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TGD and Fringe Physics

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Year 2016

Hydrinos again

I have a habit of returning to TGD explanation of various anomalies to see whether progress in TGD could allow new insights. At this time the question about whether hydrinos might be real, served as an inspiration. This led a to consider a possible connection with cold fusion and a new TGD inspired model for hydrinos. I have discussed this topic earlier.

Randell Mills as written a book and numerous articles about hydrino concept and many of them are published in respected journals. The company of Mills has a homepage containing besides commercial side also list of the abstracts with links to the corresponding articles related to the experimental aspects of the hydrino concept giving a brief summary about what is known about hydrinos (see this).

The proposal is that hydrogen atoms allows besides the states labelled by integer n also states labelled by inverse integer 1/n. Ordinary states would have size proportional to n2 and binding energy proportional to 1/n2. Hydrino would have sizes proportional to 1/n2 and binding energies proportional to n2. There would be strange duality between binding energy and size of the orbit and it is difficult to imagine a modification of hydrogen atom making this possible. Not surprisingly, mainstream physicists do not accept the notion since it challenges the existing atomic model.

The most straightforward proof of the concept would be observation of a radiation emitted as ordinary hydrogen atom goes from ground state to hydrino state and emits radiation with energy En ≈ n2 E1, where E1 is the ground state energy E1≈ 13.6 eV. The natural limit for binding energies corresponds to n=137: in this case binding energy becomes larger than electron mass. Also more general transitions 1/n1→ 1/n2 are predicted. (see for the table of transition energies this).

These transitions are not however observed. The explanation is that they are non-radiative transitions occurring as the catalyst molecule having energy level with same energy absorbs the emitted UV photon. The proposal is that the energy from the transition 1/n→ 1/(n+1) and given by (2n+1) E1 goes to a many-particle state formed by n hydrogen atoms and is eventually liberated as a continuum EUV radiation (see this).

Skeptic can argue that if these transitions are possible, they should occur even spontaneously, and that if catalyst is indeed necessary there must be some good explanation for why this is the case. Hence the experimental support for the hypothesis is indirect and one can consider also alternative explanations.

In any case, the articles are published in refereed journals such as European Physics Journal and the claim is that energy is produced and the technology is claimed to already exist. The energy production is explained in terms of hydrino atom.

The article Mechanism of Soft X-ray Continuum Radiation from Low-Energy Pinch Discharges of Hydrogen and Ultra-low Field Ignition of Solid Fuels (see this) gives an idea about the experimental side.

The article reports EUV radiation in the wavelength range 10-20 nm (62 eV-124 eV) assigned with the transition 1/n=1/3→ 1/4 of hydrino atom for which the energy of the emitted quantum would be 94.2 eV. Emission in this wavelength range was observed for electrodes containing metal oxides favorable to undergo reduction to HOH (water) catalysts so that HOH catalyst would play a significant role. A low voltage high current was passed through a solid fuel comprising a source of H and HOH catalyst to produce explosive plasma and similar EUV radiation was detected. This kind EUV radiation cannot be explained in terms of any chemical reaction.

Is there a connection with TGD based model for cold fusion?

The experiment brings in mind the experiments of the group led by Prof. Holmlid (see the popular article and the slides of the talk by Sweinn Olaffsson related to cold fusion (or low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). This work is taken rather seriously by the community and the status of cold fusion has changed. Also in this case one considers electrolyte and water is in key role. Also Coulomb explosion producing plasma is involved and claimed to produce what is interpreted asa very dense phase of condensed matter consisting of string like structure with distance between hydrogen atoms given essentially by the Compton wavelength of electron.

  1. In TGD framework the atomic strings of Holmlid are replaced by nuclear strings (see this) and interpreted as dark nuclei with large value of heff meaning that the Compton length of proton is scaled up to that of electron by a factor about heff/h=211.

    Could the findings of Mills et al relate to the same phenomenon as the findings of Holmlid? The effective radius of the dark nucleus is 2.4× 10-12 meters. The radius of n=4 hydrino would be 3.3 × 10-12 m so that the two phenomena might have common origin.

