Macro-temporal quantum coherence and spin glass degeneracy

The basic objection against quantum consciousness theories is that the de-coherence times for macroscopic quantum states are quite too short.

TGD inspired theory of consciousness leads to a first principle theory of state function reduction free of the logical paradoxes, allows precise definitions for the notions of quantum coherence and de-coherence, and predicts a mechanism making the lifetimes of macroscopic bound states much longer than predicted by the standard physics.

There are three arguments supporting macro-temporal quantum coherence.

  1. Quantum classical correspondence allows to identify space-time sheets as quantum coherence regions and since they can have arbitrarily large sizes, macroscopic and macro-temporal quantum coherence follow as consequences.

  2. The basic distinction between TGD and standard physics is quantum spin glass degeneracy, which among other things implies that quantum bound states of, say, two molecules have enormous spin glass degeneracy absent in the free state. This in turn means that the system spends much longer time in bound states than in free states and this implies much longer de-coherence time than expected otherwise. The almost degenerate spin glass states differ only by their classical gravitational energy so that gravitation is indeed important.

  3. TGD supports the hypothesis that Planck constant is dynamical, quantized, and can have arbitrarily large values. Dark matter can be identified as a phase with large Planck constant and an entire hierarchy of dark matters is predicted. Large \hbar phases have long de-coherence lengths and times so that dark matter can be quantum coherent. Since arguments a) and b) do not involve Planck constant, all three arguments can be consistent with each other.

In the p-adic context one must modify Shannon's definition of entropy by replacing the ordinary logarithm based on p-adic norm. This definition gives rise to a real valued entropy in both real and p-adic contexts if entanglement coefficients are rational/algebraic numbers. For irrational/non-algebraic entanglement standard Shannon formula and its p-adic variant must be used and gives rise to non-negative entropy. Unlike Shannon entropy, the p-adic entropies (one for each p) can be also negative so that the entanglement entropy defines a genuine information measure whose sign tells whether the system contains information or dis-information. For the p-adic entropies Negentropy Maximization Principle tends to preserve the quantum coherence if p divides the common denominator of the entanglement probabilities. Thus the states with rational/algebraic entanglement can be regarded as bound states, which are not at all fragile like the states with irrational/non-algebraic entanglement are. This leads to a purely number-theoretic characterization of life: life corresponds to islands of rational/algebraic numbers in the seas of real and p-adic continua. The new views about quantum coherence and information have testable implications at the level of fundamental physics, quantum computation, biology, and consciousness.

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Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms

The notion of conscious hologram is the TGD based generalization of the idea about brain as a hologram. In nutshell, the notion of conscious hologram follows from the topological field quantization. Classical fields and matter form a Feynmann diagram like structure consisting of lines representing matter (say charged particles) and bosons (say photons). The matter lines are replaced by space-time sheets representing matter (elementary particles, atoms, molecules,...), and virtual bosons are replaced by topological light rays ("mass-less extremals", MEs). Also magnetic flux tubes appear and together with MEs they serve as correlates for bound state quantum entanglement.

The internal lines of the Feynmann diagram are analogous to wave guides and the classical fields and coherent light propagating along these wave guides interfere at the space-time sheets representing the vertices of the Feynmann diagram and the "points" of the conscious hologram. The formation of the hologram corresponds to the self-organization induced by the leakage of supra currents to smaller (say atomic) space-time sheets. This leakage is induced by the high frequency MEs propagating along low frequency MEs serving as correlates for quantum entanglement. The 3-D stereovision associated with ordinary hologram is generalized to stereo consciousness resulting, when the mental images associated with different 'points' of conscious hologram fuse to single mental image. Central nervous system can be regarded as a conscious hologram of this kind.

