso-spin.

It turns out that associativity constraint allows only rational infinite primes. One can however replace classical associativity with quantum associativity for quantum states assigned with infinite prime. One can also decompose rational infinite primes to hyper-octonionic infinite primes at lower level of the hierarchy. Physically this would mean that the number theoretic 8-momenta have only time-component. This decomposition is completely analogous to the decomposition of hadrons to its colored constituents and might be even interpreted in terms of color confinement. The interpretation of the decomposition of rational primes to primes in the algebraic extensions of rationals, hyper-quaternions, and hyper-octonions would have an interpretation as an increase of number theoretical resolution and the principle of number theoretic confinement could be seen as a fundamental physical principle implied by associativity condition.

4. Space-time correlates of infinite primes

Infinite primes code naturally for Fock states in a hierarchy of super-symmetric arithmetic quantum field theories. Quantum classical correspondence leads to ask whether infinite primes could also code for the space-time surfaces serving as symbolic representations of quantum states. This would a generalization of algebraic geometry would emerge and could reduce the dynamics of Kähler action to algebraic geometry and organize 4-surfaces to a physical hierarchy according to their algebraic complexity.

The representation of space-time surfaces as algebraic surfaces in M8 is however too naive idea and the attempt to map hyper-octonionic infinite primes to algebraic surfaces seems has not led to any concrete progress.

The crucial observation is that quantum classical correspondence allows to map quantum numbers of configuration space spinor fields to space-time geometry. Therefore, if one wants to map infinite rationals to space-time geometry it is enough to map infinite primes to quantum numbers. This map can be indeed achieved thanks to the detailed picture about the interpretation of the symmetries of infinite primes in terms of standard model symmetries.

5. Generalization of ordinary number fields: infinite primes and cognition

Both fermions and p-adic space-time sheets are identified as correlates of cognition in TGD Universe. The attempt to relate these two identifications leads to a rather concrete model for how bosonic generators of super-algebras correspond to either real or p-adic space-time sheets (actions and intentions) and fermionic generators to pairs of real space-time sheets and their p-adic variants obtained by algebraic continuation (note the analogy with fermion hole pairs).

The introduction of infinite primes, integers, and rationals leads also to a generalization of real numbers since an infinite algebra of real units defined by finite ratios of infinite rationals multiplied by ordinary rationals which are their inverses becomes possible. These units are not units in the p-adic sense and have a finite p-adic norm which can be differ from one. This construction generalizes also to the case of hyper-quaternions and -octonions although non-commutativity and in case of octonions also non-associativity pose technical problems. Obviously this approach differs from the standard introduction of infinitesimals in the sense that sum is replaced by multiplication meaning that the set of real and also more general units becomes infinitely degenerate.

Infinite primes form an infinite hierarchy so that the points of space-time and imbedding space can be seen as infinitely structured and able to represent all imaginable algebraic structures. Certainly counter-intuitively, single space-time point is even capable of representing the quantum state of the entire physical Universe in its structure. For instance, in the real sense surfaces in the space of units correspond to the same real number 1, and single point, which is structure-less in the real sense could represent arbitrarily high-dimensional spaces as unions of real units.

One might argue that for the real physics this structure is completely invisible and is relevant only for the physics of cognition. On the other hand, one can consider the possibility of mapping the configuration space and configuration space spinor fields to the number theoretical anatomies of a single point of imbedding space so that the structure of this point would code for the world of classical worlds and for the quantum states of the Universe. Quantum jumps would induce changes of configuration space spinor fields interpreted as wave functions in the set of number theoretical anatomies of single point of imbedding space in the ordinary sense of the word, and evolution would reduce to the evolution of the structure of a typical space-time point in the system. Physics would reduce to space-time level but in a generalized sense. Universe would be an algebraic hologram, and there is an obvious connection both with Brahman=Atman identity of Eastern philosophies and Leibniz's notion of monad.

Infinite rationals are in one-one correspondence with quantum states and in zero energy ontology hyper-octonionic units identified as ratios of the infinite integers associated with the positive and negative energy parts of the zero energy state define a representation of WCW spinor fields. The action of subgroups of SU(3) and rotation group SU(2) preserving hyper-octonionic and hyper-quaternionic primeness and identification of momentum and electro-weak charges in terms of components of hyper-octonionic primes makes this representation unique. Hence Brahman-Atman identity has a completely concrete realization and fixes completely the quantum number spectrum including particle masses and correlations between various quantum numbers.

