What's new in

Magnetospheric Consciousness

Note: Newest contributions are at the top!

Year 2017

Potential "missing link" in chemistry that led to life on Earth discovered

In the attempts to understand pre-biology the basic challenge is to understand how the needed short RNA, DNA, and amino-acid sequences managed to form. Phosphorylation is known to be crucial for this process and means energization in standard bio-chemistry. Organic phosphate possesses somewhat mysterious high energy phosphate bond, which stores energy and makes possible metabolism: in metabolic ATP with three phosphates transforms to ADP with two phosphates by giving one phosphate with high energy phosphate bond to the acceptor molecule, which is therefore phosphorylated.

In the recent biology phosphorylation of various biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, amino-acid sequences is catalyzed by proteins known as enzymes known as phosphorylases. Kinase is one particular enzyme transferring phosphate from ATP to the acceptor molecule. Proteins consist of amino-acids and would not be present in RNA world, which serves almost as a standard model for the prebiotic period. Ribozymes are catalysts formed from RNA but they catalyze typically only the reversal of phosphorylation.

1. The problem and its possible solution

The phosphorylation of short nucleotide sequences and amino-acid sequences, and also lipids making possible formation of small cell membrane like structures is necessary for the formation of larger structures from their building bricks. As noticed, ribozymes catalyze only dephosphorylation. How RNA was phosphorylated during RNA era or were the amino-acid present all the time?

The popular article with the title Potential 'missing link' in chemistry that led to life on Earth discovered tells about a mechanism allowing phosphorylation during RNA era in absence of enzymes. The discovery is that an organic molecule known as diamidophosphate (DAP) having chemical formula PO2(NH2)2-1 could do the job in presence of water and imidazol. Imidazol has chemical formula C3N2H4 and is a molecule possessing aromatic hetero-cycle consisting of 3 C atoms and 2 N atoms.

Remark: Pyrimidine in turn is aromatic hetero-6-cycle consisting of 4 C atoms and 2 N atoms and having formula C4N2 H4. DNA has as basic building bricks phosphates PO4- having valence bonds with deoxy-ribose molecules (containing 5-rings with 4 C atoms and one O). Each sugar has valence bond with N of nucleoside C, T, A or G. C and T are pyrimidines with single aromatic 6-ring and A and G are purines obtained by fusing imidazol 5-ring and pyrimidine 6-ring to obtain purine double ring. By replacing one OH of de-oxyribose of DNA with H one obtains RNA.

DAP could solve several problems simultaneously: how the short sequences of RNA (later DNA) and amino-acids were formed, and how the predecessors of cell membranes emerged. It is not however clear to me whether this process could have been fast enough or whether the slowness only made the first step painful.

2. How the discovery could relate to TGD inspired quantum biology?

It is interesting to interpret the discovery in TGD framework. The basic question is whether the presence of dark atoms and electrons in bio-molecule distinguish between atomic physics, in-organic chemistry, and organic chemistry. Usually organic chemistry is defined to be chemistry of carbon compounds, typically hydrocarbons. Could it be that the formation of hydrocarbons involves dark variants of proton and electron identified as heff=n× h variants of ordinary proton and electron?

2.1 From atomic physics to chemistry

How could one proceed from atomic physics to atomic physics to chemistry in TGD framework. The basic question is how to understand valence bond: it is not at all clear whether mere Schrödinger equation allows to understand it. Could the emergence of dark electrons allow their delocalization and formation of valence bonds? It has been known for decades that the heating of rare-earth metals leads to a mysterious loss of some valence electrons and the explanation would be the energy provided by heating kicks them to higher energy states by making some valence electrons dark (see this). The explanation would be in terms of dark electron orbitals for valence electrons which have radii scaled up by factor n2 and are analogous to Rydberg states identified as orbitals with large value of principal quantum number and having very large radius.

The dark variants of atoms have binding energy scale reduced by factor 1/n2 so that their formation requires energy feed (perhaps radiation at required frequencies). One or more valence electrons of ordinary atom could be dark so that the size of the orbital is scaled up by factor n2. The valence bond central for chemistry in general and in particular for basic biopolymers could contain dark electrons delocalized because of larger value of n than for the non-valence electrons. Note that one could be n=n0> 1 for ordinary atoms making in principle possible atoms with n< n0 with anomalous large binding energy also for the filled shells as the findings of Randel Mills indeed suggest (see this).