The notion of four-wave interaction generalizes: the interference pattern of oppositely moving reference waves forming an archetypal standing wave (possibly moving as in case of nerve pulse) can be replaced by any synchronously oscillating periodic spatial pattern. Plasma waves for which the frequency does not depend on wave vector are ideal candidates for holograms in the generalized sense. Living matter is full of this kid of holograms: besides plasma oscillations associated with biologically important ions, also Z0 plasma oscillations associated with atoms and molecules can define holograms. p-Adic length scale hypothesis predicts a hierarchy of plasma frequencies related by powers 23k/4 so that even so called "non-living matter" could build this kind of sensory representations based on plasma oscillations.

p-Adic length scale hypothesis and dark matter hierarchy allow to quantify the notion of conscious hologram. The hierarchy of generalized EEGs associated with the dark matter hierarchy allows to propose concrete mechanism of remote mental interactions playing a key role also in the interaction of magnetic bodies with the biological body. Experimental findings related to anomalous pre-cognition support the view that even galactic magnetosphere acts as a conscious entity receiving sensory input from bio-sphere and controlling it.

Bio-photons provide an application of the general theory. Simple mathematical facts about the delayed luminescence induced by an external perturbation combined with the model for a hierarchy of dark EEGs assignable to that of Josephson junctions, lead to a model in which positive and negative energy MEs transversal to DNA strand and representing dark photons generate coherent bio-photons via de-coherence. Rather detailed quantitative models for how MEs and supra current circuits interact and how bio-photons are generated during the gene expression emerge.

Peter Gariaev and his group have discovered a radio wave emission from DNA induced by laser light. The model explaining delayed luminescence covers also this phenomenon: now the decay of dark photons with energies above thermal threshold to radio-wave photons rather than de-coherence would be the mechanism. The findings allow an explanation in terms of a many-sheeted laser action, and a rather detailed view about how bio--system acts as a many-sheeted laser at a wide wave-length range emerges.

William Tiller in Stanford University has carried out impressive experimental work with what he calls intention imprinted electronic devices (IIED), and his results challenge that standard assumption that the intentions of experimenter do not affect the experimental apparatus \cite{Tiller, Tiller1, Tiller2}. The analysis of the work of Tiller in the conceptual framework of TGD leads to the conclusion that four-wave interaction, which is a basic mechanism to produce phase conjugate waves (negative energy topological light rays), serves also as a basic mechanism of intentional action. This leads to a unified view allowing to see EEG and nerve pulse as a particular realization of four-wave interaction.

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General theory of qualia

The connection between the theory of qualia and quantum measurement theory and thermodynamics turned out to be a breakthrough in the development of ideas related to qualia. In TGD framework the contents of consciousness is determined as some kind of average over the sequence of very large number of quantum jump and this suggests strongly that non-geometric qualia allow statistical description generalizing ordinary thermodynamical ensemble to the ensemble formed by the prepared states in the sequence of quantum jumps after the last 'wake-up' of self.

  1. There are geometric qualia corresponding to zero modes expressing the result of quantum measurement in each quantum jump. All geometric information about space-time surface should reduce to geometric qualia. For instance, geometric data given by visual, auditory, and tactile senses should reduce to conscious information about zero modes or about increments of zero modes in quantum jump.

  2. The sequence of the prepared states can be modelled as a statistical ensemble of Fock states, which suggests that thermodynamics is basically part of theory of consciousness. The ensemble of prepared states gives rise to a large number of statistical qualia. The relationship dE= TdS-PdV+ mudN+ BdM... generalizes to TGD context: note however that in case of ME selves energy is replaced with the Super Virasoro generator L0 associated with the light cone boundary of ME. Each intensive-extensive variable pair in the differential should correspond to a non-geometric quale, which results only when there is gradient (flow) of the extensive variable in the direction of the subjective time. Super-canonical thermodynamics should obviously map ordinary thermodynamics to the level of conscious experience.

  3. Since subjective existence corresponds to quantum jumps, it is natural to assume that only the increments of zero modes and quantum numbers are experienced consciously. Statistical interpretation also suggests that an averaging over increments occurs. The possibility of sub-selves makes possible to have sequences of sub-selves (mental images) of finite subjective time duration and this makes possible structured subjective memories (for instance, it becomes possible to remember the digits of a phone number). A further working hypothesis analogous to functionalism is universality: kinesthetic qualia depending on the quantum number increments are universal. Thus the increments of Poincare and color and electro-weak quantum numbers define what might be called universal kineshtetic qualia. The thermodynamical expression for dE suggests a general classification of qualia consistent with the 'holy trinity' of existences implied by TGD.