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Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe

Topological quantum computation (TQC) is one of the most promising approaches to quantum computation. The coding of logical qubits to the entanglement of topological quantum numbers promises to solve the de-coherence problem whereas the S-matrices of topological field theories (modular functors) providing unitary representations for braids provide a realization of quantum computer programs with gates represented as simple braiding operations. Because of their effective 2-dimensionality anyon systems are the best candidates for realizing the representations of braid groups.

TGD allows several new insights related to quantum computation. TGD predicts new information measures as number theoretical negative valued entanglement entropies defined for systems having extended rational entanglement and characterizes bound state entanglement as bound state entanglement. Negentropy Maximization Principle and p-adic length scale hierarchy of space-time sheets encourage to believe that Universe itself might do its best to resolve the de-coherence problem. The new view about quantum jump suggests strongly the notion of quantum parallel dissipation so that thermalization in shorter length scales would guarantee coherence in longer length scales. The possibility of negative energies and communications to geometric future in turn might trivialize the problems caused by long computation times: computation could be iterated again and again by turning the computer on in the geometric past and TGD inspired theory of consciousness predicts that something like this occurs routinely in living matter.

The absolute minimization of Kähler action is the basic variational principle of classical TGD and predicts extremely complex but non-chaotic magnetic flux tube structures, which can get knotted and linked. The dimension of CP2 projection for these structures is D=3 . These structures are the corner stone of TGD inspired theory of living matter and provide the braid structures needed by TQC.

Anyons are the key actors of TQC and TGD leads to detailed model of anyons as systems consisting of track of a periodically moving charged particle realized as a flux tube containing the particle inside it. This track would be a space-time correlate for the outcome of dissipative processes producing the asymptotic self-organization pattern. These tracks in general carry vacuum Kähler charge which is topologized when the CP2 projection of space-time sheet is D=3. This explains charge fractionization predicted to occur also for other charged particles. When a system approaches chaos periodic orbits become slightly aperiodic and the correlate is flux tube which rotates N times before closing. This gives rise to ZN valued topological quantum number crucial for TQC using anyons ( N=4 holds true in this case). Non-Abelian anyons are needed by TQC, and the existence of long range classical electro-weak fields predicted by TGD is an essential prerequisite of non-Abelianity.

Negative energies and zero energy states are of crucial importance of TQC in TGD. The possibility of phase conjugation for fermions would resolve the puzzle of matter-antimatter asymmetry in an elegant manner. Anti-fermions would be present but have negative energies. Quite generally, it is possible to interpret scattering as a creation of pair of positive and negative energy states, the latter representing the final state. One can characterize precisely the deviations of this Eastern world view with respect to the Western world view assuming an objective reality with a positive definite energy and understand why the Western illusion apparently works. In the case of TQC the initial resp. final state of braided anyon system would correspond to positive resp. negative energy state.

The light-like boundaries of magnetic flux tubes are ideal for TQC. The point is that 3-dimensional light-like quantum states can be interpreted as representations for the time evolution of a two-dimensional system and thus represented self-reflective states being "about something". The light-likeness (no geometric time flow) is a space-time correlate for the ceasing of subjective time flow during macro-temporal quantum coherence. The S-matrices of TQC can be coded to these light-like states such that each elementary braid operation corresponds to positive energy anyons near the boundary of the magnetic flux tube A and negative energy anyons with opposite topological charges residing near the boundary of flux tube B and connected by braided threads representing the quantum gate. Light-like boundaries also force Chern-Simons action as the only possible general coordinate invariant action since the vanishing of the metric determinant does not allow any other candidate. Chern-Simons action indeed defines the modular functor for braid coding for a TQC program.

