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Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms

Note: Newest contributions are at the top!

Year 2011

About the notion of conscious hologram

In earlier posting Comparison of Maxwellian and TGD views about classical gauge fields I compared Maxwellian and TGD based notions of classical fields. The comparison was restricted to the linear superposition of fields which in TGD framework is restricted to linear superposition of effects of classical fields: the space-time sheets representing classical fields are indeed separate and it is enough that their M4 projections intersect. Summation of effects means at classical level summation of forces caused by them due to the fact that p"../articles/ have topological sum contacts to both space-time sheets. The notion of hologram relies crucially on the superposition of fields and this this forces to reformulate the notion of hologram in TGD framework.

In TGD inspired theory of consciousness the idea about living system as a conscious hologram is central. It is of course far from clear what this notion means. Since the notions of interference and superposition of fields are crucial for the description of the ordinary hologram, the proposed general description for the TGD counterpart for the superposition of fields is a natural starting point for the more precise formulation of the notion of conscious hologram. In the following only the notion of conscious hologram is discussed. Also the formulation of the notion of ordinary hologram in TGD framework is an interesting challenge.

  1. Consider ordinary hologram first. Reference wave and reflected wave interfere and produce an interference pattern to which the substrate of the hologram reacts so that its absorption coefficient is affected. When the substrate is illuminated with the conjugate of the reference wave, the original reflected wave is generated. The modification of the absorption coefficient is assumed to be proportional to the modulus squared fro the sum of the reflected and reference waves. This implies that the wave reflected from the hologram is in good approximation identical with the original reflected wave.

  2. Conscious hologram would be dynamical rather than static. It would be also quantal: the quantum transitions of p"../articles/ in the fields defined by the hologram would be responsible for the realization of the interference pattern as a conscious experience. The previous considerations actually leave only this option since the interference of classical fields does not happen. Reference wave and reflected wave correspond now to any field configurations. The charged p"../articles/ having wormhole contacts to the space-time sheets representing the field configurations experience the sum of the fields involved, and this induces quantum jumps between the quantum states associated with the situation in which only the reference wave is present.

    This would induce a conscious experience representing an interference pattern. The reference wave can also correspond to a flux tube of magnetic body carrying a static magnetic field and defining cyclotron states as stationary state. External time dependent magnetic field can replace reflected wave and induces cyclotron transitions. Also radiation fields represented by MEs can represent the reference wave and reflected wave.

    If there is need for the "reading" of the hologram it would correspond to the addition of a space-time sheet carrying fields which in good approximation have opposite sign and same magnitude as those in the sheet representing reference wave so that the effect on the charged p"../articles/ reduces to that of the "reflected wave". This step might be un-necessary since already the formation of hologram would give rise to a conscious experience. The conscious holograms created when the hologram is created and when the conjugate of the reference wave is added give rise to two different conscious representations. This might have something to do with holistic and reductionistic views about the same situation.

  3. One can imagine several realizations for the conscious hologram. It seems that the realization at the macroscopic level is essentially four-dimensional. By quantum holography it would reduce at microscopic level to a hologram realized at the 3-D light-like surfaces defining the surfaces at which the signature of induce metric changes (generalized Feynman diagrams having also macroscopic size - anyons or space-like 3-surfaces at the ends of space-time sheets at the two light-like boundaries of CD. Strong form of holography implied by the strong form of general coordinate invariance requires that holograms correspond to collections of partonic 2-surfaces in given measurement resolution. This could be understood in the sense that the charged p"../articles/ defining the substrate can be described mathematically in terms of the ends of the corresponding light-like 3-surfaces at the ends of CDs. The cyclotron transitions could be thought of as occurring for p"../articles/ represent as partonic 2-surfaces topologically condensed at several space-time sheets.

One can imagine several applications in TGD inspired quantum biology.

  1. One can develop a model for how certain aspects of sensory experience could be understood in terms of interference patterns for signals sent from the biological body to the magnetic body. The information about the relative position of the magnetic body and biological body would be coded by the interference patterns giving rise to conscious sensory percepts. This information would represent geometric qualia giving information about distances and angles basically. There would be a magnetic flux tube representing the analog of the reference wave and magnetic flux tube carrying the analog of reflected wavel which could represent the effect of neural activity. When the signal changes with time, cyclotron transitions are induced and conscious percept is generated. In principle it there is no need not compensate for the reference wave although also this is possible.

  2. The natural first guess is that EEG rhythms (and those for its fractal generalization) represent reference waves and that the frequencies in question are either harmonics of cyclotron frequencies or linear combinations of these and Josephson frequency assignable to cell membrane (and possibly its harmonics). The modulation of membrane potential (membrane is regarded as a super-conductor) would induce modulations of Josephson frequency and if large enough would generate nerve pulses. These modulations would define the counterpart of the reflected wave. The flux tubes representing unperturbed magnetic field would represent reference waves.

  3. For instance, the motion of the biological body changes the signal at the space-time sheets carrying the signal and this generates cyclotron transitions giving rise to a conscious experience. Perhaps the sensation of having a body is based in this mechanism. The signals could emerge from directly from cells: it could be that this sensation corresponds to lower level selves rather than us. Second option is that nerve pulses to brain induce the signals sent to the our magnetic body.

  4. The motion of biological body relative to biological body generates virtual sensory experience which could be responsible for the illusions like train illusion and the unpleasant sensory experience about falling down from cliff by just imagining it. OBEs could be also due to the virtual sensory experiences of the magnetic body. One interesting illusion results when one swims long time in windy sea. When one returns to the shore one has rather long lasting experience of being in sea. Magnetic body gradually learns to compensate the motion of sea so that the perception of the wavy motion is reduced. At the shore this compensation mechanism however continues to work. This mechanism represents an example of adaptation and could be a very general mechanism. Since also magnetic body uses metabolic energy, this mechanism could have justification in terms of metabolic economy.

    Also thinking as internal, silent speech might be assigned with magnetic body and would represent those aspects of the sensory experience of ordinary speech which involve the quantum jumps at magnetic body- the associated geometric qualia- but not the primary sensory percept. This speech would be internal speech since there would be no real sound signal or virtual sound signal from brain to cochlea.

  5. Conscious hologram would make possible to represent phase information. This information is especially important for hearing. The mere power spectrum is not enough since it is same for speech and its time reversal. Cochlea performs an analysis of sounds to frequencies. It it is not easy to imagine how this process could preserve the phase information associated with the Fourier components. It is believed that both right and left cochlea are needed to abstact the phase difference between the signals arriving to right and left ear allowing to deduce the direction of the source neural mechanisms for this has been proposed but these mechanism are not enough in case of speech. Could there exists a separate holistic representation in which sound wave as a whole generates a single signal interfering with the reference wave at the magnetic body and in this manner represents as a conscious experience the phase?