  2. Dark nuclear binding energy is liberated as dark photons as dark protons fuse to a dark nuclear string. The naive scaling of the nuclear binding energy per nucleon would mean that it is proportional to the Compton length of nucleus and thus to h/heff=2-11. If nuclear binding energy is taken to be of order 1 MeV one has binding energy scale 500 eV, which is about 5-10 times higher than the energies in the energy range of EUV radiation. This would suggests that hydrino does not reduce to same physical effect as cold fusion. One must be however cautious and ready to challenge both the idea about low energy nuclear reactions and about hydrino atom as such.
  3. One could however consider also other values of heff/h. Assume that they come as powers of 2. If one has h/heff=2-14 the Compton length is 2.84 × 10-11 m to be compared with Bohr radius 5.3× 10-11 m. For h/heff= 2-13 the binding energy would be about 63 eV which corresponds to the lower boundary of the energy interval. In this case the size of dark nucleus would be 4 times longer than electron Compton length. Could the phase transition take in two steps or could one have quantum criticality in TGD sense meaning that phases with several values of heff are present? Or could the experiments of Mills and Holmlid differ in that Mills detects heff/h= 213 case and Holmlid heff/h= 211 case.
  4. The formation of dark proton string would give rise to emission of dark photons with nucleon binding energies of the nuclear string and its excited states formed in this manner. These dark photons are observed only if they transform to ordinary photons in the measurement volume. Their wavelength would be anomalously long - by a factor of order 213 longer than the wavelength of ordinary EUV photon in wavelength range 10-20 nm and therefore in the length scale range 80 - 160 μm assignable to living cells. The transformation to ordinary photons could be by the transition heff/h→ 1 and absorbtion by a complex of n hydrogen atoms transforming it to continuum radiation.
  5. The dark nuclei would decay eventually to ordinary nuclei and liberate ordinary nuclear binding energy. There is experimental evidence for the occurrence of this process. It is however quite possible that most of the dark nuclei leak out of the system and that the energy could be liberated in metal targets.
This if of course only a one possible model for the effect observed by Mills and TGD allows to consider also a model of hydrino based on the TGD based view about dark matter.

Hydrino as dark atom?

I have considered several models for hydrino in TGD context. One of them corresponds to a quantum group analog of Laguerre equation giving fractional spectrum for the principal quantum number n. The spectrum would be more general than that proposed by Mills since one would have n→ n/m rather than n→ 1/n.

The following considerations are inspired by the heretic proposal that hydrogen atom might not actually correspond to the smallest possible value of heff/h=n. This idea has popped into my mind repeatedly but I have dismissed it since I have felt that heff/h=n hypothesis is already enough to irritate colleagues beyond the border. The phase transition n→ n1<n scales up the binding energy spectrum by factor n/n1 and is the simplest proposal found hitherto.

The model should explain why hydrino states are generated spontaneously but require the presence of catalyst and why the photons associated to the hydrino transitions are not detected directly but only as a continuum radiation.

  1. The first guess would be that hydrino corresponds to hydrogen atom with non-standard value of Planck constant heff/h= nh. The problem is that the formal substitution h→ heff=nh× h in hydrogen atom scales down the energies by En→ En/nh2 so that they decrease instead of increasing.

    One can however make a heretic question. Does ordinary hydrogen atom really correspond to the smallest possible value of heff/h=neff with neff=1 and thus of αeff= e2/4π hbareff? Should one take this as a purely experimental question and remember also that in perturbative approach Planck constant does not appear in the scattering rates except in loop corrections. Therefore in the lowest order the value of heff could vary. In TGD loop corrections vanish by quantum criticality and coupling constant evolution is discretized and it could be difficult to detect the variation of heff.

  2. Could the ordinary hydrogen atom actually correspond to heff/h = nH>1 and therefore to αeff= αR/nH= e2R/4πhbar nH ("R" for "real") so that one would have αR= nHα? The convergence of the perturbation theory would dictate the value of nH and in only special situations smaller values of nH would be possible. This would explain why hydrogen atom does not make a spontaneous transition to the hydrino state.

    The maximal value of nH would be nH,max=137 (the binding energy becomes larger than the electron mass) implying αR≈ 1 for heff,R = h/137. For hydrino atom made possible by the presence of catalyst, the value of heff would be reduced so that the energy would be scaled up by a factor x2: x= heff,H/heff,h= nH/nh: here "h" is for "hydrino". The energy spectrum would transform as En/E1→ (nH/nh) × (En/E1) rather than En/E1 =1/n2→ n2 as in the model of Mills. The scaling would be fractional.