The comparison of the concrete model for TQC in terms of magnetic flux tubes with the structure of DNA gives tantalizing hints that DNA double strand is a topological quantum computer. Strand resp. conjugate strand would carry positive resp. negative energy anyon systems. The knotting and linking of DNA double strand would code for 2-gates realized as a unique maximally entangling Yang-Baxter matrix R for 2-state system. The pairs A-T, T-A, C-G, G-C in active state would code for the four braid operations of 3-braid group in 1-qubit Temperley Lieb representation associated with quantum group SL(2)q . On basis of this picture one can identify N-O hydrogen bonds between DNA strands as structural correlates of 3-braids responsible for the nontrivial 1-gates whereas N-N hydrogen bonds would be correlates for the return gates acting as identity gates. Depending on whether the nucleotide is active or not it codes for nontrivial 1-gate or for identity gate so that DNA strand can program itself or be programmed dynamically.

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DNA as Topological Quantum C´┐Żmputer

This chapter represents an overall view about gradual evolution of ideas about how DNA might act as a topological quantum computer. The first idea was that the braids formed by DNA or RNA could be involved but it turned out soon that this is probably not a realistic option. The reason is simple that DNA braiding is completely rigid and the number of braids is only 2. Three is the minimal number, which might put bells ringing.

The emergence of number theoretical braids as fundamental structures in quantum TGD led to more realistic visions. DNA strands would naturally define the linear structures from which braid strands emerge transversally. Dynamical braiding (recall the dance metaphor) is fundamental for tqc and would be naturally carried out by lipids at the cell membrane which as a liquid crystal is 2-D liquid.

The model which looks the most plausible one relies on two specific ideas.

  1. Sharing of labor means conjugate DNA would do tqc and DNA would "print" the outcome of tqc in terms of RNA yielding aminoacids in case of exons. RNA could result in the case of introns. The experience about computers and the general vision provided by TGD suggests that introns could express the outcome of tqc also electromagnetically in terms of standardized field patterns. Also speech would be a form of gene expression. The quantum states braid would entangle with characteristic gene expressions.

  2. The manipulation of braid strands transversal to DNA must take place at 2-D surface. The ends of the space-like braid are dancers whose dancing pattern defines the time-like braid, the running of classical tqc program. Space-like braid represents memory storage and tqc program is automatically written to memory during the tqc. The inner membrane of the nuclear envelope and cell membrane with entire endoplasmic reticulum included are good candidates for dancing halls. The 2-surfaces containing the ends of the hydrophobic ends of lipids could be the parquets and lipids the dancers. This picture seems to make sense.

It must be warned that these ideas are still developing and the representation is therefore not completely internally consistent since they represent evolution of ideas involving also wrong hypothesis. One example is the idea about introns as the portion of DNA specialized to tqc later replaced with the idea that conjugate DNA is involved with tqc.

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Was von Neumann Right After All?

The work with TGD inspired model for quantum computation led to the realization that von Neumann algebras, in particular hyper-finite factors, could provide the mathematics needed to develop a more explicit view about the construction of M-matrix generalizing the notion of S-matrix in zero energy ontology. In this chapter I will discuss various aspects of hyper-finite factors and their possible physical interpretation in TGD framework. The original discussion has transformed during years from free speculation reflecting in many aspects my ignorance about the mathematics involved to a more realistic view about the role of these algebras in quantum TGD.

Hyper-finite factors in quantum TGD

The following argument suggests that von Neumann algebras known as hyper-finite factors (HFFs) of type III1 appearing in relativistic quantum field theories provide also the proper mathematical framework for quantum TGD.

  1. The Clifford algebra of the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space is a von Neumann algebra known as HFF of type II1. There also the Clifford algebra at a given point (light-like 3-surface) of world of classical worlds (WCW) is therefore HFF of type II1. If the fermionic Fock algebra defined by the fermionic oscillator operators assignable to the induced spinor fields (this is actually not obvious!) is infinite-dimensional it defines a representation for HFF of type II1. Super-conformal symmetry suggests that the extension of the Clifford algebra defining the fermionic part of a super-conformal algebra by adding bosonic super-generators representing symmetries of WCW respects the HFF property. It could however occur that HFF of type II results.

  2. WCW is a union of sub-WCWs associated with causal diamonds (CD) defined as intersections of future and past directed light-cones. One can allow also unions of CDs and the proposal is that CDs within CDs are possible. Whether CDs can intersect is not clear.