  6. Also the control and reference signals from the magnetic body to biological body could create time dependent interference patterns giving rise to neural response initiating motor actions and other responses. Basically the quantum interference should reduce the magnitude of membrane resting potentials so that nerve pulses would be generated and give rise to motor action. Similar mechanism would be at work at the level of sensory receptors - at least retina. The generation of nerve pulses would mean kind of emergency situation at the neuronal level. Frequency modulation of Josephson radiation would be the normal situation.

For background see the chapter Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms.

Comparison of Maxwellian and TGD views about classical gauge fields

In TGD Universe gauge fields are replaced with topological field quanta. Examples are topological light rays, magnetic flux tubes and sheets, and electric flux quanta carrying both magnetic and electric fields. Flux quanta form a fractal hierarchy in the sense that there are flux quanta inside flux quanta. It is natural to assume quantization of Kähler magnetic flux. Braiding and reconnection are basic topological operations for flux quanta.

One important example is the description of non-perturbative aspects of strong interactions in terms of reconnection of color magnetic flux quanta carrying magnetic monopole fluxes. These objects are string like structures and one can indeed assign to them string world sheets. The transitions in which the thickness of flux tube increases so that flux conservation implies that part of magnetic energy is liberated unless the length of the flux quantum increases, are central in TGD inspired cosmology and astrophysics. The magnetic energy of flux quantum is interpreted as dark energy and magnetic tension as negative "pressure" causing accelerated expansion.

This picture is beautiful and extremely general but raises challenges. How to describe interference and linear superposition for classical gauge fields in terms of topologically quantized classical fields? How the interference and superposition of Maxwellian magnetic fields is realized in the situation when magnetic fields decompose to flux quanta? How to describe simple systems such as solenoidal current generating constant magnetic field using the language of flux quanta?

Superposition of fields in terms of flux quanta

The basic question concerns the elegant description of superposition of classical fields in terms of topological field quanta. What it means that magnetic fields superpose.

  1. In Maxwell's linear theory the answer would be trivial but not now. Linear superposition holds true only inside topological light rays for signals propagating in fixed direction with light velocity and with same local polarization. The easy solution would be to say that one considers small perturbations of background space-time sheet and linearizes the theory. Linearization would apply also to induced gauge fields and metric and one would obtain linear superposition approximately. This does not look elegant. Rather, quantum classical correspondence requires the space-time counterpart for the expansion of quantum fields as sum of modes in terms of topological field quanta. Topological field quanta should not lose their identity in the superposition.

  2. In the spirit of topological field quantization it would be nice to have topological representation for the superposition and interference without any linearization. To make progress one must return to the roots and ask how the fields are operationally defined. One has test particle and it experiences a gauge force in the field. From the acceleration of the test particle the value of field is deduced. What one observes is the superposition of gauge forces, not of gauge fields.

    1. Let us just assume that we have two space-time sheets representing field configurations to be effectively superposed. Suppose that they are "on top" of each other with respect to CP2 degrees of freedom so that their M4 volumes overlap. The points of the sheets representing the field values that would sum in Maxwell's theory are typically at distance of CP2 radius of about 104 Planck lengths. Wormhole contacts representing he interaction between the field configurations are formed. Hence the analog of linear superposition does not hold true exactly. For instance, amplitude modulation becomes possible. This is however not essential for the argment.

    2. Test particle could be taken to be fermion which is simultaneously topologically condensed to both sheets. In other words, fermionic CP2 type almost vacuum extremal touches both sheets and wormhole throats at which the signature of the induced metric changes is formed. Fermion experiences the sum of gauge forces from the two space-time sheets through its wormhole throats. From this one usually concludes that superposition holds true for the induced gauge fields. This assumption is however not true and is also un-necessary in the recent case. In case of topological light rays the representation of modes in given direction in terms of massless extremals makes possible to realize the analogy for the representation of quantum field as sum of modes. The representation does not depend on approximate linearity as in the case of quantum field theories and therefore removes a lot of fuzziness related to the quantum theory. In TGD framework the bosonic action is indeed extremely non-linear.

  3. This view about linear superposition has interesting implications. In effective superposition the superposed field patterns do not lose their identity which means that the information about the sources is not lost - this is true at least mathematically. This is nothing but quantum classical correspondence: it is the decomposition of radiation into quanta which allows to conclude that the radiation arrives from a particular astrophysical object. It is also possible to have superposition of fields to zero field in Maxwellian sense but in the sense of TGD both fields patterns still exist. Linear superposition in TGD sense might allow testing using time dependent magnetic fields. In the critical situation in which the magnetic field created by AC current passes through zero, flux quanta have macroscopic size and the direction of the flux quantum changes to opposite.

Time varying magnetic fields described in terms of flux quanta

An interesting challenge to describe time dependent fields in terms of topological field quanta which are in many respects static structures (for instance, flux is constant). The magnetic fields created by time dependent currents serves as a good example from which one can generalize. In the simplest situation the magnetic field strength experiences time dependent scaling. How to describe this scaling?

Consider first the scaling of the magnetic field strength in flux tube quantization.

  1. Intuitively it seems clear that the field decomposes into flux quanta, whose M4 projections can partially overlap. To get a connection to Maxwell's theory one can assume that the average field intensity is defined in terms of the flux of the magnetic field over a surface with area S. For simplicity consider constant magnetic field so tht one has BaveS= Φ= nΦ0, where Φ0 is the quantized flux for a flux tube assumed to have minimum value Φ0. Integer n is proportional to the average magnetic field Bave. Bave must be reasonably near to the typical local value of the magnetic field which manifest itself quantum mechanically as cyclotron frequency.

  2. What happens in the scaling B→ B/x. If the transversal area of flux quantum is scaled up by x the flux quantum is conserved. To get the total flux correctly, the number of flux quanta must scale down: n → n/x. One indeed has (n/x)× xS= nS. This implies that the total area associated with flux quanta within total area S is preserved in the scaling.

  3. The condition that the flux is exact integer multiple of Φ0 would pose additional conditions leading to the quantization of magnetic flux if the total area can be regarded as fixed. This need not to be true.

