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Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms
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The challenge is to identify physical mechanisms forcing the increase of effective Planck constant heff (whether to call it effective or not is to some extent matter of taste). The work with certain potential applications of TGD led to a discovery of a new mechanism possibly achieving this. The method would be simple: apply constant torque to a rotating system. I will leave it for the reader to rediscover how this can be achieved. It turns out that the considerations lead to considerable insights about how large heff phases are generated in living matter.
Could constant torque force the increase of heff?
Consider a rigid body allowed to rotated around some axes so that its state is characterized by a rotation angle φ. Assumed that a constant torque τ is applied to the system.
The introduction of the n-fold covering leads naturally to the hierarchy of Planck constants.
What about stationary solutions?
Giving up stationary seems the only option on basis of classical intuition. One can however ask whether also stationary solutions could make sense mathematically and could make possible completely new quantum phenomena.
The connection with WKB approximation and Airy functions
Stationary Schrödinger equation with constant force appears in WKB approximation and follows from a linearization of the potential function at non-stationary point. A good example is Schröndinger equation for a particle in the gravitational field of Earth. The solutions of this equation are Airy functions which appear also in the electrodynamical model for rainbow.
An interesting question is what heff=n× h means? Should one replace h with heff=nh as the condition that the spectrum of angular momentum remains unchanged requires. One would have k ∝ n-2/3 ja e∝ n4/3. One would obtain boundary conditions non-linear with respect to n.
Connection with living matter
The constant torque - or more generally non-oscillatory generalized force in some compact degrees of freedom - requires of a continual energy feed to the system. Continual energy feed serves as a basic condition for self-organization and for the evolution of states studied in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Biology represents a fundamental example of this kind of situation. The energy feeded to the system represents metabolic energy and ADP-ATP process loads this energy to ATP molecules. Also now constant torque is involved: the ATP synthase molecule contains the analog of generator having a rotating shaft. Since metabolism and the generation of large heff phases are very closely related in TGD Universe, the natural proposal is that the rotating shaft forces the generation of large heff phases.
For details and background see the chapter Macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum metabolism as different sides of the same coin: part II" of "Biosystems as Conscious Holograms".
For detals and background see the chapter Macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum metabolism as different sides of the same coin: Part II for details.
The general strategy in attempts to understand metabolism is based on the assumption that a very large class of anomalous phenomena rely on same basic mechanism. This includes life as a phenomenon, water memory and homeopathy, free energy phenomena involving over-unity phenomena related to the dissociation of water, lightning and ball lightning, anomalous effects associated with rotating magnetic systems, phenomena related to UFOs (light balls), even remote mental interactions. One must have a unified explanation for all these phenomena based on a real theory.
Plasmoid as primitive life form would the underlying connecting thread between these phenomena so that all the listed phenomena would involve life and prebiotic (or possibly postbiotic!) life. This gives very strong constraints on the model. Plasmoid should consists of the analogs of linear biomolecules, it should metabolize and communicate, in TGD Universe it should have magnetic body, and even genetic code might be realized. In particular, the simplified analog of biological metabolism would be at work. In living matter photosynthesis relies on the splitting of water whereas cell respiration relies on the reversal of this process producing carbon di-oxide and water. Something very similar should happen in free energy systems involving electrolysis, and the fact that water splitting occurs also in several free energy phenomena suggests that these processes are analogous to photosynthesis and store energy to "molecules" analogous to various linear biomolecules, in particular sugars. Even the counterpart of ADP-ATP process might be realized.
TGD suggests a very general model for the metabolism of pre-biotic systems (or post-biotic ones:the identification depends on what general vision about evolution is adopted) identifed as plasmoids consisting of cyclic linear structures formed by exotic water molecules. For a dark water molecule one proton would be dark and dark protons of the neighboring exotic water molecules would bind to form a linear structure identifiable as dark nucleus: this picture is a direct generalization of nuclear string model (see this, this, and this). These linear structures would define the analogs of linear biomolecules. This metabolism would be more fundamental than ordinary biochemical metabolism and form a yet unkown part of the latter. One cannot exclude the possibility that also other than water molecules contain dark protons: the signature would be the presence of apparently unallowed covalent bonds due to the fact the dark proton is not visible. In the following I will discuss the basic principles involved.