1. Emotions as order-disorder qualia

T-S pair correspond subjective existence and generalizes to disorder-order type, information theoretic qualia qualia about the state of self. The fact that emotions correlate strongly with peptides which are also informational molecules, supports the identification of the qualia associated with various entropy growth rates as emotions. The entropy of sub-self in turn characterizes the sharpness of the mental image.

2. Kinesthetic qualia defined by generalized forces

p-V pair corresponds to the geometric existence and is replaced with generalized force-generalized coordinate pairs in quantum fluctuating degrees of freedom. Quite generally, the rates for the increase for a maximum number of mutually commuting Poincare, color and electro-weak quantum numbers define what might be called kinesthetic qualia. Senses of force and torque, hearing, and intensity of color sensation can be regarded as examples of generalized kinesthetic qualia.

3. Generalized chemical qualia

mu-N pair corresponds to 'objective existence' defined by quantum histories and N is generalized to a number of particle like excitations in the Fock state resulting in the state preparation. In this case there must be a flow of particle number in the direction of the subjective time, that is Bose-Einstein condensation type process for, say Cooper pairs. Quite generally, super-canonical and quaternion conformal super algebras should define these kind of qualia and the number of these qualia is very large. The particle numbers in question can be numbers of ions of Cooper pairs in various magnetic states, numbers of colored configuration space photons in various states of super-canonical representation, numbers of join along boundaries bonds, etc.. and one can understand chemical qualia, color vision, and sensations of pain and pleasure as generalized chemical qualia.

4. Boolean qualia

The transitions associated with the fermionic generators of super-canonical algebra can be identified as Boolean consciousness with intrinsic meaning ('This is true'). Boolean cognition without intrinsic meaning and/or conscious feeling of quantity can be understood as associated with temporal sequences of Z0 magnetization directions for cognitive antineutrinos.

There are two basic mechanisms generating sensory qualia.

  1. Quantum phase transition in which single particle transition occurs coherently for some macroscopic quantum phase produces qualia defined by the increments of quantum numbers in the transition. Quantum phase transition could be induced by the transition frequency: quantum phase transition leading to the generation of new kind of macroscopic quantum phase is in question. The magnetic quantum phase transitions at super-conducting magnetic flux tubes provide a basic example of this mechanism, and the quantum model of hearing relies on Z0 magnetic quantum phase transitions.

  2. The flow of particles with fixed quantum numbers between "electrodes" of what might be called a quantum capacitor induces qualia defined by the quantum numbers of the particles involved. The "electrodes" carry opposite net quantum numbers. Second electrode corresponds to the sub-self defining the quale mental image. Obviously cell interior and exterior are excellent candidates for the electrodes of the quantum capacitor. Also neuron and postsynaptic neuron. In fact, living matter is full of electrets defining capacitor like structures. The capacitor model applies to various chemical qualia and also to color vision and predicts that also cells should have senses.

5. Model for sensory receptor

The emergence of zero energy ontology, the explanation of dark matter in terms of a hierachy of Planck constants requiring a generalization of the notion of imbedding space, the view about life as something in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds, and the notion of number theoretic entanglement negentropy led to a breakthrough in TGD inspired quantum biology and also to the recent view of qualia and sensory representations including hearing allowing a precise quantitative model at the level of cell membrane. The ensuing general model of how cell membrane acts as a sensory receptor has unexpected implications for the entire TGD inspired view about biology.

The ensuing general model of how cell membrane acts as a sensory receptor has unexpected implications for the entire TGD inspired view about biology.

  1. The most important implication concerning the model of sensory receptors however relate to the vacuum degeneracy of Kähler action. It has been clear from the beginning that the nearly vacuum extremals of Kähler action could play key role key role in living systems. The reason is their criticality making them ideal systems for sensory perception. These extremals carry classical em and Z0 fields related to each other by a constant factor and this could explain the large parity breaking effects characterizing living matter. The assumption that cell membranes are nearly vacuum extremals and that nuclei can feed their Z0 charges to this kind of space-time sheets in living matter leads to a modification of the model for cell membrane as Josephson junction. Also a model of photoreceptors explaining the frequencies of peak sensitivity as ionic Josephson frequencies and allowing the identification of biophotons as Josephson radiation emerges and will be discussed in the sequel. The value of Weinberg angle in this phase is fixed to sin2W)=.0295, whereas in standard phase the value is given by sin2W)=.23.