Consider as the first example slowly varying magnetic field created by an alternating running in current in cylindrical solenoid. There are flux tubes inside the cylindrical solenoid and return flux tubes outside it flowing in opposite direction. Flux tubes get thicker as magnetic field weakens and shift from the interior of solenoid outside. For some value x of the time dependent scaling B→ B/x the elementary flux quantum Φ0 reaches the radius of the solenoid. Quantum effects must become important and make possible the change of the sign of the elementary flux quantum. Perhaps quantum jump turning the flux quantum around takes place. After this the size of the flux quantum begins to decrease as the magnitude of the magnetic field increases. At the maximum value the size of the flux quantum is minimum.

This example generalizes to the magnetic field created by a linear alternating current. In this case flux quanta are cylinderical flux sheets for which magnetic field strength and thickness oscillators with time. Also in this case the maximum transversal area to the system defines a critical situation in which there is just single flux sheet in the system carrying elementary flux. This flux quantum changes its sign as the sign of the current changes.

For background see the chapter Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms.

A quantum model for remote replication

The idea about remote replication, transcription and translation of genes in terms of electromagnetic field patterns is very attractive and would be in accordance with the wave DNA vision. This requires a coding of DNA nucleotides. I have proposed several codings of this kind.

  1. In DNA as topological quantum computer model quark and anti-quark at the ends of a flux tube connecting DNA nucleotide to a lipid of the nuclear or cell membrane takes care of the coding. Also sequences of dark nucleons giving rise to dark nuclei realize the analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids as well as vertebrate genetic code (see this). Dark nucleons sequences could correspond to the phantom DNA discovered by Gariaev's group.

  2. Quantum antenna hypothesis represents one of the oldest ideas of TGD inspired quantum biology: molecules would act like quantum antennas. Frequency coding would be very natural for groups of molecules participating in the same reaction: the flux tubes connecting the molecules would carry the radiation inducing resonant antenna interaction and phase transitions reducing Planck constant would bring the reacting molecules near to each other. Magnetic flux tubes connecting the molecules would be essential element of the mechanism. Remote replication would represent an example about a situation in which hbar changing phase transition does not take place. If one wants coding of individual molecules -such as DNA nucleotides- by frequency in turned coded by the value of hbar for given photon energy (E= hf), one is forced to make ad hoc assumptions and it is difficult to find any plausible scenario. Quantum antenna mechanism could make possible remote replication for which the findings of Montagnier's group as well as remote transcription for which the work of Gariaev's group gives some evidence.

In the sequel a model for the coding of DNA in terms of radiation patterns is discussed. There are three experimental guidelines: the phantom DNA identified as dark nucleon sequences in TGD framework and the evidence for remote activation of DNA transcription - both discovered by Gariaev's group - are assumed as the first two key elements of the model. The remote replication of DNA suggested by the experimental findings of Montagnier's group serves as a further guideline in the development of the model.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the technique used in the experiments of Montagnier's group. DNA polymerase catalyzes the formation of DNA from existing DNA sequences serving as a template. Since the catalytic interaction of DNA polymerase takes place with already existing DNA sequence, the only possibility is that first some conjugate DNA sequences are generated by remote replication after which DNA polymerase uses these sequences as templates to amplify them to original DNA sequences. Whether the product consists of original DNA or its conjugate can be tested.

The model inspires the proposal that the magnetic body of a polar molecule codes for it using dark nucleon sequences assignable to the hydrogen bonds between the molecule and surrounding ordered water layer. Quantum antenna mechanism would allow the immune system to modify itself by developing ordinary DNA coding for amino-acids attaching to and thus "catching" the polar molecule. The mechanism could be behind water memory and homeopathic healing. Every polar molecule in living matter would have dark nucleon sequence or several of them (as in the case of amino-acids) serving as its name. This would also associate unique dark nucleon sequence also with the magnetic body of DNA so that DNA-dark DNA association would be automatic. Same applies to mRNA and tRNA and amino-acids.

Before continuing I want to express my gratitude to Peter Gariaev for posing a question which led to the realization of the connection between quantum antenna hypothesis, remote replication, and genetic code and its generalization.

1. The findings that one should understand

It is good to start by summarizing the experimental findings that the model should explain.

  1. One should be able to identify phantom DNA. This identification explains the findings about phantom DNA if ordinary and dark DNA have common resonance frequencies and therefore behave like resonantly interacting quantum antennae.

  2. The earlier findings of Gariaev's group suggesting remote gene expression, which becomes also possible if the DNAs of the sender can activate the DNA of the receiver by radiation. Direct activation could be based on electromagnetic signal between DNA of the sender and ordinary conjugate DNA of the receiver. Scattering from ordinary and possibly also phantom DNA and would generate this kind of signal. The challenge is to explain why the activation obeys genetic code in the sense that a given DNA sequence activates only similar DNA sequence.

  3. The claim of Montagnier's team is that the radiation generated by DNA affects water in such a manner that it behaves as if it contained the actual DNA. A brief summary of experiment of Montagnier and collaborators is in order.

    1. Two test tubes containing 100 bases long DNA fragments were studied. Both tubes were subjected to 7 Hz electromagnetic radiation. Earth's magnetic field was eliminated to prevent its possible inteference (the cyclotron frequencies of Earth's magnetic field are in EEG range and one of the family secrets of biology and neuroscience since seventies is that cyclotron frequencies in magnetic fields have biological effects on vertebrate brain). The frequencies around 7 Hz correspond to cyclotron frequencies of some biologically important ions in the endogenous magnetic field of .2 Tesla explaining the findings. This field is 2/5 of the nominal value of the Earth's magnetic field.

    2. What makes the situation so irritating for skeptics who have been laughing for decades for homepathy and water memory is that the repeated dilution process used for the homeopathic remedies was applied to DNA in the recent case. The solution containing no detectable amounts DNA (dilution factor was 10-12) was placed in second test tube whereas the first test tube contained 100 bases long DNA in the original concentration.

    3. After 16 to 18 hours both tubes were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which builds DNA from its basic building bricks using DNA polymerase enzyme. What is so irritating from the point of view of skeptic was that DNA was generated also in the test tube containing the highly diluted water. Water in presence of second test tube seems to be able to cheat the polymerase by mimicking the presence of the actual DNA serving in the usual situation as a template for builing copies of DNA. One could also speak about the analog quantum teleportation. Note that the presence of both test tubes - and therefore some kind of communication between the samples - is absolutely esential for the process to take place: repeated dilution is not enough.