  3. Could this model explain why the transition to hydrino state is non-radiative? Dark photon with heff/h=nh<nH it would have shorter wave length by factor 1/nh in the range λ/nH, λ ∈ [10,20] nm and would be observed only when transformed to ordinary photon. If the photon emitted in the transition is dark it could leak out of the system, or could be absorbed by the catalyst if the catalyst has also dark hydrogen atoms with the same value of heff/h=nh. The catalyst would serve as a seed of nH→ nh phase transitions.
  4. How to understand the observed spectrum in the EUV range [10,20] nm? The transition energies for the transitions from the ground state of hydrogen atom to hydrino state would be of form

    Δ E/E1= (nH/nh)2 -1 .

    For the transitions between hydrino states with principal quantum numbers n1 and n2 one would have

    Δ E/E1=nH2[ (nh2n2)-2 -(nh1n1)-2]

    If one allows fractional values nH/nh, it is rather easy to explain the effective continuum spectrum. One can also consider the option that the transitions are such that nh is a divisor of nH and more generally nh2 divides nh1 in the transitions of hydrinos. If only the range of EUV energies spanning one octave is assumed, additional conditions follow.

    Here one must notice that single photon transition between ground states n=1 with different values of heff is not possible without spin flip for electron so that the minimum change of n for ground state transitions without spin flip is n=1→ 2. Spin flip allows also transitions n=1→ 1. The photon emitted in nH→ nh transition would define the EUV analog of hydrogen 21 cm line.

  5. The simplest option corresponds to nH=6.
    1. This option satisfies also the natural constraint that Bohr radius for nh=2 hydrino is larger than electron Compton length. There are also more complex options to consider (such as nH=12 and nH=24=16) but this option seems rather unique.
    2. Spin-non-flip transition n=1→ 2 has the energy Δ E/E1 =5E1/4 with Δ E/eV=17.0. Primary spin-flip transitions n=1 → 1 have energies Δ E/E1 ∈ [8,3] with E/eV∈ [108.8, 40.8]. Secondary spin-flip transition has energy Δ E/E1 =5 giving Δ E/eV= 60.0. Only 17 eV transition is outside the EUV energy range considered by Mills.
    3. This would however force to modify the conjecture that the imaginary parts for the zeros of Riemann Zeta correspond to the values of 1/αK assigned with electroweak U(1) hypercharge at p-adic length scales correspond to p-adic primes near prime powers of two (see this). The prediction for αR would be 1/αR=22.8. The minimal critical values of 1/αK would become 6-ples of the imaginary parts. Hydrino would correspond to a phase with an anomalously large value of 1/αK with the existence of perturbation theory possible only in special situations.

The model suggests a universal catalyst action. Among other things catalyst action requires that reacting molecule gets energy to overcome the potential barrier making reaction very slow. If an atom - say (dark) hydrogen - in catalyst suffers a phase transition to hydrino (hydrogen with smaller value of heff/h), it liberates binding energy, and if one of the reactant molecules receives it it can overcome the barrier. After the reaction the energy can be sent back and catalyst hydrino returns to the ordinary hydrogen state. The condition that the dark binding energy is above the thermal energy gives a condition on the value of heff/h=n as n≤ 32. The size scale of the dark largest allowed dark atom would be about 100 nm, 10 times the thickness of the cell membrane.

The notion of phosphate high energy bond is somewhat mysterious concept and manifests as the ability provide energy in ATP to ADP transition. There are claims that there is no such bond. I have spent considerable amount of time to ponder this problem. Could phosphate contain (dark) hydrogen atom able to go to the hydrino state (state with smaller value of heff/h) and liberate the binding energy? Could the decay ATP to ADP produce the original possibly dark hydrogen? Metabolic energy would be needed to kick it back to ordinary bond in ATP.

One could turn the situation upside down and ask whether the cold fusion effects could correspond to the formation of hydrino atoms in the proposed sense.