  3. The assumption that the M4 proper distance a between the tips of CD is quantized in powers of 2 reproduces p-adic length scale hypothesis but one must also consider the possibility that a can have all possible values. Since SO(3) is the isotropy group of CD, the CDs associated with a given value of a and with fixed lower tip are parameterized by the Lobatchevski space L(a)=SO(3,1)/SO(3). Therefore the CDs with a free position of lower tip are parameterized by M4×L(a). A possible interpretation is in terms of quantum cosmology with a identified as cosmic time . Since Lorentz boosts define a non-compact group, the generalization of so called crossed product construction strongly suggests that the local Clifford algebra of WCW is HFF of type III1. If one allows all values of a, one ends up with M4×M4+ as the space of moduli for WCW.

  4. An interesting special aspect of 8-dimensional Clifford algebra with Minkowski signature is that it allows an octonionic representation of gamma matrices obtained as tensor products of unit matrix 1 and 7-D gamma matrices γk and Pauli sigma matrices by replacing 1 and γk by octonions. This inspires the idea that it might be possible to end up with quantum TGD from purely number theoretical arguments. This seems to be the case. One can start from a local octonionic Clifford algebra in M8. Associativity condition is satisfied if one restricts the octonionic algebra to a subalgebra associated with any hyper-quaternionic and thus 4-D sub-manifold of M8. This means that the modified gamma matrices associated with the Kähler action span a complex quaternionic sub-space at each point of the sub-manifold. This associative sub-algebra can be mapped a matrix algebra. Together with M8-H duality this leads automatically to quantum TGD and therefore also to the notion of WCW and its Clifford algebra which is however only mappable to an associative algebra and thus to HFF of type II1.

2. Hyper-finite factors and M-matrix

HFFs of type III1 provide a general vision about M-matrix.

  1. The factors of type III allow unique modular automorphism Dit (fixed apart from unitary inner automorphism). This raises the question whether the modular automorphism could be used to define the M-matrix of quantum TGD. This is not the case as is obvious already from the fact that unitary time evolution is not a sensible concept in zero energy ontology.

  2. Concerning the identification of M-matrix the notion of state as it is used in theory of factors is a more appropriate starting point than the notion modular automorphism but as a generalization of thermodynamical state is certainly not enough for the purposes of quantum TGD and quantum field theories (algebraic quantum field theorists might disagree!). Zero energy ontology requires that the notion of thermodynamical state should be replaced with its "complex square root" abstracting the idea about M-matrix as a product of positive square root of a diagonal density matrix and a unitary S-matrix. This generalization of thermodynamical state -if it exists- would provide a firm mathematical basis for the notion of M-matrix and for the fuzzy notion of path integral.

  3. The existence of the modular automorphisms relies on Tomita-Takesaki theorem, which assumes that the Hilbert space in which HFF acts allows cyclic and separable vector serving as ground state for both HFF and its commutant. The translation to the language of physicists states that the vacuum is a tensor product of two vacua annihilated by annihilation oscillator type algebra elements of HFF and creation operator type algebra elements of its commutant isomorphic to it. Note however that these algebras commute so that the two algebras are not hermitian conjugates of each other. This kind of situation is exactly what emerges in zero energy ontology: the two vacua can be assigned with the positive and negative energy parts of the zero energy states entangled by M-matrix.

  4. There exists infinite number of thermodynamical states related by modular automorphisms. This must be true also for their possibly existing "complex square roots". Physically they would correspond to different measurement interactions giving rise to Kähler functions of WCW differing only by a real part of holomorphic function of complex coordinates of WCW and arbitrary function of zero mode coordinates and giving rise to the same Kähler metric of WCW.

The concrete construction of M-matrix utilizing the idea of bosonic emergence (bosons as fermion anti-fermion pairs at opposite throats of wormhole contact) meaning that bosonic propagators reduce to fermionic loops identifiable as wormhole contacts leads to generalized Feynman rules for M-matrix in which modified Dirac action containing measurement interaction term defines stringy propagators. This M-matrix should be consistent with the above proposal.

3. Connes tensor product as a realization of finite measurement resolution

The inclusions N subset M of factors allow an attractive mathematical description of finite measurement resolution in terms of Connes tensor product but do not fix M-matrix as was the original optimistic belief.

  1. In zero energy ontology N would create states experimentally indistinguishable from the original one. Therefore N takes the role of complex numbers in non-commutative quantum theory. The space M/N would correspond to the operators creating physical states modulo measurement resolution and has typically fractal dimension given as the index of the inclusion. The corresponding spinor spaces have an identification as quantum spaces with non-commutative N-valued coordinates.