2. The model of remote replication consistent with DNA as topological quantum computer model

The basic assumptions are that the scattered radiation, the flux tubes of the magnetic body of DNA along which the radiation propagates, and quarks and antiquarks at the ends of the flux tubes from system able to serve as a template for the formation of conjugate of ordinary DNA. To understand how remote remote replication could take place, some further assumptions are necessary.

  1. The flux tubes emanating from DNA are parallel and condensed at 2-D flux sheet having DNA at is first boundary so that DNA nucleotides can attach to the flux tubes at the second boundary. The attached nucleotides would be along the same line and would form DNA sequence in remote replication process.

  2. Quantum antenna interaction takes place between group of molecules participating a given reaction so that they have common antenna frequency as resonance frequency. The frequencies characterize the radiation propagating along magnetic flux tubes connecting the molecules, and could come as sub-harmonics of the frequency of (in the case considered) visible light from the formula

    E= hnf, hn=n h , n=1,2,3,... .

    Here E is the fixed energy of photon. hn denotes value of Planck constant which in TGD Universe can have infinite number of values coming as multiplies of the ordinary Planck constant h.

    For a given photon energy E one obtains harmonics of the basic wavelength

    λ=c/f(n)= nλ0 .

    Wave length would correspond to the length of the flux tube proportional to n. DNAs with flux tubes characterized by different values of n would correspond to different levels in the evolutionary hierarchy. In TGD inspired theory of consciousness the value of hn serves as the measure for the time scale of planned action and memory span and neurons of frontal lobe would represent the highest level in the hierarchy,

  3. If resonance frequency is same for all nucleotides, frequency cannot distinguish between DNA nucleotides. In the model of DNA as topological quantum computer the quark (u or d) and antiquark (kenooverlineu or kenooverlined ) at the ends of the flux tube code for A,T,C,G. This model is the simplest one and does not require any additional assumptions about frequency coding. It also allows resonant interaction at several frequencies: the scattering of visible light from DNA indeed produces a wide spectrum of frequencies interpreted in terms of dark variants of visible photons.

    One can criticize the assumption that particular quark or antiquark is associated with the flux tube ending at particular nucleotide. At this moment this assumption does not have a convincing dynamical explanation. Presumably this explanation would rely on the minimization of the interaction energy.

  4. What is needed is a model explaining why the resonant antenna frequency does not depend on nucleotide: obviously the frequency should relate to something shared by all nucleotides. An energy level associated with sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA is what comes first in mind. A more exotic option is transition involved with quark-antiquark pair. Since electromagnetic field for non-vacuum extremals is accompanied by classical color field, the exchange of gluons between quark and antiquark suggests itself as the quantum antenna interaction distinguishing between nucleotides.

Quantum antenna mechanism is extremely general and flexible and might be a fundamental mechanism of bio-catalysis allowing also communication between visible and dark matter sectors. Antenna mechanism is of course central also in ordinary communications. If the biologically most relevant interactions of biomolecules via quantum antenna mechanism then also water memory and the claimed effects of homeopathically treated water might be understood (see this). The testing of the dark photon aspect of the hypothesis would require the detection of the dark photons somehow: the decay to a bunch of n ordinary photons with same wavelength is the obvious manner to achieve this.

1. Identification of phantom DNA

The observed residual coherent scattering from a chamber from which ordinary DNA is removed inspired the notion of phantom DNA. The questions are what phantom DNA is and is it relevant to remote replication of the ordinary DNA.

Phantom DNA identified observed in the scattering experiments could correspond to dark nucleon sequences realizing vertebrate genetic code with dark nucleons consisting of three quarks representing both DNA,RNA, tRNA, and aminoacids as particular nucleon states (see this). The resonant interaction between ordinary and dark DNA would explain why light at same frequencies scatters also from dark DNA in phantom DNA experiments. In Montagnier's experiments it could give rise to a positive feedback amplifying the radiation from second sample containing DNA. Water would be living in the sense that it contains "dark DNA" and dark DNA might allow remote transcription to ordinary DNA sequences in presence of ordinary DNA codons (triplets) and vice versa.

Skeptic can of course ask whether one could explain the experimental findings without assuming phantom DNA.

  1. In Gariaev's experiments which inspired the notion of phantom DNA part of DNA could "drop" to parallel space-time sheets and have the same effect on the scattered radiation as the ordinary DNA. This explanation would however require the many-sheeted space-time of TGD - probably equally abominable to skeptic as phantom DNA.

  2. In Montagnier's experiment the ordinary DNA contained by water droplet could diffuse to dark space-time sheets and enter the target along the same magnetic flux tubes as radiation propagates. DNA polymerase would allow to amplify this leaking DNA and produce conjugate DNA. Irradiation of the original DNA would generate the flux sheets serving as a route for the transfer. The killer test is to check whether it is indeed conjugate of the original DNA which is produced. Again many-sheeted space-time is required.

  3. For the option based on DNA as topological quantum computer hypothesis discussed above the remote replication would take place via the direct formation of conjugate DNA template and DNA polymerase produces from this copies of the original DNA whereas for "trivial" option conjugate DNA is produced. Phantom DNA would not be absolutely necessary. It is however questionable whether the intensity of the radiation is high enough and the resonant interaction with phantom DNA which could give rise to a positive feedback might be needed to amplify the radiation.

2. Dark DNA and frequency coding by quantum antenna mechanism

The remote transcription of dark DNA (phantom DNA) to ordinary DNA and vice versa would have quite far reaching implications for evolution since dark DNA/RNA/tRNA/amino-acids could define a virtual world serving as Rkeno&D lab where new DNAs could be developed and if needed translated to ordinary DNA. The dark DNA could be also transferred through cell membranes without difficulty, in particular to germ cells. Also the genetic transfer between different organisms would become possible. Second possibility is that the magnetic flux tubes mediating the dark photons traverse the cell membranes so that even the transfer of dark nucleons through the cell membrane is un-necessary. The implications for genetic engineering would be obvious.

Could one generalize the quantum antenna mechanism to the interaction between dark nucleons representing DNA triplets as entangled states of three quarks and ordinary DNA codons consisting of three unentangled nucleotides? Could similar mechanism realize genetic code assigning to dark DNA dark variants of RNA, tRNA and amino-acids via the analogs of transcription and translation processes? It seems that frequency coding, which - somewhat disappointingly - did not look natural for remote replication of ordinary DNA, is ideal for these processes so that the original idea of wave DNA would be realized at the level of dark-visible and dark-dark interactions.