  2. DNA as topological quantum computer model plus certain simplifying assumption leads to the conclusion that the spectrum of net quantum numbers of quark antiquark pair define the primary qualia assignable to a nucleotide-lipid pair connected by a magnetic flux tube. The most general prediction is that the net quantum numbers of two quark pairs characterize the qualia. In the latter case the qualia would be assigned to a pair of receptor cells.

  3. Composite qualia result when one allows the nucleotide-lipid pairs of the membrane to be characterized by a distribution of quark-antiquark pairs. Cell membrane -or at least the axonal parts of neurons- would define a sensory representation in which is a pair of this kind defines a pixel characterized by primary qualia. Cells would be sensory homunculi and DNA defines a sensory hologram of body of or of part of it. Among other things this would give a precise content to the notion of grandma cell.

  4. Josephson frequencies of biologically important ions are in one-one correspondence with the qualia and Josephson radiation could re-generate the qualia or map them to different qualia in a one-one and synesthetic manner in the neurons of the sensory pathway. For large values of Planck constant Josephson frequencies are in EEG range so that a direct connection with EEG emerges and Josephson radiation indeed corresponds to both biophotons and EEG. This would realize the notion of sensory pathway which originally seemed to me a highly non-realistic notion and led to the vision that sensory qualia can be realized only at the level of sensory organs in TGD framework.

  5. At the level of brain motor action and sensory perception look like reversals of each other. In zero energy ontology motor action can be indeed seen as a time reversed sensory perception so that the model of sensory representations implies also a model for motor action. Magnetic body serves as a sensory canvas where cyclotron transitions induced by Josephson frequencies induce conscious sensory map entangling the points of the magnetic body with brain and body.

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Homeopathy in many-sheeted space-time

The claimed mechanisms of homeopathic healing and the method of manufacturing homeopathic potencies are not the only paradoxical aspects of homeopathy. Also the reported frequency imprinting and entrainment, codes based on field patterns, and associative learning of water look mysterious in the framework of standard physics.

1. Frequency imprinting and entrainment

Frequency imprinting and entrainment at preferred frequencies are believed to be fundamental for homeopathy and acupuncture. The data suggest that water builds representations for the chemicals it contains as space-time sheets containing water in liquid crystal form. These space-time sheets reproduce relevant part for the spectrum of rotational frequencies of the molecule in rigid rotor approximation. Also the mimicry of vibrational spectrum using sound waves can be considered possible. Besides LC water blobs also magnetic mirrors consisting of magnetic flux tube plus parallel MEs pop up naturally in the original model of frequency imprinting and entrainment.

The basic objection is that if the space-time sheets are in thermal equilibrium, the scenario partially fails in the case of fundamentally important rotational and conformational spectra which are in microwave region. TGD however suggests that also inherently dark atoms identifiable as anyonic counterparts of ordinary atoms are possible and have the same energy spectrum as ordinary atoms, and that the notion of atom and molecule generalizes to what might be called N-atom/molecule having energy spectrum scaled up by a factor 1\leq N\leq λk, hbar (k)=λkhbar0. In this case various vibrational and rotational frequencies would define a hierarchy of dark energies which can be above thermal threshold. In particular, rotational and conformational microwave spectra of bio-molecules have dark counterparts with energies above the thermal threshold. Otherwise only cyclotron energies and plasma oscillation energies can be above thermal threshold at sufficiently high levels of dark matter hierarchy.

2. Scaling laws

Homeopathy seems to involve two kinds of scaling laws which seem to be closely related. What I call scaling law of homeopathy states that homeopathic frequencies appear in pairs (fh,fl) of high and low frequencies such that their ratio is given by fh/fl≈ 2× 1011. TGD approach explains this ratio predicts a generalization of the law. v=Lfl scaling law tells in TGD framework how the frequencies associated with generalized EEG code for the velocities of physiological waves and their frequencies fh= cfl/v. The general model for motor control by magnetic body predicts this scaling law.