Surprisingly, dark electrons would be essential in ordinary chemistry thought to reduce to standard model physics! The increase of n reduces binding energy scale and requires energy feed. This would allow to understand why anabolism - that is generation of biopolymers from their building blocks by generating valence bonds - requires energy feed and why catabolism - the splitting of biopolymers to their building blocks by splitting the valence bonds liberates energy.

The valence bonds would be classified by the value of n and it is quite possible that in organic chemistry the values of n are larger than in in-organic chemistry. Could this mean that valence bonds H and C and N and O have higher values in bio-chemistry? Also the valence bonds between O and H in water could have larger value of n.

To sum up, the transition from atomic physics to ordinary chemistry involved generation of dark electrons associated with valence bonds. The value of n for dark electrons can vary and allow hierarchy of evolutionary steps with increasingly delocalized valence electrons.

2.2 From chemistry to bio-chemistry

What about the step leading to a genuine bio-chemistry involving genetic code? Magnetic body (MB) is the basic aspect of biochemistry according to TGD. Pollack effect leading to the formation of negatively charged regions - exclusion zones (EZs) - would involve generation of dark protons at magnetic flux tubes of MB with electrons left to the EZ - possible as ordinary particles (see this). Also Pollack effect requires feeding of energy, say as irradiation by photons.

DNA is stable against spontaneous hydration only inside cell membrane. This suggests that the EZs of Pollack containing partially dark water molecules satisfying effectively the stoichiometry H3/2O allowed to stabilize DNA. Therefore EZs are excellent candidates for the predecessors of cell.

The TGD inspired proposal is that DNA strand for which each phosphate has negative unit charge is companied by dark analog of DNA consisting of dark protons such that the states of 3-proton units are in one-one correspondence with DNA, RNA, tRNA and amino-acids and the degeneracies of the vertebrate genetic code (number of codons coding for given amino-acid) come out correctly (see this). A more general picture is that ordinary chemistry is kind of shadow for the dynamics of dark matter at magnetic flux tubes doing its best to emulate it. This would explain also why genetic code has also other variants.

It would be the emergence of dark protons with large enough value of n, which would distinguish between ordinary chemistry and bio-chemistry. Water is basic element of life and hydrogen bonding is responsible for the formation of water clusters - certainly one of the key aspects of bio-chemistry. Hydrogen bonds appear between highly electronegative atoms such as O, N, and F (electronegativity is roughly the tendency to attract electrons). What distinguishes hydrogen bond from valence bond is that it is proton rather than electron, which is delocalized. This suggests that the delocalized proton is dark proton at magnetic flux tube connecting the hydrogen bonded molecules.

2.3 The emergence of metabolism

In the proposed framework the first basic aspect of life would be the generation of dark electrons and protons using energy feed and their transfer between molecules and their generation by providing the needed energy.

  1. Metabolism (anabolism) would provide the energy needed to transform ordinary atom (that is electron bound to it) to a dark atom with large value of heff/h=n. This requires energy since the binding energy is proportional to 1/n2 and reduced in the process. This is quite generally true for all dark variants of quantum states. One can say that the increase of the complexity of the system by increasing n characterizing its "IQ" requires metabolic energy (in adelic physics "IQ" has concrete interpretation as cognitive resources). Therefore the first steps of prebiotic life was the emergence of energy feed mechanism making possible the increase of n.
  2. I have considered the possibility that the period of prebiotic life preceding the the emergence of chemical storage of energy used dark nucleosynthesis (see this) as the source of metabolic energy. The recently discovered life-like properties of a very simple system consisting of negatively charged plastic balls in the plasma of Ar+ ions allows to develop rather detailed ideas about this phase of life. (see this).
  3. A fundamental question is about the step leading to the chemical storage of metabolic energy to valence bonds with non-standard value of n. Solar radiation could have generated both negatively charged EZs identifiable as possible predecessors of cell membrane and valence bonded molecules storing metabolic energy.
2.4 About bio-catalysis

Without bio-catalysis biochemical reactions leading to the formation of biopolymers and cell membrane would be quite too slow. Here phosphorylation enters the game.