The flux tubes would be associated with entire codons -DNA triplets - rather than individual nucleotides. Different DNA triplets do not form interacting groups in the sense that they should be connected by flux tubes. Therefore the simplest possibility would be frequency coding with specific resonance frequency for each DNA triplet. No quarks at the ends of the flux tubes connecting codons (not nucleotides) are needed. If one assumes that octaves correspond to the same frequency this would require odd multiples

λ(n)= (2n+1)λ0 , n=0,...,63

of λ0 so that the longest wavelength would be 127λ0. In the number theoretic model of the genetic code based on the notion of Combinatorial Hierarchy (see this codons are indeed labeled by 64 integers in the range 0,...,127=27-1. These integers are however not assumed to be odd. One can also consider the possibility that the frequencies are coded by the value of Planck constant and this option leads to an interpretation of the earlier proposed TGD inspired realization of the so called divisor code suggested by Khrennikov and Nilsson in terms of quantum antenna hypothesis. This will be discussed later on.

Support for this option comes from the phenomenon of phantom DNA demonstrating that resonant scattering of light from DNA and dark DNA occurs for the same frequencies.

Can one imagine remote transcription of dark DNA to ordinary DNA using only nucleotides as building bricks? This process would require coupling of DNA nucleotides to dark nucleons representing DNA triplets and it is not easy to imagine any simple mechanism making this possible. Already existing DNA triplets seem to be necessary.

3. Common explanation for the recent findings of Montagnier and earlier findings of Gariaev

In the experiments of Montagnier's group the outcome is remote replication whereas the earlier experiments Gariaev's group give evidence for remote activation of DNA transcription. Hence one expects a common underlying mechanism.

  1. The TGD based explanation of Montagnier's findings relies on the assumption that the homeopathic procedure generated a population of dark DNA nucleotides in the diluted system. The sequence of dilutions and shakings was like a series of environmental catastrophes driving the evolution of dark DNA and also feeding metabolic energy to the system. The outcome was dark DNA population mimicking the original DNA in the test tube B. In the presence of DNA polymerase in tube B and second test tube A containing ordinary DNA the dark DNA was somehow able to generate ordinary DNA in tube B. The detailed mechanism for this remained open.

  2. Could the scattered laser light have the same effect as the homeopathic procedure? This would require a direct transcription of dark DNA to ordinary DNA in the presence of DNA polymerase and nucleotides (only them!). It is very difficult to understand how this could happen. DNA polymerase very probably does not have the same catalyzing effect on dark DNA sequences as on ordinary DNA sequences. It is also difficult to imagine the build-up of ordinary DNA from nucleotides using dark nucleon sequences as templates: if frequency coded codons would serve as building bricks, situation would be simpler as already found.

  3. One must not forget that the presence of the test tube A was essential in the experiment of Montagnier: communications between the test tubes crucial for the outcome must have taken place. The consistency between the two experiments could be achieved if the DNA in test tube A generated the counterpart of the scattered laser signal in Gariaev's experiments but certainly as a much weaker signal.

  4. This signal should have been amplified somehow by the presence the dark DNA sequences in tube B so that it would have been able to generate critical amounts of conjugate of the original DNA amplified by DNA polymerase to the copy of the original. What suggests itself is a positive feedback loop ordinary DNA sequences → dark DNA sequences → ordinary DNA sequences..... causing the amplification of the weak signal so that it is able to induce remote replication by the proposed mechanism. This kind of feedback of signals propagating between magnetic bodies was assumed also in the model for the strange images produced by the irradiation of DNA sample by ordinary light interpreted as photographs of magnetic flux tubes containing dark matter (see this) .

What is nice from TGD point of view that the consistency between the two experiments give support also for the notion of dark DNA and its identification as phantom DNA.

4. Summary

The basic assumptions of the model of remote replication deserve a short summary.

  1. Bio-molecules would serve as receiving and sending quantum antennas forming populations with communications between members just like higher organisms. The molecules participating the same reaction would naturally have same antenna frequencies. Quarks and antiquarks at the ends of the flux tubes would code for different nucleotides and the frequencies associated with the nucleotides would be identical. The character of classical electromagnetic field would code for a particular nucleotide.

  2. Remote replication and other remote polymerization processes would differ from the ordinary one only in that the phase transition reducing the value of Planck constant for the flux tube would not take place and bring the molecules near each other.

  3. The immediate product of remote replication would be the conjugate of the original DNA sequence and DNA polymerase would amplify it to the copy of the original DNA sequence. This prediction could be tested by using very simple DNAs sequences- say sequences consisting two nucleotides which are not conjugates. For instance, one could check what happens if conjugate nucleotides are absent from the target (neither conjugate nor original DNA sequence should be produced). If the target contains conjugate nucleotides but no originals, only conjugate DNA sequences would be produced - one might hope in sufficiently large amounts to be detectable.

  4. Frequency coding would be natural for quantum antenna interactions between ordinary DNA and its dark variant and also between dark variants of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids. The reason is that dark nucleons represent the genetic code by entanglement and it is not possible to reduce the codon to a sequence of letters.

3. Possible implications

The proposed realization of remote replication seems to have rather far reaching implications for the understanding of the mechanism of homeopathy and basic mechanisms of immune system as well as to the understanding of how DNA -dark nucleon sequence association. One can also interpret the proposed TGD based realization of the divisor code suggested by Khrennikov (see this) as frequency coding of DNA triplets by the value of Planck constant assignable to flux tubes emerging from DNA triplets.

1. Possible relevance for homeopathy and immune system

TGD inspired vision about water memory assumes that the magnetic bodies of molecules dis-solved into water represent the molecules in terms of cyclotron frequencies characterizing its magnetic body. Molecules can lose their magnetic bodies as the hydrogen bonds connecting the molecule to the magnetic body are split. The population of these lost magnetic bodies would define a representation for the dissolved substance able to mimic it.

The hitherto unanswered questions concern the detailed structure of the magnetic body of the molecule and how it codes for the molecule. The hydrogen bonds connecting the molecule to the ordered water forming a kind of ice covering the molecule in the inactive state should be crucial aspect of the coding. If dark nucleon sequences are associated with the hydrogen bonds of this "ice layer" or generated in their splitting as I have proposed, one can ask whether dark nucleon sequences could characterize the molecular magnetic body. If so, cyclotron resonance frequencies or more general frequencies associated with the dark DNA sequences could code for the molecule. DNA sequences would define a universal language allowing for the system to name for polar molecules.