  1. heff would be reduced rather than increase in the presence of a catalyst inducing a phase transition reducing heff,H. In particular, could the formation of string of dark nuclei with size of electron be replaced with the formation of strings of dark hydrinos with the same size but with smaller Planck constant as for ordinary hydrogen atom? This picture would be more in spirit with that proposed by Holmlid but forces to challenge the hypothesis that cold fusion followed by the decay of dark nuclei to ordinary nuclei is responsible for the anomalous energy production.
  2. Holmlid however reports evidence for superconductivity. The reduction of the value of Planck constant and thus of Compton scale of electron does not support superconductivity.
  3. Of course, both phenomena could be involved. Hydrogen with nH=6 and hydrinos with heff/h =nh ∈ {2,3} for electrons would have dark nuclei with heff/h=211. The scaled down Bohr radius for nh=2 would be 5.9× 10-12 m and dark proton size would be electron Compton length 2.4× 10-12 m. For other options the Bohr radius could be smaller than the size of dark proton so that nH=6 option would be unique.

See the chapter Summary of TGD Inspired Ideas about Free Energy or the article Hydrinos again.

The anomalies in rotating magnetic systems as a key to the understanding of morphogenesis?

During almost two decades I have returned repeatedly to the fascinating but unfortunately un-recognized work of Roschin and Godin about rotating magnetic systems. With the recent advances in TGD it has become clear that the reported strange effects such as the change of weight proportional to the rotation velocity of rollers taking place above 3.3 Hz rotation frequency and rapid acceleration above 9.2 Hz up to frequency 10 Hz could provide clues for developing a general vision about morphogenesis of magnetic body, whose flux quanta can carry Bose-Einstein condensates of dark charged ions with given mass and charge if the hypothesis heff=n× h=hgr identifying dark matter as phases with non-standard value of Planck constant holds true.

The generalization of Chladni mechanism would provide a general model for how magnetic flux tubes carrying charged particles with given mass at given flux tube drift to the nodal surfaces giving rise to magnetic walls in the field of standing or even propagating waves assignable to "topological light rays" (MEs). Ordinary matter would in turn condense around these dark magnetic structures so that Chladni mechanism would serve as a general mechanism of morphogenesis. This mechanism could be universal and work even in astrophysical systems (formation of planets).

The change of weight correlating with the direction of rotation (parity breaking) and rapid acceleration could be understood in terms of momentum and angular momentum transfer by dark photons liberated in the quantum phase transition of many-particle states of dark charged particles to from cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates giving rise to analogs of superconductivity and spontaneous magnetization

There is also evidence that the presence of light source below massive object affects its weight by about .1 per cent. This effect could be explained along the same lines. Zero Energy Ontology and the proposed mechanism remote metabolism at the level of dark matter is however needed and this would force to modify dramatically the views about basic interactions at the level of dark matter.

An increase of weight Δ g/g≈ 2× 10-4 is observed for electrets: this number has appeared in TGD already earlier and in TGD framework could have interpretatation in terms of dark matter layer with mass MD≈ 2× 10-4 ME at distance of Moon. In fact, quite generally the magnetic body could have this mass portion. Amusingly, this change of weight happens to consistent with the "weight of soul" claimed to be 21 g.

See the new chapter The anomalies in rotating magnetic systems as a key to the understanding of morphogenesis? or the article article with the same title.

The "impossible" EM drive

NASA's impossible EM drive has appeared in Facebook again and again (see this as an example), and I finally lost my patience and decided to learn what it is involved. The Wikipedia article describes the EM drive and gives a lot of references. The original skepticism by mainstream is probably changing to a real curiosity after several replications.

1. Basic facts about EM drive

First some raw data from the Wikipedia article.

  1. According to Wikipedia article, Roger Shawyer, who is behind the concept, has claimed that the prototype produces a total thrust about .02 Newtons using the power by 850 W magnetron. To get some perspective note that in order to move 1 kg weight with the velocity of 1 m/s in the gravitational field g= 10 m/s2, a power of 10 W is required so that the construction might be scalable. The device could operate only few dozen seconds after the magnetron failed due to overheating. Therefore the hypes abut travels to Moon within few hours should be taken cautiously!
  2. There would be no fuel in the conventional sense of the word. Basic conservation laws of momentum and energy however require that if system gains momentum there must be another system gaining opposite momentum. For ordinary rocket this would be exhaust fuel. Now now exhaust has been observed and this is thought to make the drive "impossible". For instance, NASA researchers talk about "quantum vacuum virtual plasma" as the system with which the momentum would be exchanged. Also energy is needed. The magnetron would provide this energy.
The theory of Shawyer for EM drive can be found at here. The basic idea is very simple.
  1. Consider first an ordinary rocket. The fuel explodes and liberates chemical energy and part of exhaust products are allowed to leave the rocket, which experiences the reaction force and gains momentum. One can also modify this rocket a little bit. This is not practical but serves a noble pedagogical purpose. Allow the fuel leak out in opposite directions but in such a manner that the leakage is smaller in the second direction. Rocket accelerates also now since the two forces due to the leakage do not cancel each other.
  2. Next do some abstraction. What matters are conservation laws are energy and momentum, not the medium which carries them. Replace fuel with microwaves in a microwave cavity reflecting forth and back and having energy but no net momentum. Replace the fuel tank by magnetron producing the radiation.