  1. The TGD based model for bio-catalysis relies on the temporary reduction of heff =n×h liberating energy kicking the reactants over potential wall. After this step the catalyst - at least in the ideal situation - receives the energy and the atom becomes dark again.
  2. Acid catalyst gives a proton and base catalyst gives an electron. Most bio-catalysts are acid catalysts The TGD based interpretation should rely on the possibility of dark valence electrons and dark protons at flux tubes. Since base catalysts are associated with non-organic chemistry, the identification of the electron given by base catalyst as dark electron looks natural. Acid catalysts would give dark proton.
Bio-catalysts are usually activated by phosphorylation and de-activated by de-phosphorylation but there are exceptions to this rule. This can be understood if the catalyst activates a molecule acting as a switch for a reaction. Catalysts related to phosphorylation are known as phosphotransferases and contain kinases transferring phosphate from ATP to the acceptor molecules.

Phosphatases remove phosphate from the target molecule: they are hydrolases and use water to remove the phosphate and to hydrate the molecule.

2.5 The difference between organic and inorganic phosphates

Phosphate appears as too variants: organic and inorganic.

  1. Organic phosphates bound to biomolecules have charge -1. Some electrons of organic phosphate ion have transformed to valence electrons and are therefore dark. Also some protons - one dark proton per dark electron to not affect the observed charge in short scales - would be dark and at the magnetic body of the organic phosphate. Both dark protons and dark electrons would be present and give rise to somewhat mysterious high energy phosphate bond.
  2. Free phosphate in water environment appears in ionized variants HnPO4n-4 and is regarded as in-organic and have negative charge 4-n. In inorganic phosphate some dark protons and ordinary electrons giving rise to the negative charge have combined to hydrogen atoms. The larger the number of hydrogens is, the higher the level of inorganicity is.

    The fractions of variants of free phosphate in water depend on pH characterizing the density of protons present. Could pH in fact characterize the fraction of dark protons at magnetic flux tubes? Or could it also characterize the fraction of dark hydrogen atoms present. Similar question applies to the counterparts of pH for other biologically important ions.

2.6 About phosphorylation and the interpretation of DAP

At chemical level phosphorylation attaches phosphate ion to the hydroxyl group (R-OH) of the acceptor molecule. At deeper level phosphorylation would give dark electron to the acceptor molecule and dark proton to its MB. Phosphorylation would increase the quantum coherence length: the formation of short RNA, amino-acid sequences and of cell membrane like structures would be a basic example of this.

What about the interpretation of the role of DAP in this framework? DAP has charge -1 as also the phosphate bound to DNA and RNA have (in ATP the outermost phosphate has charge -2). DAP is very similar to the phosphate in DNA and RNA and expected to carry high energy phosphate bond. In TGD framework it would possess both dark valence electrons and dark protons at magnetic flux tubes with only one ordinary electron responsible for the charge of DAP. Due to the properties of phosphatase the phosphorylation would be very simple process at the level of dark electron and proton. Hence DAP and imidazole could make possible the phosphorylation.

2.7 About dephosphorylation and phosphoryl transfer

The scanning of web shows that some sources talk of dephosphorylation and some sources about phosphoryl transfer reactions and it remained unclear to me whether the two terms really have the same meaning. In any case, in TGD framework one can distinguish between these notion. Dephosphorylation could mean either phosphoryl transfer (transfer of phosphate between donor and acceptor molecules) or "dropping" of organic phosphate to water environment and giving it negative additional negative charge (the transfer would be now to water environment) and making it inorganic.