Quantum antenna mechanism would in turn associate ordinary DNA sequences with the dark nucleon sequences coding for the molecule. Hence one can imagine a development of a mechanism allowing the organism to modify its DNA by adding to it genes coding for proteins characterized by the same resonance frequencies as the magnetic bodies of the invader molecules. These proteins would couple strongly to the invader molecules via quantum antenna mechanism and the phase transition reducing Planck constant would allow them to catch the invader molecules by attaching to them. The fact that the DNA of immune system evolves very rapidly conforms with this vision.

2. Frequency coding for DNA sequences by the value of Planck constant as a realization of divisor code

The realization of dark magnetic bodies of polar molecules in terms of dark nucleon sequences allows to understand the association of dark DNA with ordinary DNA, RNA, and tRNA making among other things possible the transcription of dark DNA to DNA and vice versa. Dark nucleon sequences would be associated with the magnetic bodies of DNA, mRNA, and tRNA. This would apply also to amino-acid sequences. Dark DNA would separate from ordinary DNA as it loses its magnetic body in the splitting of hydrogen bonds and suffers denaturation. Similar mechanism would cause denaturation of other biomolecules and would mean that they "lose their names" and thus information content and become mere organic molecules instead of living bio-molecules. This kind of association would make the emergence of the genetic code and its generalization to the naming of molecules by DNA sequences trivial.

Genetic code can be understood from the proposed natural correspondence between dark nucleon sequences and DNA, RNA, tRNA, and acmino-acids). I have however developed also another realizaton based on TGD based realization of so called divisor code first suggested by Khrennikov and Nilsson and the following argument allows to interpret in terms of frequency for fixed value of photon energy with frequencies coded by the value of Planck constant.

  1. The observation of Khrennikov and Nilsson is following. Consider the integers n in the range 1,...,21 and obviously labeling amino-acids and let k(n) the number of divisors of n. Define B(k) as the number of integers n for which the number of divisors is k. It turns out that the numbers B(k) are rather near to the numbers A(k) of amino-acids coded by k codons. This suggests that given amino-acid A is coded by a product of prime p(A), which alone characterizes it, and integer n(A) in the range 1,...,21. The product of integers characterizing the codon coding for A would be characterized by the product of p(A) and some factor r(A) of n(A). With these assumptions given codon would code for only single amino-acid and the number of DNAs coding for amino-acid A is the number of the factors r(A) of n(A). The codons coding for A would be coded by integers p(A)r(A) such that r(A) divides n(A). The safest assumption would be that the primes p(A) satisfy p(A)>19 so that the p(A) does not divide n(A) for any A. If p(A) is as small as possible the value spectrum of p(A) is

    {23,29,31,37, 41,43,47,53, 59,61,67,71, 73,79,83,89, 97,101,103,107, 109}.

    What is interesting is that Mersenne prime M7=27-1 =127 appears in the model of genetic code based on the notion of Combinatorial Hierarchy (see this). This model assumes that DNA codons correspond to 64 integers in the range 1,...,127. This realization of the genetic code cannot however be consistent with the divisor code realized in the proposed manner since it would require that the integers n(A)p(A) would belong to the range 1,..,127. The prime factors of these integers can however belong to this range.

  2. The TGD inspired proposal was that the flux tube assignable to amino-acid A corresponds to hbar =p(A)× n(A)hbar0 whereas the DNA triplet (for quark-antiquark coding nucleotide rather than triplet) coding for it is characterized by hbar =p(A)× r(A)hbar0 such that r(A) divides n(A).

  3. This proposal could be interpreted in terms of frequency coding by quantum antenna mechanism. For a given photon energy E wave length would be coded by the value of hbar and one would have λn=n λ0, n=p(A)n(A) for amino-acids and n=p(A)r(A) for codons. The condition that flux tube lengths are same for different DNA triplets would be satisfied if the common length of the flux tubes is an integer multiple of λ0 proportional to the product of all integers appearing as factors in the integers coding for amino-acids. The common length of the flux tubes would be therefore proportional to the product ∏A p(A)∏ArA.

For background see the chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-time.

How the arrow of geometric time is selected in TGD Universe?

I have discussed in the chapter About the Nature of Time of "Matter, Mind, Quantum" how the arrow of geometric time as a correlate for the experienced arrow of geometric time might be selected in TGD Universe. The discussion does not touch the question what arrow of time means at the level of quantum states. Therefore the notion of negative energy signal propagating backwards in geometric time crucial for TGD inspired quantum biology remains somewhat fuzzy.

The recent progress in the understanding of the basic properties of zero energy states makes it possible to understand what arrow of geometric time and the notion of negative energy state and signals propagating to the direction of geomeric past mean at the level of zero energy states. This understanding has surprisingly non-trivial philosophical implications. In the following I shall briefly the quantum view about arrow of time.

Arrow of time as an inherent property of zero energy states?

The basic idea can be expressed in very conscise form. In positive energy ontology arrow of time characterizes dynamics. In zero energy ontology arrow of time characterizes quantum states.

  1. The breaking of time reversal invariance (see this) means that zero energy states can be localized with respect to particle number and other quantum numbers only for future or past light-like boundary of CD but not both. M-matrix generalizing S-matrix provides the time-like entanglement coefficients expressing the state at the second boundary as quantum superposition of states with well-defined particle numbers and other quantum numbers. But only at the second end of CD since one cannot choose freely the states at both boundaries: if this were the case the counterpart of Schrödinger equation would be completely non-deterministic. This is what the breaking of time reversal symmetry means. It occurs spontaneously and assigns to the arrow of subjective time geometric arrow of time.

    This picture gives a precise meaning to the arrow of geometric time and therefore also for the otherwise fuzzy notion of negative energy signals propagating backwards in space-time playing key role in TGD based models of memory, metabolism, and intentional action (see this).

  2. Quantum jump begins with the unitary U-process between zero energy states generating a superposition of zero energy states. After that follows state function reduction cascade proceeding from the level of CD to the level of sub-CDs forming a fractal hierarchy. The reductions cannot take independently at both light-like boundaries of CD as is also clear from the fact that scattering state leads from a prepared state to a quantum superposition of prepared states.

    The first guess is that the cascade takes place for the second boundary of CD only so that the arrow of geometric time would be same in all scales. This need not be the case always: the geometric arrow of time seems to change in some situations: phase conjugate laser light and spontaneous self-assembly of bio-molecules are good examples about this (see this and this). In fact, one of the defining properties of living matter could be just the possibility that the arrow of geometric time is not same in all scales (size scales of CDs) so that memory, metabolism, and intentional action become possible. In any case, the second end remains a superposition of quantum states.