3. Model for the homeopathy

The model of homeopathy must explain the effectiveness of homeopathic remedies manufactured by a repeated dilution and succussion. This can be understood if part of chemical involved is transformed to dark matter and is also represented by water clusters or dark super-nuclei formed from protons. This minimal representation involves thermally stable dark cyclotron frequencies. If inherently dark atoms and molecules with essentially same energy spectrum as ordinary ones are possible, also the mimicry of vibrational and rotational spectrum is possible by clusters of dark water molecules.

One must also understand why homeopathic remedies are manufactured from molecules which basically cause the symptoms to be cured. The explanation is that the presence of molecules mimicking the poisonous molecule makes it possible to sweep the poisonous molecules "under the rug" if they enter the organism. In the presence of Bose-Einstein condensates of dark photons generated by the mimicking particles, the poisonous molecules drop to dark space-time sheets where they are harmless: the mechanism is generalization of induced emission.

The model should also explain the associative learning and field codes. The presence of a hierarchy of dark matter levels leads to a model for how magnetic body performs motor control in terms of dark plasmoids and their quantal plasma oscillation patterns and receives sensory input from the biological body and experiences it as a kind of somatosensory representation along entire magnetic body. It would be the magnetic bodies at higher levels of dark matter hierarchy which learn rather than mere water. Context sensitive field codes emerge naturally as codes involved with all bio-control, in particular that of gene expression.

The charge entanglement by W MEs is the essentially new element in the model for generalized motor actions by magnetic body. Also the telepathic sharing of mental images could rely on charge entanglement. The reduction of charge entanglement can induce a quantum jump to a state in which local Bose-Einstein condensates become exotically ionized with certain probability depending on the intensity of W field. These Bose-Einstein condensates define pixels of generalized motor maps. Plasma oscillations in turn induce various physiological responses such as Ca++ and Mg++ waves and nerve pulses in turn giving rise to the generalized motor action. Field code is the correspondence between the spatio-temporal pattern of plasma oscillations and generalized motor action.

4. Dark nuclear strings as analogs of as analogs of DNA-, RNA- and amino-acid sequences and baryonic realization of genetic code

A speculative picture proposing a connection between homeopathy, water memory, and phantom DNA effect is discussed and on basis of this connection a vision about how the tqc hardware represented by the genome is actively developed by subjecting it to evolutionary pressures represented by a virtual world representation of the physical environment. The speculation inspired by this vision is that genetic code as well as DNA-, RNA- and amino-acid sequences should have representation in terms of nuclear strings. The model for dark baryons indeed leads to an identification of these analogs and the basic numbers of genetic code including also the numbers of aminoacids coded by a given number of codons are predicted correctly. Hence it seems that genetic code is universal rather than being an accidental outcome of the biological evolution.

5. Some applications

The model of the magnetic body and the mechanism of motor control based on plasma oscillations of plasmoids can be tested by finding whether it allows to understand various enigmatic findings. Priore's machine which is a device demonstrated to induce a cure of cancer by somehow stimulating the immune system defines one such application. The findings of Sue Benford about intentionally produced tracks and dots in nuclear emulsions and microwave hearing and closely related taos hum define further applications. There is experimental evidence that electromagnetic stimulation can be used to transfer genetic information imprinted in field patterns between organisms belonging to different species. The idea about genes responsible for genetic self engineering and responding to field patterns representing foreign genes pops up naturally in dark matter inspired vision.

The general model for the magnetic body allows also to sharpen the model of remote mental interactions. In fact, these effects would be only a scaled-up exogenous versions of the effects appearing endogenously in cellular length scales and also in astrophysical length scales in communications between magnetic bodies and corresponding biological bodies.

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Could Cancer be a Disease of Magnetic Body?

Li and Heroux have made a highly interesting discovery. The treatment of cancer cell population by 60 Hz oscillating magnetic field with extremely small strength above 25 nT leads to a reduction of the abnormally large chromosome number of the mitochondria of cancer cells and eventually the cancer cells return to the normal state.

TGD based explanation for the findings relies on the basic notions of TGD inspired quantum biology. The basic notions are magnetic body (MB) and hierarchy of Planck constants heff=n× h0 (h=6h_0) emerging from the adelic physics as a prediction but originally proposed on basis of anomalous effects of ELF em fields in living matter. The value of n can be relatively small or very large corresponding to flux tubes mediating em and gravitational interactions. The anatomy of MB has remained unclear hitherto but in this article a detailed model is developed allowing to understand the formula hgr =heff = ngrh0 for gravitational Planck constant and leading to a further formula for hgr relating magnetism and gravitation.