  1. Phosphoryl would transfer removes PO4- group and presumably also the associated dark proton from the target and transfers them to the acceptor molecule and its MB. I have proposed that reconnection of flux tubes transforms the flux tubes entering to the donor molecule to that associated with the acceptor molecule so that dark proton is automatically transferred. In ATP-ADP process the phosphate group and presumably also the dark proton and electron would be transferred to the acceptor molecule from ATP. ADP is dephosphorylated and acceptor phosphorylated.
  2. In "dropping" the outcome would be in-organic phosphate denoted by Pi, which is a mixture of HPO4-2 and H2PO4-1. One interpretation is that 1 or 2 dark protons from magnetic flux tubes have transformed to ordinary protons and combined with electrons to form hydrogen atoms. This operation would reduce the number of dark particle and thus the "evolutionary level" of the system.
Dephosphorylation is known to lead to a decomposition of the donor molecule to smaller structures, indicating the reduction of heff/h and thus of quantum coherence length. In RNA world dephosphorylation would be catalyzed by ribozymes and in some important cases also in the recent biology. Dephosphorylation would reduce quantum coherence length and lead to the decomposition of structures to smaller ones: mRNA splicing is one example of this. Catabolism of nutrients and the decay process of dead organic matter provide further basic examples.

Catabolism of nutrients and the decay process of dead organic matter suggest what happens. In the first preliminary step of catabolism catalysts are involved. At the second step of catabolism inorganic phosphate is formed, which suggests that the number of dark protons is reduced in the process. This conforms with the reduction of the value of heff/h=n.

See the chapter Dark matter, quantum gravity, and prebiotic evolution or the article Potential "missing link" in chemistry that led to life on Earth discovered.

rom RNA world to RNA-tRNA world to RNA-DNA-tRNA world to DNA-RNA-protein world: how it went?

I told already earlier about how the transition from RNA world to RNA-tRNA world to DNA-RNA-protein world might have taken place in TGD Universe. Last night I realized a more detailed mechanism for the last step of the transition relying on the TGD based general model model of bio-catalysis based on heff=n×h phases of ordinary matter at dark magnetic flux tubes. It also became clear that DNA-RNA-tRNA world very probably preceded the transition to the last world in the sequence. Therefore I glue below the appropriately modified earlier posting.

I encountered a highly interesting work related to the emergence of RNA world: warmly recommended. For a popular article see this.

First some basic terms for the possible reader of the article. There are three key enzymes involved in the process which is believed to lead to a formation of longer RNA sequences able to replicate.

  1. Ribozyme is a piece of RNA acting as catalyst. In RNA world RNA had to serve also as a catalyst. In DNA world proteins took this task but their production requires DNA and transcription-translation machinery.
  2. RNA ligase promotes a fusion of RNA fragments to a longer one in presence of ATP transforming to AMP and diphospate and giving metabolic energy presumably going to the fusion. In TGD fUniverse this would involve generation of an atom (presumably hydrogen) with non-standard value of heff=n×h having smaller binding energy scales so that ATP is needed. These dark bonds would be involved with all bio-catalytic processes.
  3. RNA polymerase promotes a polymerization of RNA from building bricks. It looks to me like a special kind of ligase adding only single nucleotide to an existing sequence. In TGD Universe heff=n×h atoms would be involved as also magnetic flux tubes carrying dark analog of DNA with codons replaced with dark proton triplets.
  4. RNA recombinase promotes RNA strands to exchange pieces of same length. Topologically this corresponds to two reconnections occurring at points defining the ends of piece. In TGD Universe these reconnections would occur for magnetic flux tubes containing dark variant of DNA and induce the chemical processes at the level of chemistry.

Self ligation should take place. RNA strands would serve as ligases for the generation of longer RNA strands. The smallest RNA sequences exhibiting self-ligation activity was found to be 40-nucleotide RNA and shorter than expected. It had lowest efficiency but highest functional flexibility to ligate substrates to itself. R18 - established RNA polymerase model - had highest efficiency and highest selectivity.

What I can say about the results is that they give support for the notion of RNA world.

The work is related to the vision about RNA world proposed to precede DNA-RNA-protein world. Why I found it so interesting is that it relates to on particular TGD inspired glimpse to what happened in primordial biology.

In TGD Universe it is natural to imagine 3 worlds. RNA world, RNA-tRNA world, and DNA-RNA-protein world. For an early rather detailed version of the idea about transition from RNA world to DNA-RNA-proteins world but not realizing the tRNA-RNA world as intermediate step see this.