    The lack of quantum measurements at the second end of space-times could explain why the conscious percepts are sharply localized in time at the second end of CD. This could also allow to understand memories as reductions occurring at the second, non-standard, end of sub-CDs in the geometric past.

  3. The correspondence between the reduced state and the quantum superposition of states at the opposite boundary of CD allows an interpretation in terms of logical implication arrow with all statements present in the superposition implying the statement represented by the reduced state. Only implication arrow rather than equivalence is possible unless the M-matrix is diagonal meaning that there are no interactions. If it is possible to diagonalize M-matrix then in diagonal basis one has equivalences. It must be however emphasized that the physically preferred state basis fixed as in terms of eigenstates of density matrix does not allow diagonal M-matrix. Number theoretic conditions required that the density matrix corresponds to fixed algebraic extension of rationals can also make possible the diagonalization without leaving the extension and this condition might be highly relevant in the TGD inspired view about cognition relying on p-adic number fields and their algebraic extensions (see this).

  4. In classical logic implication corresponds to the inclusion of subset by subset. In quantum case it corresponds to the inclusion for sub-space of state space. The inclusions of hyper-finite factors (WCW spinors define HFF of type II1) realize the notion of finite measurement resolution, which would suggest that inclusion arrow has also interpretation in terms of finite measurement resolution.

    All quantum states equivalent with a given state in the resolution used imply it. Finite measurement resolution would mean that there would infinite number of instances always in the quantum superposition representing the rule A → B. Ironically, both finite measurement resolution and dissipation implying the arrow of geometric time and usually regarded as something negative from the point of view of information processing would be absolutely essential element of logical thinking in this framework.

  5. Conscious theorem proving would has as correlate to building of sequences zero energy states representing A → B, B→ C, C → D with basic building bricks representing simple basic rules. These sequences would represent more complex truths.

Does state function-state preparation sequence correspond to alternating arrow of geometric time?

The state function reduction at light-like boundary of CD implies delocalization at the opposite boundary. This inspires so fascinating questions.

  1. Could the state function reduction process take place alternately at the two boundaries of CD so that a kind of flip-flop in which the arrow of geometric time changes back and forth would result, and have interpretation as an alternating sequence of state function reductions and state preparations in the framework of positive energy ontology?

  2. State function reductions are needed for sensory percepts. Could the sleep-wake-up period correspond to this kind of process so that during what we call sleep the past boundary of our personal CD would be in wake-up state? Could dreams and memories represent sharing of mental images of this kind of consciousness? Could it be that in the time scale of entire life cycle death is accompanied by birth at the second boundary of personal CD? Could this quantum physics representation for endless sequence of deaths and rebirths? Could the fact that old people often spend they last years in childhood have interpretation in this framework?

  3. State preparation-reduction cycle might characterize only living matter whereas for inanimate matter second choice for the arrow of time would be dominant between two U-processes. TGD based reformulation of entropic gravity idea of Verlinde in terms of ZEO does not assume the absence of gravitons and the emergence of space-time (see this). The formulation leads to the proposal that thermodynamical stability selects the arrow of the geometric time and that it could be different for matter and antimatter implying that matter and antimatter reside at different space-time sheets. This would explain the apparent absence of antimatter and also support the view that the arrow alternates only in living matter.

The arrow of geometric time and the arrow of logical implication

If physics is mathematics in the sense that there is nothing behind quantum states regarded as purely mathematical objects, Boolean logic must have a direct manifestation in the structure of physical states. Physical states should represent quantal Boolean statements which get their meaning via quantum jumps. In TGD framework WCW ("world of classical worlds") spinor fields represent quantum states of the Universe and WCW spinors correspond to fermionic Fock states for second quantized induced spinor fields at space-time surface. Fock state basis has interpretation in terms of Boolean algebra. In positive energy ontology the problem is that fermion number as a super-selection rule would allow very limited number of Boolean statements to be represented. In ZEO the situation changes.

The fermionic parts of positive and negative energy parts can be seen as quantum superpositions of Boolean statements with fermion number in given mode (equal to 0 or 1) representing yes/no or true/false. Also various spin like quantum numbers associated with oscillator operators have same interpretation. Zero energy state could be seen as quantum superposition of pairs of elements of Boolean algebras associated with positive and negative energy parts of the zero energy state.

The first - and incorrect - interpretation is that zero energy state represents a quantum superposition of equivalent statements a↔ b and thus abstraction A<---> B involving several instances of A and B. The breaking of time reversal invariance allowing localization to definite fermionic quantum numbers at single end of CD only however implies that quantum states can only represent abstraction of logical implication to A→ B rather than equivalence. p-Adic physics for various primes p (see this) would represent correlates for cognition and intentionality.

For background see the chapter Time, Space-time, and Consciousness.

Isotope effect of odor perception as an additional guideline to TGD inspired model of odor perception

Flies can smell the difference between normal hydrogen and deuterium. This is not in accordance with the standard theory of olfaction which says that olfaction relies on the shape of the molecule but conforms with the theory of Luca Turin, who is one of the co-authors of the article

Franco, M. I., Turin, L., Mershin, A. & Skoulakis, E. M. C. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA doi:10.1073/pnas.1012293108 (2011)

reporting the discovery. The theory assumes that olfaction relies on molecular vibrational frequencies depending on the mass of the isotope. You can make your day perfect by enjoying the summary of the vibrational theory of scents by Luca Turin himself (I am grateful for Fischer Gabor for the link). There is also a Wikipedia article about Vibration Theory of Olfaction.

1. Turin's theory

From Turin's lecture and WIkipedia article one learns why reductionism is so nice when it can be applied.

  1. If the molecular vibrations in a reasonable approximation reduce to independent vibrations assignable to various chemical bonds, the problem of predicting the odor of the molecule reduces to the calculation or measurement of the oscillation frequencies associated with the chemical bonds of between two atoms or between two molecules forming a bigger molecule as a composite. Near IR frequencies in .8-2.5 μm wavelength range associated with vibrational spectrum are inversely proportional to the reduced mass of the pair of atoms or molecules connected by the chemical bond and the IR frequencies related to rotational-vibrational transitions depending on more complex manner on the molecular mass are good candidates for inducing the olfactory qualia at least in the case of insects.

  2. Situation is also simplified by the fact that only a finite range of frequencies is expected to induce odor sensation just as only finite range of frequencies induces visual percept. Hence the engineering of odors becomes possible by considering only some basic bonds. One can test the model by replacing the hydrogen with deuterium in some constituent of the molecule and this was done in the article referred above.