A further central notion is TGD based model for water memory as the ability of the MB of water to control the thickness of its flux tubes to entrain with external frequencies and reproduce them. This is a central element in the TGD based view about immune systems and homeopathic effects. Cancer would reduce to a disease of the MB of the system, to a high degree determined by MB of water and homeopathy like treatment based on irradiated water could serve as a cure.

The model is applied both to the findings of Montagnier's group about remote regeneration of DNA without template and to those of Li and Heroux. Also the dramatic effects of 2 Tesla magnetic fields on mice reported by Walter Rawls Jr are discussed.

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Macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum metabolism as different sides of the same coin: Part I

The quantum view about metabolism has developed in two stages. First came the somewhat unbalanced vision about the connection of quantum metabolism and bound state formation. The second breakthrough was the discovery of dark matter hierarchy and associated hierarchy of generalized EEGs.

1. Quantum metabolism and bound state formation

Topological self-referentiality states that the topological field quanta of the classical fields associated with a material system provide a concrete representation for a theory about the material system. Actually this principle generalizes and implies an entire hierarchy of representations. An important outcome of the topological self-referentiality is that the 'buy-now' part of the buy now-pay later mechanism for energy production could be understood as a generation of bound states with binding energy liberated as a usable energy. 'Pay later' means that sooner or later thermal noise destroys the bound state.

This observation led to a quantum vision about energy economy in living matter: generation of the macroscopic coherence involving also binding of mental images to larger ones and liberation of a usable energy are different sides of the same coin. Besides, or perhaps even instead, the ordinary metabolism, quantum metabolism should be key element of living matter. Indeed, also ordinary metabolism might be accompanied by the effective over-unity energy production implied by the generation of quantum bound state entanglement: this implies a connection with the claimed over unity phenomena. This should reflect experimentally as apparently miraculous ability of the organism to cope without the use of the metabolic energy. Anomalies of this kind have been indeed observed at the level of neuronal metabolism and nano-biology is just challenging the basic assumptions of the Newtonian biology.

This vision can be criticized for over-emphasizing the formation of bound states: also the transitions to bound states with lower energy, say transitions between cyclotron states, can generate metabolic energy.

2. Dark matter hierarchy and quantum metabolism

The new vision about me relies on several new ideas that have emerged during years after writing the first draft of this chapter.

  1. There are three different views about macroscopic quantum phases. As large hbar phases with scaled up quantum lengths, as high Tc superconductor like systems, and as negentropically entangled structures (negentropic entanglement is purely TGD based notion and stabilized by Negentropy Maximization Principle). In this chapter arguments supporting the equivalence of these descriptions are developed.
  2. The valence electron pairs with spin 1 instead of spin 0 emerge as natural candidates for the counterparts of Cooper pairs generating negentropic entanglement in long length scales. Spin 1 valence electron pairs would generate the magnetic flux tubes along which they propagate and this web of flux tubes would bind proteins to larger structures. The role of the phase transitions changing the value of Planck constant in quantum biology has been discussed already earlier. The fact that bio-molecules - in particular sugars and phosphate molecules - tend to maximize the number of covalent bonds supports this view.
  3. The completely accidental observation that dark nucleon states corresponds under rather natural assumptions to DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acid states and that vertebrate genetic code emerges under natural assumptions, leads to the idea that the dark nuclear physics realization of the genetic machinery is its primary realization and that chemical realization is secondary realization. This suggest that dark nuclei identified as nuclear strings of dark protons serve as templates for DNA, RNA, and amino-acids.
  4. This leads to the vision that the basic purpose of metabolic energy is to make possible re-distribution of negentropic entanglement between distant bio-molecules using the reconnection of the magnetic flux tubes generated by spin 1 electron pairs as a control tool. In photosynthesis the incoming photons would suffer a phase transition to dark photons before being absorbed by dark electrons and eventually provide their energy to ATP to be used to re-organize negentropic entanglement assignable to the magnetic flux tubes going via ATP molecule. This picture is inspired also by the vision about DNA as topological quantum computer and leads to a more plausible view about how genetic code is realized.