    Arrange the situation so that the leakage of momentum is realized as radiation pressure, which is different at the ends of cavity. For the ordinary fuel this is not a problem and it is difficult to see why it should be so for em fuel. This em fuel would be produced by magnetron in cyclotron transitions with cyclotron transition frequencies equal to resonance frequencies of the microwave cavity. This requres tuning of of the strengths of magnetic field and length of cavity. System would be critical in this sense.

  3. The asymmetry between ends realized somehow would create a net force on the system as difference of the forces at the ends of the cavity. One could interpret this also by saying that the reaction force forces the system to move. The needed momentum exchange would be between radiation field and rocket. Microwave energy and also a net momentum leaves the system just like momentum carrying fuel from ordinary rocket. The dimensionless Q value characterized the flow of energy out of the system. Also the flow of momentum at the ends of the cavity would be proportional to Q.
  4. The claim of Shawyer indeed is that the net forces (pressure times area) at the two ends are different. This would be due to the different group velocities assignable to classical em field at the two ends of the cavity and also due to different area. The argument is that at the smaller end (disk) the group velocity of wave is lower due to the fact that the reflections from the walls of the cavity occur more often so that paths of photons become more zigzagged and the net propagation for energy becomes slower. This argument makes sense to me. Of course, to really understand whether this is the case, would require a detailed modelling of the situation.
2. The problem and its solution in TGD Universe

What is then the problem?

  1. It is argued that the construction breaks momentum conservation. If microwave photons leak out they should heat the cavity and the energy and momentum would leak out as thermal radiation. Is it that this radiation is not observed or is the heating theoretically so small that it cannot be observed? There is however the heating of magnetron, which forces to stop the experiment. As if the energy and momentum would go to the magnetron! Could this microwave energy be enough to achieve the heating of magnetron? Microwaves are indeed used for heating and they might be able to do this. But how the leaking energy and momentum could end up back to the magnetron?
  2. Recall that in the experiments of Russian physicists in which magnetic motor was claimed to start spontaneously acccelerate in in its rotational motion similar breakdown was the problem. Similar breakdown plague also Yildiz motor. I have proposed for both systems a TGD based model involving the magnetic body (MB) of the motor and dark photons and particles. What could cause this breakdown? Could it be that energy and momentum that should have left the system is actually feeded to the magnetron via its MB consisting of flux tubes serving as channels?
2.1. Magnetron

To understand what might be involved consider what magnetron is.

  1. Magnetron produces the microwave radiation and serves obviously as the energy producer. The operation principle of magnetron is as follows. One has two electrodes - the negatively charged cathode and the positively charged anode - at the opposite ends of a cavity (not the microwave cavity) with some length L. Constant electric field is generated between elecrodes. Electrons flow from cathode to anode in this electric field. One adds a magnetic field orthogonal to the plane of the motion for electrons. This fields forces electrons orbits to curve in the plane orthogonal to the magnetic field.
  2. There is a critical value of magnetic field for which electrons just reach the anode. For stronger magnetic field they turn backwards before reaching the anode. Magnetron operates using this critical field. Note that resonance condition defines second criticality condition. Cyclotron photons created in magnetron have frequency, which corresponds to a resonance frequency f= nc/L (c=1 in the sequel) of the cavity and standard quantum theory tells that their energy is given by E= hf. This is incredibly small energy and it is not at all clear whether photons with this energy can cause heating of the magnetron.
2.2 Notions of dark matter and magnetic body

Next the TGD view about dark matter is needed.