  3. The odor of the molecule should be a superposition of the basic odors assignable to the basic chemical bonds just like visual color is a superposition of primary colors. One must however remember that the quantum phase transition inducing the odor sensation itself need not have anything to do with the IR photons and many frequencies could induce the same quantum phase transition. The innocent novice is also allowed to ask whether the harmonics of the fundamental oscillation frequency could give rise to the olfactory analogy of timbre distinguishing between different musical instruments and whether octaves correspond to more or less similar odor sensation. The following considerations suggest that the answer to these questions is negative.

In Turin's theory vibrational frequencies are interpreted in terms of a model of receptor based on the idea that electron tunneling occurs between odor molecule and receptor and generates odor sensation if the energies of the electron states at the both sides are same. In general the ground state energies of the electron at the two sides are different but it can happen that the condition is satisfied for some excited state of electron of the acceptor so that odor perception is due to a tunneling to an excited state. The model requires the fusion of the odorant molecule to the receptor so that there is a close relationship with the standard theory assuming lock-and-key mechanism.

2. Callahan's theory

The finding conforms also with the old discovery of Callahan that the olfaction of insects is analogous to seeing at IR frequencies. This hypothesis explains among other things the finding that insects seem to love candles. See this:

Callahan, P. S. (1977). Moth and Candle: the Candle Flame as a Sexual Mimic of the Coded Infrared Wavelengths from a Moth Sex Scent. Applied Optics. 16(12) 3089-3097.

If I have understood Callahan's theory correctly, the IR photons emitted by the odorant would induce transitions of electrons or Cooper pairs of the odor receptor. This would allow "radiative smelling" without a direct contact between odor molecules and olfactory receptors and at the first glance this seems like an unrealistic prediction. However, since the average power of radiation is proportional to 1/r2, where r is the distance between the receptor and molecule, radiative smelling would in practice be limited to rather short distances unless the radiation is guided. Maybe this could be tested experimentally by using coherent beam of IR light as a candidate for an artificial odorant.

3. TGD based theory

In TGD inspired theory of qualia one must distinguish between the sensory input inducing the quale and its secondary representation in terms of Josephson and cyclotron frequencies.

  1. All qualia are coded (but not necessarily induced!) by various frequencies and communication using dark photons with various values of Planck constant meaning scaling down of visible basic frequencies is an essential element of communications at the level of biological body and between magnetic body and biological body. Josephson frequencies and cyclotron frequencies with so large Planck constant that energies are above thermal energy play a key role in the these communications. Note that cyclotron frequencies are inversely proportional to the mass of the ion so that isotope effect also at this level is predicted.

    Josephson frequencies are assignable to cell membrane and one ends up with a nice model for the visual qualia assuming some new physics predicted by TGD. Josephson frequencies and their modulation (as in the case of hearing) should be highly relevant for all qualia.

  2. The capacitor model for sensory qualia assumes that all qualia are generated via the quantum analog of dielectric breakdown in which p"../articles/ with given quantum numbers characterizing the quale flow between the plates of the capacitor. For sensory receptors the capacitor is obtained by a multi-layered structure obtained by a multiple folding of the cell membrane so that the efficiency of the sensory receptor increases.

  3. In Turin's model the second plate of the capacitor model would correspond to the odorant molecule. This does not however allow anything resembling di-electric breakdown. It is difficult to imagine how to achieve a quantum phase transition involving simultaneous tunneling of a large number of electrons unless the receptor binds a large number of odorant molecules. Odor molecules should also form a quantum coherent state: a molecular analog of atomic Bose-Einstein condensate would be required. This would mean that only very special odor molecules could be smelled.

  4. For the Callahan's variant of the theory the IR photons could excite the Cooper pairs of the other plate of the capacitor so that the tunneling becomes possible and quantum variant of di-electric breakdown can take place. This model is consistent also with the assumption that cell membrane acts as a Josephson junction and fundamental sensory capacitor. The energy of electron gained in the electric field of the cell membrane is in the range .04-.08 eV which indeed corresponds to IR frequencies. The variation of the membrane potential would give rise to the spectrum of basic odors. Roughly one octave of frequencies could be smelled if the cell membrane defines the fundamental nose smelling the energy of electron.

    This option allows also the coding of odors by IR frequencies themselves so that brain could generate virtual odors by sending quantum coherent IR light to the odor receptors. This would explain odor hallucinations (and also other sensory hallucinations) as virtual percepts generated by brain itself. This sensory feedback would be absolutely essential for building up of standardized sensory percepts.

  5. The difference between visual and odour receptors would be that the ground states of the cell membrane would correspond to near to vacuum extremals resp. far from vacuum extremals and therefore Josephson frequencies would be in visible resp. IR range respectively.

For the general theory of qualia including also a model of odor perception see the chapter General Theory of Qualia.

DNA waves and water

HIV Nobelist L. Montagnier's group has published two "../articles/ challenging the standard views about genetic code and providing strong support for the notion of water memory. Already the results of the first article suggested implicitly the existence of a new kind nano-scale representation of genetic code and the the recent article makes this claim explicitly. The model for the findings was based on the notion of magnetic bodies assignable with molecules and with water structures representing biologically relevant aspects of molecules in terms of cyclotron frequencies. The model involves also the realization of genetic code using electromagnetic field patterns and as dark nucleon strings and led to a proposal that the analogs of trancription and translation are realized for the dark variants of DNA,RNA, tRNa, and aminoacids represented in terms of dark nucleon strings. Also analogs of these processes between ordinary and dark variants of the biomolecules in question were proposed. This would make possible R&D like controlled evolution based on experimentation using dark representations of biomolecules.

The recent findings of Montagnier's group allow a more detailed formulation of the model and suggest a general mechanism for generalized transcription and translation processes based on reconnection of magnetic flux tubes connecting the molecules involved. A new element in the model is the role of ordered water and hydrogen bonds in the formation of water memories. These representation would result from the dropping of the magnetic bodies of molecules as the hydrogen bonds connecting the molecule to water molecules of the ordered water layer around it are split during the mechanical agitation. A similar process occurs quite generally when external energy feed excites the resting state of cell and induces protein folding and its reversal and the formation of protein aggregates. The necessity of repeated dilution and mechanical agitation could be understood if it provides metabolic energy for the replication of the magnetic bodies and gives rise to a series of "environmental catastrophes" inducing evolutionary leaps increasing the typical value of Planck constant associated with the magnetic bodies until the energy E= hf of 7 Hz dark photons becomes larger than thermal energy at room temperature.

For a detailed description of the model see the chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time.

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