  2. This leads to an elegant description of finite measurement resolution. Suppose that a universal M-matrix describing the situation for an ideal measurement resolution exists as the idea about square root of state encourages to think. Finite measurement resolution forces to replace the probabilities defined by the M-matrix with their N-"averaged" counterparts. The "averaging" would be in terms of the complex square root of N-state and a direct analog of functionally or path integral over the degrees of freedom below measurement resolution defined by (say) length scale cutoff.

  3. One can construct also directly M-matrices satisfying the measurement resolution constraint. The condition that N acts like complex numbers on M-matrix elements as far as N-"averaged" probabilities are considered is satisfied if M-matrix is a tensor product of M-matrix in M/N interpreted as finite-dimensional space with a projection operator to N. The condition that N averaging in terms of a complex square root of N state produces this kind of M-matrix poses a very strong constraint on M-matrix if it is assumed to be universal (apart from variants corresponding to different measurement interactions).

4. Quantum spinors and fuzzy quantum mechanics

The notion of quantum spinor leads to a quantum mechanical description of fuzzy probabilities. For quantum spinors state function reduction cannot be performed unless quantum deformation parameter equals to q=1. The reason is that the components of quantum spinor do not commute: it is however possible to measure the commuting operators representing moduli squared of the components giving the probabilities associated with 'true' and 'false'. The universal eigenvalue spectrum for probabilities does not in general contain (1,0) so that quantum qbits are inherently fuzzy. State function reduction would occur only after a transition to q=1 phase and decoherence is not a problem as long as it does not induce this transition.

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Does TGD Predict Spectrum of Planck Constants?

The quantization of Planck constant has been the basic them of TGD since 2005. The basic idea was stimulated by the finding of Nottale that planetary orbits could be seen as Bohr orbits with enormous value of Planck constant given by hbargr= GM1M2/v0, where the velocity parameter v0 has the approximate value v0≈ 2-11 for the inner planets. This inspired the ideas that quantization is due to a condensation of ordinary matter around dark matter concentrated near Bohr orbits and that dark matter is in macroscopic quantum phase in astrophysical scales. The second crucial empirical input were the anomalies associated with living matter. The recent version of the chapter represents the evolution of ideas about quantization of Planck constants from a perspective given by seven years's work with the idea. A very concise summary about the situation is as follows.

Basic physical ideas

The basic phenomenological rules are simple and there is no need to modify them.

  1. The phases with non-standard values of effective Planck constant are identified as dark matter. The motivation comes from the natural assumption that only the particles with the same value of effective Planck can appear in the same vertex. One can illustrate the situation in terms of the book metaphor. Imbedding spaces with different values of Planck constant form a book like structure and matter can be transferred between different pages only through the back of the book where the pages are glued together. One important implication is that light exotic charged particles lighter than weak bosons are possible if they have non-standard value of Planck constant. The standard argument excluding them is based on decay widths of weak bosons and has led to a neglect of large number of particle physics anomalies.
  2. Large effective or real value of Planck constant scales up Compton length - or at least de Broglie wave length - and its geometric correlate at space-time level identified as size scale of the space-time sheet assignable to the particle. This could correspond to the Kähler magnetic flux tube for the particle forming consisting of two flux tubes at parallel space-time sheets and short flux tubes at ends with length of order CP2 size.

    This rule has far reaching implications in quantum biology and neuroscience since macroscopic quantum phases become possible as the basic criterion stating that macroscopic quantum phase becomes possible if the density of particles is so high that particles as Compton length sized objects overlap. Dark matter therefore forms macroscopic quantum phases. One implication is the explanation of mysterious looking quantal effects of ELF radiation in EEG frequency range on vertebrate brain: E=hf implies that the energies for the ordinary value of Planck constant are much below the thermal threshold but large value of Planck constant changes the situation. Also the phase transitions modifying the value of Planck constant and changing the lengths of flux tubes (by quantum classical correspondence) are crucial as also reconnections of the flux tubes.