  1. RNA world would contain only RNA. Protein enzymes would not be present in RNA world and RNA itself should catalyze the processes needed to for polymerization, replication, and recombination of RNA. Ribozymes are the RNA counterparts of enzymes. In the beginning RNA would itself act as ribozymes catalyzing these processes.
  2. One can also try to imagine RNA-tRNA world. The predecessors of tRNA molecules containing just single amino-acid could have catalyzed the fusion of RNA nucleotide to a growing RNA sequence in accordance with the genetic code. Amino-acid sequences would not have been present at this stage since there would be no machinery for their polymerisation.
  3. One can consider a transition from this world to DNA-RNA-tRNA world. This would storage of genetic information to DNA from which it would have been transcribed by using polymerase consisting of RNA. This phase would have required the presence of cell membrane like structure since DNA is stabilized inside membranes or at them. Transition to this world should have involved reverse transcription catalized by RNA based reverse-transcriptase. Being a big evolutionary step, this transition should involve a phase transition increasing the value of heff=n × h.
  4. My earlier proposal has been that a transition from RNA world to DNA-RNA-protein world took place. The transition could have also taken place from DNA-RNA-tRNA world to world containing also amino-acid sequences and have led to rapid evolution of catalysis based on amino-acid sequences.

    The amino-acid sequences originating from tRNA originally catalyzing RNA replication stole the place of RNA sequences as the end products from RNA replication. The ribosome started to function as a translator of RNA sequences to amino-acid sequences rather than replication of them to RNAs! The roles of protein and RNA changed! Instead of RNA in tRNA the amino-acid in tRNA joined to the sequence! The existing machinery started to produce amino-acid sequences!

    Presumably the modification of ribosome or tRNA involved addition of protein parts to ribosome, which led to a quantum critical situation in which the roles of proteins and RNA polymers could change temporarily. When protein production became possible even temporarily, the produced proteins began to modify ribosome further to become even more favorable for the production of proteins.

    But how to produce the RNA sequences? The RNA replication machinery was stolen in the revolution. DNA had to do that via transcription to mRNA! DNA had to emerge before the revolution or at the same time and make possible the production of RNA via transcription of DNA to mRNA. The most natural options corresponds to "before", that is DNA-RNA-tRNA world. DNA could have emerged during RNA-tRNA era together with reverse transcription of RNA to DNA with RNA sequences defining ribozymes acting as reverse transcriptase. This would have become possible after the emergence of predecessor of cell membrane. After that step DNA sequences and amino-acid sequences would have been able to make the revolution together so that RNA as the master of the world was forced to become a mere servant!

    The really science fictive option would be the identification of the reverse transcription as time reversal of transcription. In zero energy ontology (ZEO) this option can be considered at least at the level of dark DNA and RNA providing the template of dynamics for ordinary matter.

How the copying of RNA strand to its conjugate strand catalysed by amino-acid of tRNA could have transformed to translation of RNA to amino-acid sequence? Something certainly changed.
  1. The change must have occurred most naturally to tRNA or - less plausibly - to the predecessor of the ribosome machinery. The change in the chemical structure of tRNA is not a plausible option. Something more than chemistry is required and in TGD Universe dark matter localized at magnetic flux tubes is the natural candidate.
  2. Evolution corresponds in TGD Universe gradual increase of heff=n × h. A dramatic evolutionary step indeed took place. The increase of the value of heff for some structural element of tRNA could have occurred so that the catalysis for amino-acid sequence instead of that for RNA sequence started to occur.

  3. The general model for bio-catalysis in TGD Universe involves a contraction of magnetic flux tubes by a reduction of heff and bringing together the reacting molecules associated with flux tubes: this explains the magic looking ability of biomolecules to find each other in the dense molecular soup. The reduction of heff for some dark atom(s) of some reacting molecules(s) to a smaller value liberates temporarily energy allowing to kick the reactants over a potential wall so that the reaction can occur (atomic binding energies scale as 1/heff2). After than the liberated energy is absorbed and ordinary atom transforms back to dark atom.

    In the recent case heff associated with a dark atom (or atoms) of tRNA could have increased so that the binding energy liberated would have increased and allowed to overcome a higher potential wall than before. If the potential wall needed to overcome in the fusion of additional amino-acid to a growing protein is higher than that in the fusion of additional RNA to a growing RNA sequence, this model could work.