1. Three possible models for liberation of metabolic energy
One can imagine three different models for the liberation of metabolic energy.
2. Model for the building bricks of plasmoids
I have already earlier discussed a model for dark proton sequences as primitive life forms. The observation discussed by Moray B. King inspired a more detailed formulation of the model of plasmoids identified as primitive life forms in TGD framework.
Plasmoid should also possess a magnetic body. This requires a currents rotating along the cyclic structures. The obvious identification of the current is as dark supra currents assignable to dark protons so that the building bricks of plasmoid would be analogous to super-conducting rings.
3. Model for the metabolism of plasmoids
The proposed dark analogs of basic biomolecules would be created through the analog of photosynthesis involving the splitting of water to H + OH followed by H→ Hdark and by recombination to a sequence of dark water molecules. The process would be analogous to translation of mRNA to amino-acids and could proceed by an analogous mechanism. The process would be spontaneous since the energy of cyclotron states would not change in h→ heff= 2k× h.
Metabolic energy would be liberated in the decay of the exotic water back to water with heff=h and p-adic prime scaled by about 2k. This process is completely analogous to the splitting of various linear biomolecules in metabolism in order to obtain metabolic energy. This process would explain the ability of cool Brown's gas to melt metal for instance. When fossil fuels are used, the outcome is carbon di-oxide and water. Now only water is obtained so that this form of free energy might not contribute to the warming of environment.
The process differs from ZPE in that it does not provide any endless source of energy. Since water is in practice an unlimited natural resource, this shold not be a problem. A closed cycle at the level of visible matter is obtained only if the reverse phase transition transforming the water with heff=h and p-adic prime p1≈ 2k/2p to that with heff=2k× h and p-adic prime p takes place spontaneously.
The irradiation with carrier frequency fh and modulation frequency fl such that one has fl/fh= 2-k is one possibility which I have proposed. Dark solar radiation at magnetic flux tubes with magnetic field Bend=.2 Gauss (guess from the experiments of Blackman; also many other values can be considered) could provide automatically the needed pulsed radiation inducing the phase transition. The most optimistic option is that this transition occurs even in the case of closed system in which water circulates.
Before attempting to identify reasonable candidates for fl and fh it is useful to consider estimates for heff/h=2k. Note that this assumption might be too strong: the vision about evolution as emergence of number theoretical complexity suggests that so called Fermat integers defining polygons, which are constructible using ruler and compass, define favored values of heff/h=n (see this). These integers are expressible as products of different Fermat primes Fn= 22k+1 and power of 2. The known Fermat primes correspond to k= 0,1,2,3,4 and are 3,5,17,257,65537. Only the two lowest ones differ significantly from power of two.This raises the question whether also the scale hierarchies 31/2L(k), 51/2L(k), and 151/2L(k) are important besides p-adic length scale hierarchy L(k)= 2k/2RCP2. They could be associated with the algebraic extensions of p-adic numbers involving 31/2 and51/2.
For ion of mass number A and ionization z the value producing the same value of metabolic quantum is A/z× 1.37× 1014. An alternative assumption is a hierarchy of metabolic quanta coming as z/A multiples of the fundamental metabolic energy quantum for a fixed value of heff/h. The condition that the metabolic energy quantum is above thermal energy of photon at physiological temperature for which peak wavelength for blackbody radiation corresponds to energy of .13 eV. This gives A/z≤ .5/.13=3.84. The estimate is too stringent since Ca++ with A/z=20 should allow metabolic energy quantum above the thermal energy. This suggests that heff/h characterizes given ion and that its multiples coming as power of two are allowed.
