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Genes and Memes

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Year 2009

Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life

Mark Williams has used to email me links to interesting "../articles/. Last Sunday I realized that my mind is completely empty of thoughts and in lack of anything better decided to scan the emails. The link about Snowball Earth model for pre-Cambrian climate brought to my mind the Expanding Earth model that I developed earlier to explain Cambrian Explosion and the strange finding that continents seem to fit nicely along their boundaries to form single super-continent provided that the radius of Earth is one half of the recent radius. I realized that this model forces a profound revision of models of pre-Cambrian geology, climate, and biology. I glue below the abstract of the new chapter Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life of "Genes and Memes".

TGD inspired quantum cosmology predicts that astrophysical objects do not follow cosmic expansion except in jerk-wise quantum leaps increasing the gigantic value of the gravitational Planck constant characterizing space-time mediating gravitational interactions between two masses or gravitational self interactions. This assumption provides explanation for the apparent cosmological constant.

Also planets are predicted to expand in a stepwise manner. This provides a new version of Expanding Earth theory originally postulated to explain the intriguing findings suggesting that continents have once formed a connected continent covering almost the entire surface of Earth but with radius which was one half of the recent one.

This leads also to a rather fascinating vision about biology. The mysterious Cambrian Explosion in which a large number of new species emerged suddenly (realized already Darwin as the strongest objection against his theory) could be understood if the life would have gone to underground lakes and seas formed during the expansion period as fractures were formed and the underground cavities expanded and were filled with water. This would have allowed the life to escape cosmic radiation, meteoric bombardment, and the extremely cold climate during Proterozoic period preceding the Cambrian Explosion and migrate back as highly developed life forms as the period of glaciations ended.

Before the Proterozoic era the radius of Earth would have been one half of its recent value and started to grow with gradually accelerating rate. This forces to rewrite the entire geological and climate history of Earth during the Proterozoic period.

  1. The postulated physically implausible cyclic appearance of single connected super-continent containing all land mass can be given up and replaced with a single continent containing large inland seas. There is no need to postulate the existence of series of super-oceans whose ocean floor would have subduced totally so that no direct information about them would exist nowadays.

  2. The dominating model for pre-Cambrian climate is so called Snowball Earth model inspired by the finding that signatures of glaciations have been found at regions of Earth, which should have been near Equator during the Proterozoic. Snowball Earth model has several difficulties: in particular, there is a lot of evidence that a series of ordinary glaciations was in question. For R/2 option the regions located to Equator would have actually been near North Pole so that the glaciations would have indeed been ordinary glaciations proceeding from the poles. A killer prediction is the existence of non-glaciated regions at apparent southern latitudes around about 45 degrees and there is evidence for these indeed exists (the article is in finnish but contains a brief abstract in english)! The model makes also testable paleomagnetic killer predictions. In particular, during periods when the magnetic dipole in the direction of rotation axis the directions of the magnetic fields for R/2 model are predicted to be same at South Pole and apparent Equator and opposite for the standard option.

For details see the new chapter Expanding Earth Model and Pre-Cambrian Evolution of Continents, Climate, and Life

Three new physics realizations of the genetic code and the role of dark matter in bio-systems

TGD inspired quantum biology leads naturally to the idea that several realizations of genetic code exist. Besides the realizations based on temporal patterns of electromagnetic fields I have considered three different new physics realizations of the genetic code based the notions of many-sheeted space-time, magnetic body, and the hierarchy of Planck constants explaining dark matter in TGD framework.

  1. The first realization - proposed in the model for DNA as topological quantum computer (tqc) - maps the nucleotides A,G and T,C to dark quarks u,d and their anti-quarks assignable to the ends of magnetic flux tubes representing braid strands and connecting nucleotides to lipids of cell membrane.

  2. Second realization was discovered in the model of dark nuclei as strings of dark baryons. Dark baryons realize codons in terms of quantum entanglement and without decomposition to letters. Dark baryons are strings of 3 quarks connected by two color flux tubes. The neutral states of the dark baryon predicted by the model are in 1-1 correspondence with DNA, RNA, aminoacids. Candidates for the counterparts of tRNA anticodons are also obtained if one accepts that genetic code actually decomposes to 2 steps 64→40→20 such that there are 40 dark baryon counterparts for tRNA anticodons. The amazing finding is that vertebrate genetic code comes out correctly.

  3. The third realization is a physical realization for the divisor code proposed by Khrennikov and Nilsson. The realization relies on two integers labeling magnetic flux tubes containing dark matter. The dark magnetic flux tubes assignable to DNA codons and amino-acids could be labeled by these integers providing a representation of the genetic code consistent with the divisor code. Also a physical mechanism implying the physical equivalence of the dark baryon code and divisor code can be imagined.

The basic proposal is that dark baryon counterparts of basic bio-molecules and genetic code were present from beginning and gave rise to pre-biotic life at the magnetic flux tubes so that the evolution of biological life meant the development of translation and transcription mechanisms allowing to transform dark baryon variants of the codons to their chemical variants. These mechanisms would be still at work inside the living cell and allow the living matter to perform genetic engineering. This proposal is consistent with recent findings about large variations of genomes inside organism.

There is a strange experimental finding by a roup led by a HIV Nobel winner Montagnier giving support for this picture. A water solution containing human cells infected by bacteria is sterilized by a filtering procedure and healthy cells are added to the filtrate. Within few weeks the infected cells re-appear. A possible explanation is that dark baryon variant of the bacterial genome realized as nano-sized p"../articles/ remains in the solution despite the filtering.

The codes are discussed from the point of view of DNA as tqc hypothesis and the model for protein folding and bio-catalysis. The basic selection rules of bio-catalysis could be based on the two integers assignable to the dark magnetic flux tubes. Only bio-molecules whose dark magnetic bodies contain a layer characterized by same integers can be connected by dark magnetic flux tubes. The reconnection of the dark magnetic flux tubes selecting the bio-molecules participating the catalytic reaction and the contraction of these flux tubes induced by a phase transition reducing Planck constant and forcing the bio-molecules near to each other would represent basic mechanisms of bio-catalysis.

For background see the new chapter Three new physics realizations of the genetic code and the role of dark matter in bio-systems of "Genes and Memes".

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