  4. The activation energy for the addition of amino-acid should be larger than that for RNA nucleotide. A calculated estimate for the activation energy for the addition of amino-acid is 63.2 eV. An estimate for the activation energy for the addition of RNA nucleotide at the temperature range 37-13 C is in the range 35.6 -70.2 eV . An estimate for the activation energy for the addition of DNA nucleotide is 58.7 eV. The value in the case RNA would be considerably smaller than that in the case of amino-acids at physiological temperature. For DNA and amino-acid the activation energy would be somewhat smaller than for amino-acid. This is consistent with the proposed scenario. I am not able to decide how reliable these estimates are.
The natural first guess is that the dark atoms are hydrogen atoms. It is however not at all clear whether "ordinary" hydrogen atoms correspond to n=heff/h=n=1.
  1. Randell Mills has proposed his notion of hydrino atom to explain anomalous energy production and EUV radiation in 10-20 nm range taking place in certain electrolytic system and having no chemical explanation. The proposal of Mills is that hydrogen atom can make in presence of a catalyst a transition to a lower energy state with a reduced size. I have already earlier considered some TGD inspired models for hydrino. The resemblance with the claimed cold fusion suggests that the energy production involved in the two cases might involve the same mechanism.

    I have considered two models for the findings (see this). The first model is a variant of cold fusion model that might explain the energy production and the observed radiation at EUV energy range. Second model is a variant of hydrino atom assuming that ordinary hydrogen atom corresponds to heff/h=nH>1 and that catalyst containing hydrogen atoms with lower value of nh<nH could induce a phase transition transforming hydrogen atoms to hydrinos with binding energy spectrum scaled up by scaling factor (nH/nh)2 and radii scaled down by (nh/nH)2. The findings of Mills favour the value nH=6.

  2. Suppose the transition corresponds to a transition analogous to photon emission so that it occurs between Δ J=1 transitions of hydrogen atom. There are two simple options: either the direction of electron spin change but orbital angular momentum remains unaffected or the angular momentum of electron changes by Δ L=1 but spin direction does not change.

    The simplest assumption is that the principal quantum numbers in the initial and final state are ni=1 and nf≥ ni. Assume first that initial state with (nHi,ni=1) having Li=0 and final state with (nHf,nf≥ ni).

  3. The energy difference between the initial state with (nHi,ni=1) and final state with (nHf, nf). The initial binding energy is the ordinary binding of thought-to-be hydrogen atom in the ground state: Ei= Ef(nHf/nHi)2 ≈ 13.6 eV. Here Ef denotes the final ground state binding energy. The final state binding energy is Efnf= Ef/nf2.

    The liberated energy defining the order of magnitude for the activation energy (thermodynamical quantity) is given by

    Δ E=Efnf-Ei= Efnf2- Ef(nHfnHi)2= Ei[(nHinHf)2 nf-2-1].

    The condition Δ E > 0 gives

    nHi/nHf >nf .

    For nHi/nHf=nf one has Δ E=0. For instance, this occurs for (nHi,nHf)∈ {(2,1),(6,3),(6,2)}. Δ E>0 condition gives nHi > 2.

  4. Consider first ni=nf=1 for which the spin direction of electron changes if the transition is analogous to photon emission. By putting nf=1 in above equation one obtains a formula for the transition energy in this case. For instance, (nNi,ni)=(6,1)→ (nHf,nf) =(3,1) would correspond to Δ E=40.8 eV perhaps assignable to RNA polymerization and the transition (nHi,ni)=(7,1)→ (nHf,nf)=(3,1) to Δ E= 60.4 eV perhaps assignable to amino-acid polymerization and DNA polymerization. Note that nH=6 is supported by the findings of Mills.
  5. The table below gives the liberated energies Δ E for transitions with (ni,nf)=(1,2) in some cases. The liberated energy in transition (nHi,ni=1)→ (nHf,nf=2) in some cases.

    (nHi,ni) (nHf,nf) Δ E/eV
    (3,1) (1,2) 17.0
    (4,1) (1,2) 40.8
    (4,1) (2,2) 0.0
    (5,1) (1,2) 71.4
    (5,1) (2,2) 7.7
    (6,1) (1,2) 109.0
    (6,1) (3,2) 17.0

    The transitions (4,1)→ (1,2) resp. (5,1)→ (1,2) might give rise to the activation energies associated with RNA resp. amino-acid polymerization.