Allowing the generalization of the p-adic length scale hypothesis one obtains 7 photon energies in the visible range corresponding to the scalings of 1.4 eV by [31/2/2, 51/2/4, 51/2/2, , 151/2/4, 31/2, 2, 31/2/8,51/2] giving E/eV= [1.71, 1.57, 2.21, 1.91, 2.42, 2.71, 2.80, 3.13]. Note that 2 eV corresponds to red light and metabolic energy quantum of .50 eV to k=51. An interesting question is whether these special frequencies relate to the peak wave lengths for color vision.
The sequences of these two phase transitions involved with dark metabolism would be very much analogous to ..-ATP-ADP-ATP-... "Karma's cycle". There is also a strong analogy with breathing and even sleep-wake-up cycle and longer bio-rhythms. p-Adic fractality forces to ask whether all these rhythms involve the same dark metabolic cycle but in different scales. Increase of heff indeed corresponds to an increase of "IQ" in TGD inspired theory of consciousness and its reduction to its lowering. This could quite concretely correspond the experience of becoming tired. There is also a close analogy with the state function reduction sequence in ZEO. State function reductions occur alternatively at the opposite boundaries of causal diamond (CD) of given scale and I have proposed an interpretation in terms of generalized sleep-awake cycles.
4. Does dark biology represent pre- or post-biotic evolution?
The discovery of dark proton realization of genetic codons (see this and this) was an accident and I am still puzzled about whether the vertebrate genetic code can really emerge from dark nuclear physics or is it only a curiosity or self deception. The first interpretation for the dark code is as a code associated with prebiotic evolution (see this). This is suggested by the enormous simplicity for the analogs of counterparts of linear biomolecules, and the fact that the utilization of metabolic energy means that these "molecules" decay to ordinary water. In this view life would have migrated from dark space-time sheets to visible space-time sheets. This higher level life would be gradually migrating to lower levels in the hierarchy and taking visible matter to its control and that biological evolution represents a step in this process.
There are however some objections against this view. The dark code corresponds to vertebrate code, which can be seen as an outcome of along genetic evolution. There are also other codes, which are less perfect (see the chapter of "Genes and Memes" representing a number theoretic approach to genetic code). For instance, the meaning of the codeword is context dependent for some codons and Peter Gariaev has proposed that this context dependence is a more general phenomenon. One would expect that prebiotic code is much simpler than genetic code and I have considered a model for how genetic code might have emerged from more primitive codes with 4 and 16 code words as a "product code" (see this).
These objections inspire the question whether life could migrate from lower to higher scales. The dark genetic code would in this framework correspond to the emergence of a new level in evolution - perhaps identifiable as cultural evolution. This would explain why dark variant of the genetic code corresponds to vertebrate code. One could also solve Fermi paradox (see this) due to the fact that no signs of intelligent life have been observed in cosmos and probabilistic estimate suggests that cosmos is full of life. The answer could be very simple: in some stage the civilization transforms to dark matter invisible to us! The civilizations are there but living on magnetic flux quanta and probably communicate with us telepathically. The higher evolutionary level would also conform with the fact that the spatial and temporal scales of consciousness are much longer than for the consciousness assignable to visible manner. This could allow also to understand the mystery of crop circles. To my opinion many of them are genuine, and the interpretation as some kind of cognitive representations analogous to those realized in brain is highly suggestive. Certainly these representations would represent mental images of conscious entities, which are at higher evolutionary level than us kenociteallb/crop1,crop2.
Many great leaps in evolution have occurred via crisis periods involving extinction. Could it be that gradual transition to dark matter based life could be begin as a response to the recent crises of human kind? The gradual transition of life to the dark matter level would indeed solve the energy problem by coupling us to the energy sources assignable to the dark matter hierarchy at various magnetic bodies. It would also solve the problem caused by the climate warming if it is indeed is due to the liberation of CO2 as fossil fuels are used. The dark matter "molecules" as analogs of biomolecules and hydrocarbons would produce only water when used.