3. Many-sheeted photo-synthesis

Photosynthesis is a fundamental metabolic function and a many-sheeted model allows to concretize the general ideas about quantum metabolism. What happens in photosynthesis at the level of energy balance seems to be relatively well-understood but the detailed molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Several strange features, such as the appearance of electron pairs, suggest that super-conductivity and atomic and molecular Bose-Einstein condensates are involved. p-Adic length scale hypothesis gives very strong quantitative guidelines in the attempt to understand photosynthesis in many-sheeted space-time, and one ends up to a general view about how Bose-Einstein condensates store metabolic energy as zero point kinetic energy and how this energy is utilized by remote metabolism by generating negative energy MEs. What is so remarkable is that the resulting simple model of photosynthesis is successful both at qualitative and quantitative level.

I have included in this chapter the earlier variant of the quantum model developed before 2007 as such to compare it with the recent view about macroscopic quantum aspects of photosynthesis involving several new ideas. Note that year 2007 is special in the sense that during 2007 the first evidence for the quantal nature of photosynthesis emerged. Back to the table of contents

Macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum metabolism as different sides of the same coin: Part II

This chapter is second part of the chapter devoted to various aspects of metabolism. The basic topics is TGD inspired view about brain metabolism and molecular motors. I have included to the end of the chapter some rather weird sounding ideas such as an explanation of super-luminality in terms of remote metabolism.

1. Dark matter hierarchy, sensory representations, motor action, and metabolism

The vision about a hierarchy of generalized EEGs associated with dark matter hierarchy gave a decisive boost leading to new views about quantum metabolism. The crucial new element is that at higher levels of dark matter hierarchy photons with arbitrarily low frequencies can correspond to energies above the thermal threshold. This explains the observed mysterious effects of ELF radiation on living matter and implies that magnetic bodies are key participants in the metabolism. The equally mysterious findings about the ionic membrane currents can be understood if these currents are essentially non-dissipative and that ionic channels and pumps are actually ionic receptors. Hence it seems that generalized EEGs could take a lion share of the metabolic energy rather than ionic currents as thought usually. This picture allows to understand various strange findings about neuronal metabolism.

2. Holy trinity of red blood cells, neurons, and astrocytes

The vision about dark matter hierarchy and various ideas about quantum metabolism allow to develop a general view about how the sensory representations and motor control are realized in terms of MEs. Time mirror mechanism is the basic elements in the general model for how magnetic body controls biological body and receives sensory information from it.

A model for motor control and sensory representations based on the trinity of red blood cells, astrocytes, and neurons emerges and raises astrocytes from a status of passive energy storage to an active link in the quantum control of brain by magnetic body. One can also identify mechanisms for the generation of coherent locomotion construct a quantum view about how ATP serves as a universal energy currency.

This view also allows a deeper interpretation of chemical communications and biological information molecules. There are full reasons to believe that substructures of these molecules can have bound state entanglement with the surrounding world. This entanglement can be interpreted in terms of 'telepathic' quantum communications. In fact, I introduced already few years ago the notion semitrance as entanglement with higher level selves but at this time I had not yet understood that quantum jump involves also state function preparation process realized as a cascade of self measurements against which only bound state entanglement is stable.

For a long time glial cells were believed to play a rather passive role in the functioning of brain taking care of basic services such as providing metabolic energy and serving as supporting structures for neurons. During the recent years the views about the role of glia have however changed dramatically. In TGD framework the very fact that metabolism relates very closely to the re-organization of negentropic entanglement forces to recheck this view. Also the slowness of glial dynamics as compared to neuronal dynamics suggests that large values of Planck constant responsible for long time time scales and therefore also for the highest levels of consciousness (including functions like long term memory) are assignable to glia.

3. Molecular motors

During last years molecular motors have become the hot topics of biology. The so called Brownian motors are the dominating theoretical paradigm but there are some empirical findings challenging the concept.

TGD suggests an alternative approach based on the notion of quantum motor. The basic idea is that all moving parts of the quantum motor move on the non-atomic space-time sheets so that momentum dissipation is minimal. It turns out that this picture might work but that TGD allows both quantum and classical modes for the molecular motors and it is quite possible that both modes are present. The model allows a new view about the real function of ATP leading to precisely correct quantitative predictions. Also the real function of membrane potential can be understood and quantum model for nerve pulse and EEG constructed.