  6. If ordinary hydrogen atom and atoms in general correspond to heff/h=n=1, the liberated energies would be below the ground state energy E0=13.6 eV of hydrogen atom and considerably below the above estimates. For heavier atoms the binding energy scale would be Z2-fold and already for carbon with Z=6 by a factor 36 higher. It is difficult to obtain Δ E in the scale suggested by the estimates for the activation energies.
One could try to test whether tRNA could be modified to a state in which RNA is translates to RNA sequences rather than proteins. This would require a reduction of heff=n× h for the dark atom in question.

See the chapter Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time or the article From RNA world to RNA-tRNA world to RNA-DNA-tRNA world to DNA-RNA-protein world: how it went?.

Are we all artists?: or what my "Great Experience" taught me about consciousness

Are all of us artists? I could immediately answer the question: we are artists - all of us. This is what my "Great Experience" taught me about consciousness before I had any theory of consciousness. I started to work systematically with the problem of consciousness - that is to write a book, which is the manner I work - only 10 years after this experience.

What I claim is that the construction of sensory mental images is not a passive process but a creation of an artwork, kind of caricature giving a representation of the sensory input optimal as far as survival is considered. This means decomposition of the sensory input to features and picking up the key features relevant for the survival.

The article with link below is a written and slightly longer version of a talk in which I told about the role of vision in sensory experience seen in the theoretical framework provided by TGD inspired theory of consciousness. I decided to tell about my "Great Experience around 1985 since it divides my life to two parts: life before and after this experience, and because this experience provided fascinating insights to consciousness and perception, not only visual, but also auditory perception and proprioception (body experience). I have told about this experience in my homepage (see this) and in some material in books and articles to be found there (for instance).

There are online books about TGD proper and two published books (Luniver and Bentham). For TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology see the online books at my homepage and the published book about consciousness and quantum biology (Lambert). The article Philosophy of Adelic Physics published by Springer explains the recent vision about the mathematics forced by consciousness theory.

For details see the chapter Magnetospheric sensory representations or the article Are we all artists?: or what my "Great Experience" taught me about consciousness.

Two steps towards understanding of the origins of life

Two highly interesting findings providing insights about the origins of life have emerged and it is interesting to see how they fit to the TGD inspired vision.

The group led by Thomas Carell has made an important step in the understanding the origins of life (see this). They have identified a mechanism leading to the generation of purines A and G which besides pyrimidines A,T (U) are the basic building bricks of DNA and RNA. The crucial step is to make the solution involved slightly acidic by adding protons. For year later I learned that a variant of Urey-Miller experiment with simulation of shock waves perhaps generated by extraterrestrial impacts using laser pulses generates formamide and this in turn leads to the generation of all 4 RNA bases (see the popular article and article).

These findings represent a fascinating challenge for TGD inspired quantum biology. The proposal is that formamide is the unique amide, which can form stable bound states with dark protons and crucial for the development of life as dark matter-visible matter symbiosis. Pollack effect would generate electron rich exclusions zones and dark protons at magnetic flux tubes. Dark protons would bind stably with unique amine leaving its chemical properties intact. This would lead to the generation of purines and the 4 RNA bases. This would be starting point of life as symbiosis of ordinary matter and dark matter as large heff/h=n phases of ordinary matter generated at quantum criticality induced by say extraterrestrial impacts. The TGD based model for cold fusion and the recent results about superdense phase of hydrogen identifiable in TGD framework as dark proton sequences giving rise to dark nuclear strings provides support for this picture.

There is however a problem: a reductive environment (with ability to donate electrons) is needed in these experiments: it seems that early atmosphere was not reductive. In TGD framework one can imagine two - not mutually exclusive - solutions of the problem. Either life evolved in underground oceans, where oxygen concentration was small or Pollack effect gave rise to negatively charged and thus reductive exclusion zones (EZs) as protons were transferred to dark protons at magnetic flux tubes. The function of UV radiation, catalytic action, and of shock waves would be generation of quantum criticality inducing the creation of EZs making possible dark heff/h=n phases.

For details and background see the article Two steps towards understanding of the origins of life or the chapter Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time.

To the index page