See the chapter Macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum metabolism as different sides of the same coin: Part II for details.
The idea of remote metabolism - or quantum credit card as I have also called it - emerged for more than decade ago and zero energy ontology (ZEO) provides justification for it. The idea is that the system needing energy sends negative energy to a system able to receive the negative energy and make a transition to a lower energy state. This kind of mechanism would be ideal for biology, where rapid reactions to a changing environment are essential for survival and there is no time for sending a request for energy.
The model of remote metabolism is applied to biology. It is shown that the basic notions of the theory of Ling about cell metabolism inspired by various anomalies have natural counterparts in TGD based model relying on the notion of magnetic body. Remote metabolism can be considered as a completely general mechanism of metabolism with magnetic body of ATP or system containing it carrying the metabolic energy and sucked from it by the user. In particular, the role of ATP is discussed in Ling's theory and from the point of view of TGD inspired theory of consciousness.
It is easy to imagine new technologies relying on negative energy signals propagating to the geometric past and ZEO justifies these speculations. Remote metabolism could make possible a new kind of energy technology making it un-necessary to carry fuel. The discoveries of Tesla made more than century ago plus various free energy anomalies provide excellent material for developing these ideas, and one ends up with a concrete proposal for how dark photons and dark matter could be produced in capacitor like systems analogous to cell membranes and acting as Josephson junctions and how energy could be sucked from "large" magnetic bodies.
The model identifies Josephson frequency with the subharmonic of the frequency characterizing the periodicity of a periodic voltage perturbation assumed to correspond to cyclotron frequency in biological applications. Together with quantization conditions for charge and effective Planck constant leads to precise quantitative predictions for capacitor like systems acting as dark capacitors. Also a relationship between the magnetic field at magnetic body of the system and the voltage of the capacitor like Josephson junction emerges.
The predictions allow new quantitative insights about biological evolution as emergence of Josephson junctions realized as capacitor like systems both at the level of cell, DNA and proteins, and brain. heff can be related to Josephson frequency and cyclotron frequency and thus to measurable parameters. heff serves as a kind of intelligence quotient and its maximization requires the maximization of both the voltage and area of the membrane like capacitor system involved. This is what has happened during evolution. Indeed, the internal cell membranes, cortical layers and of DNA double strand in chromosomes are strongly folded, and the value of membrane electric field is roughly twice the value of the electric field for which di-electric breakdown occurs in air. Even 40 Hz thalamocortical resonance frequency can be understood in the framework of model.
The properties of Tesla's "cold electricity" suggest strongly interpretation in terms of dark matter in TGD sense. This leads to a proposal that a transition to dark phase occurs when the value of voltage equals to the rest mass of charged particle involved. This criterion is generalizes to the case of cell membrane and relates the values of heff, p-adic prime p, and threshold potential for various charged particles to each other. The idea that nerve pulse corresponds to the breakdown of super-conductivity as a transition from dark to ordinary phase receives additional support. The resulting picture conforms surprisingly well with the earlier speculations involving dark matter and p-adically scaled variants of weak and color interactions in biologically relevant length scales. An extremely simple mechanism producing ATP involving only the kicking of two protonic Cooper pairs through the cell membrane by Josephson photon is proposed. Also the proposal that neutrino Cooper pairs could be highly relevant not only for cognition and but also metabolism finds support.
See the new chapter About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism for details.
Applied Biophysics of Activated Water by Vysotskii et al gives a nice summary about the experiments carried out by using what they call activated water. One can say that the experiments provide a strong support for the notion of water memory. In the following I present a short summary about the contents of the book with associations to TGD inspired view about water memory and homeopathy. What comes as a surprise is the extreme simplicity of the basic mechanism of water memory and also the profound implications of this mechanism for the evolution.