The fascinating ability of molecular motors to co-operate finds an explanation in terms of the notion of super-genome: super-genome consists of sequences of nuclei analogous to text lines at the pages of book represented by magnetic flux sheets. Also the magnetic bodies of molecular motors can integrate in a similar manner to larger structures so that the population of molecular motors becomes a society.

4. Remote metabolism and effective super-luminal velocities

After the pioneering experiments of Nimtz and his collaborators 1992 a lot of evidence for effective super-luminal signal velocities has been accumulating. A possible model for the super-luminality and related effects is in terms of remote metabolism associated with detectors and other instruments. This idea belongs to the class of ideas which look like curiosity after decade.

I have included to the end of the chapter also other miscellaneous topics such as an old proposal for the possible role of four-wave interactions in the construction of conscious holograms. Back to the table of contents

About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism

The idea of remote metabolism - or quantum credit card as I have also called it - emerged for more than decade ago and zero energy ontology (ZEO) provides justification for it. The idea is that the system needing energy sends negative energy to a system able to receive the negative energy and make a transition to a lower energy state. This kind of mechanism would be ideal for biology, where rapid reactions to a changing environment are essential for survival and there is no time for sending a request for energy.

The model of remote metabolism is applied to biology. It is shown that the basic notions of the theory of Ling about cell metabolism inspired by various anomalies have natural counterparts in TGD based model relying on the notion of magnetic body. Remote metabolism can be considered as a completely general mechanism of metabolism with magnetic body of ATP or system containing it carrying the metabolic energy and sucked from it by the user. In particular, the role of ATP is discussed in Ling's theory and from the point of view of TGD inspired theory of consciousness.

It is easy to imagine new technologies relying on negative energy signals propagating to the geometric past and ZEO justifies these speculations. Remote metabolism could make possible a new kind of energy technology making it un-necessary to carry fuel. The discoveries of Tesla made more than century ago plus various free energy anomalies provide excellent material for developing these ideas, and one ends up with a concrete proposal for how dark photons and dark matter could be produced in capacitor like systems analogous to cell membranes and acting as Josephson junctions and how energy could be sucked from "large" magnetic bodies.

The model identifies Josephson frequency with the subharmonic of the frequency characterizing the periodicity of a periodic voltage perturbation assumed to correspond to cyclotron frequency in biological applications. Together with quantization conditions for charge and effective Planck constant leads to precise quantitative predictions for capacitor like systems acting as dark capacitors. Also a relationship between the magnetic field at magnetic body of the system and the voltage of the capacitor like Josephson junction emerges.

The predictions allow new quantitative insights about biological evolution as emergence of Josephson junctions realized as capacitor like systems both at the level of cell, DNA and proteins, and brain. heff can be related to Josephson frequency and cyclotron frequency and thus to measurable parameters. heff serves as a kind of intelligence quotient and its maximization requires the maximization of both the voltage and area of the membrane like capacitor system involved. This is what has happened during evolution. Indeed, the internal cell membranes, cortical layers and of DNA double strand in chromosomes are strongly folded, and the value of membrane electric field is roughly twice the value of the electric field for which di-electric breakdown occurs in air. Even 40 Hz thalamocortical resonance frequency can be understood in the framework of model.

The properties of Tesla's "cold electricity" suggest strongly interpretation in terms of dark matter in TGD sense. This leads to a proposal that a transition to dark phase occurs when the value of voltage equals to the rest mass of charged particle involved. This criterion is generalizes to the case of cell membrane and relates the values of heff, p-adic prime p, and threshold potential for various charged particles to each other. The idea that nerve pulse corresponds to the breakdown of super-conductivity as a transition from dark to ordinary phase receives additional support. The resulting picture conforms surprisingly well with the earlier speculations involving dark matter and p-adically scaled variants of weak and color interactions in biologically relevant length scales. An extremely simple mechanism producing ATP involving only the kicking of two protonic Cooper pairs through the cell membrane by Josephson photon is proposed. Also the proposal that neutrino Cooper pairs could be highly relevant not only for cognition and but also metabolism finds support.

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