    The hierarchy of Planck constants suggests also a new interpretation for FQHE (fractional quantum Hall effect) in terms of anyonic phases with non-standard value of effective Planck constant realized in terms of the effective multi-sheeted covering of imbedding space: multi-sheeted space-time is to be distinguished from many-sheeted space-time.

    In astrophysics and cosmology the implications are even more dramatic. It was Nottale who first introduced the notion of gravitational Planck constant as hbargr= GMm/v0, v0<1 has interpretation as velocity light parameter in units c=1. This would be true for GMm/v0 ≥ 1. The interpretation of hbargr in TGD framework is as an effective Planck constant associated with space-time sheets mediating gravitational interaction between masses M and m. The huge value of hbargr means that the integer hbargr/hbar0 interpreted as the number of sheets of covering is gigantic and that Universe possesses gravitational quantum coherence in super-astronomical scales for masses which are large. This changes the view about gravitons and suggests that gravitational radiation is emitted as dark gravitons which decay to pulses of ordinary gravitons replacing continuous flow of gravitational radiation.

  3. Why Nature would like to have large effective value of Planck constant? A possible answer relies on the observation that in perturbation theory the expansion takes in powers of gauge couplings strengths α=g2/4πhbar. If the effective value of hbar replaces its real value as one might expect to happen for multi-sheeted particles behaving like single particle, α is scaled down and perturbative expansion converges for the new particles. One could say that Mother Nature loves theoreticians and comes in rescue in their attempts to calculate. In quantum gravitation the problem is especially acute since the dimensionless parameter GMm/hbar has gigantic value. Replacing hbar with hbargr=GMm/v0 the coupling strength becomes v0<1.

Space-time correlates for the hierarchy of Planck constants

The hierarchy of Planck constants was introduced to TGD originally as an additional postulate and formulated as the existence of a hierarchy of imbedding spaces defined as Cartesian products of singular coverings of M4 and CP2 with numbers of sheets given by integers na and nb and hbar=nhbar0. n=nanb.

With the advent of zero energy ontology, it became clear that the notion of singular covering space of the imbedding space could be only a convenient auxiliary notion. Singular means that the sheets fuse together at the boundary of multi-sheeted region. The effective covering space emerges naturally from the vacuum degeneracy of Kähler action meaning that all deformations of canonically imbedded M4 in M4×CP2 have vanishing action up to fourth order in small perturbation. This is clear from the fact that the induced Kähler form is quadratic in the gradients of CP2 coordinates and Kähler action is essentially Maxwell action for the induced Kähler form. The vacuum degeneracy implies that the correspondence between canonical momentum currents ∂LK/∂(∂αhk) defining the modified gamma matrices and gradients ∂α hk is not one-to-one. Same canonical momentum current corresponds to several values of gradients of imbedding space coordinates. At the partonic 2-surfaces at the light-like boundaries of CD carrying the elementary particle quantum numbers this implies that the two normal derivatives of hk are many-valued functions of canonical momentum currents in normal directions.

Multi-furcation is in question and multi-furcations are indeed generic in highly non-linear systems and Kähler action is an extreme example about non-linear system. What multi-furcation means in quantum theory? The branches of multi-furcation are obviously analogous to single particle states. In quantum theory second quantization means that one constructs not only single particle states but also the many particle states formed from them. At space-time level single particle states would correspond to N branches bi of multi-furcation carrying fermion number. Two-particle states would correspond to 2-fold covering consisting of 2 branches bi and bj of multi-furcation. N-particle state would correspond to N-sheeted covering with all branches present and carrying elementary particle quantum numbers. The branches co-incide at the partonic 2-surface but since their normal space data are different they correspond to different tensor product factors of state space. Also now the factorization N= nanb occurs but now na and nb would relate to branching in the direction of space-like 3-surface and light-like 3-surface rather than M4 and CP2 as in the original hypothesis.

Multi-furcations relate closely to the quantum criticality of Kähler action. Feigenbaum bifurcations represent a toy example of a system which via successive bifurcations approaches chaos. Now more general multi-furcations in which each branch of given multi-furcation can multi-furcate further, are possible unless on poses any additional conditions. This allows to identify additional aspect of the geometric arrow of time. Either the positive or negative energy part of the zero energy state is "prepared" meaning that single n-sub-furcations of N-furcation is selected. The most general state of this kind involves superposition of various n-sub-furcations.

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