For background and details see the chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-time or the article "Applied biophysics of activated water" and the basic mechanism of water memory in TGD framework".
After a work of more than decade after the realisation that homeopathy might be understood in TGD Universe, I still find that I have not given an absolutely convincing answer to the question "What is the exact mechanism of homeopathy?". The basic rules is that "like cures alike". Why should this be the case? Let us go our arguments through once again.
This indeed looks extremely simple and natural and thus also convincing. What is important is that the proposed mechanism is not in conflict with standard medicine: it only makes possible the miracles of bio-chemistry and provides a completely new mechanism of healing. It is easy to imagine that a new kind of medicine using only water imprinted by the cyclotron frequency spectra of molecules responsible for the illness. This medicine would be completely free of the negative -basically chemical - side effects of the ordinary drugs. This mechanism would also use all the knowledge gained by ordinary biochemistry based medicine: if the relevant molecule I is known, it can be used to imprint water to get I*.
Also the effect of vaccines could rely on the "like cures alike" mechanism albeit in different form. Now the molecules or organisms - call them just B - causing the disease would be injected directly into the body rather than water. Water memory could give rise to a mimicry of B:s and give rise to primitive immunity. A more refined mechanism proposed earlier would involve dark DNA mimicking B:s and translating to ordinary DNA sequences coding for proteins able to catch B:s by the same flux tube mechanism.
The proposed mechanism of homeopathic healing leaves open the exact mechanism behind the cyclotron mimicry. The entities I* could be water clusters with magnetic bodies mimicking those of I, they could be water clusters which have stolen the magnetic bodies of I, or they could be even dark DNA accompanying water molecules and able to mimic I. Of course, the least science fictive option is that the possibly existing dark DNA couples only with ordinary DNA by the flux tube mechanism.
The interpretation of biophotons as decay products of dark photons in energy conserving phase transition hbareff→ hbar suggests that the dark photons involved with the communications have rather large value of hbareff given by hbareff=fh/fl. The simplest working hypothesis is that dark photons have same energy spectrum as biophotons. The prediction would be that biophoton spectrum from a homeopathic remedy - in particular its fluctuations - should correlate with the spectrum of the cyclotron frequencies. A weaker hypothesis is that the energies of dark photons are above thermal energy at physiological temperature.
For background see the chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-time.
Science News tells about a finding that transplanted eyes located far outside the head of vertebrate can see without a direct connection to brain. The connection to spine is however present.
The experimenters surgically removed donor embryo eye primordia, marked them with fuorescent proteins, and grafted them into the posterior region of recipient embryos. This induced the growth of the ectopic eyes. The natural eyes of recipients were removed. Fluorescent spectroscopy revealed the natural innervation patterns but none of the animals developed connections to brain.
To determine whether the animals having only ectopic eyes could see the training system was divided to quadrants of water illuminated by either red or blue LED light, and experimenters gave slight electric shocks in a particular quadrant. What was found that about 19 per cent of animals with optic nerves connected to the spine learned to avoid the quadrant in which they received electric shocks.
What experiments show that it is possible to see without neural connections to brain. The question is whether only the spinal cord or also the brain was involved with the learning. Probably neuroscientist could immediately answer this question but for an innocent layman like me the answer is far from obvious. Experimenters seem to think that brain is involved. As Douglas J. Blackinston, the first author of the paper "Ectopic Eyes Outside the Head in Xenopus Tadpoles Provide Sensory Data For Light-Mediated Learning," in the February 27 issue of the Journal of Experimental Biology, states "Here, our research reveals the brain's remarkable ability, or plasticity, to process visual data coming from misplaced eyes, even when they are located far from the head."
If brain is involved and the learned response is not a mere reflex involving only the spine, there must be information transfer to brain - perhaps along spine - but not as nerve pulses.
In TGD framework these findings inspire several questions.
For background see the chapter General Theory of Qualia.