  1. Dark matter, also dark photons, has non-standard value of Planck constant heff=n× h is generated in TGD Universe in quantum critical systems, which can appear in all scales. The process can be regarded as a quantum phase transition. One experimental motivation for the hierarchy of Planck constants were the strange quantal looking effects radiation in EEG range (ELF) on vertebrate brain. The eplanation was in terms of dark heff=n× h cyclotron photons. Dark cyclotron photons have energies and therefore also momenta much larger than they should have by E= h× f → =n× h× f.
  2. These dark photons can transform to ordinary photons and vice versa but do not appear in the same interaction vertices with particles with different value of heff - hence darkness for practical purposes. Biophotons would be example of ordinary photons produced from dark photons in this phase transition like process.
  3. The associated notion is magnetic body (MB) consisting of flux tubes and flux sheets and carrying these dark protons. MB can be identified as intentional agent in biosystems and receives sensory input from biological body as dark photon signals and controls it by dark photon signals.
2.3. Is magnetron a quantum critical system generating dark cyclotron photons?

Could it be that magnetron is quantum critical system and generates dark cyclotron photons with large value of Planck constant?

  1. Could the criticality of magnetron imply that part of the cyclotron photons created by the magnetron are actually dark and have much larger energies and momenta than ordinary photons. Could the MB of magnetron be in contact with the second microwave cavity and could the dark cyclotron photons leaking from the ends of the cavity end up to MB and from MB back to magnetron and heat it?
  2. The system is claimed to not produce any visible exhaust products - that is ordinary microwave photons. Could the leaking exhaust product be dark microwave photons and thus not visible and having very large energies? Could the dark photon exhaust products end up to the magnetron by the above mechanism. Here they would partially transform to ordinary high energy photons and heat the cyclotron inducing the failure of its operation.
  3. Magnetron produces high energy dark photons, maybe with energies in visible range if the model for biosystems is taken as starting point. One can argue that the description in terms of classical fields gives a realistic estimate for the total power irrespective of the value of heff. Thus the net power would not matter. Microwaves have extremely tiny energies (for 1 meter wavelength a fraction about 10-6 about the energy 1 eV photon, which is just below the visible range). The dark photons transformed to say ordinary high energy photons with energy of visible photons would interact with the condensed matter by inducing molecular transitions and the heating effect could be much more effective than for ordinary radiowave photons. Thus one would have the primary heating of magnetron plus the heating caused by the dark photons from the microwave cavity.
  4. Any owner of microwave oven can however argue that microwaves are very efficient heaters. Why dark photons would be needed? Now I cannot silence the heretic inside me. Do we really know what is happening inside our own microwave ovens? Could also this microwave heating involve dark photons with energies, which correspond to molecular transition energies? Could this be the reason for the unreasonable effectiveness of microwave ovens? Microwave ovens involve also another strange phenomenon - small but visible ball lightnings. Could the visible and UV photons resulting from dark microwave photons heat the air to form a plasma producing the visible radiation? Microwave radiation can also induce "burning of water involving flame of visible light. I have proposed explanations of also these phenomena in terms of dark photons.
If the microwave energy and also momentum returns back to magnetron as dark microwave photons, the magnetron would receive - not only part of the energy - and also part of the momentum opposite to that obtained by the system minus magnetron. If all momentum returns to magnetron, the recoil momentum would not actually leave the system: the travel to the Moon might not succeed!

3. TGD view about the standing waves in wave guide

It has been proposed that the paired photons with sum of electromagnetic fields equal to zero in microwave guide should make possible the leakage of the radiation (see this). I find it difficult to make sense of this argument. This article however inspired to look the situation using TGD based view about em fields.

In photon picture photons would be reflected from the ends of the cavity and also from the walls if the cavity is a cone cut from its ends. In reflection energy is conserved by a momentum which is twice the projection of momentum in orthogonal direction is lost. If the net losses occurring at opposite ends are different, thrust results, even if Q value is vanishing. Only in special case the wave vectors are quantized the net momentum current at the ends of cavity vanishes (discrete translational symmetry). These situations correspond classically standing waves.

In Maxwellian theory em fields should correspond to standing waves with opposite wave vectors. Standing waves in TGD framework are not possible at single space-time sheet. Maxwellian linear superposition fails. The basic solutions are "massless extremals" describing propagation of arbitrary pulses in single direction, left or right, with maximal signal velocity preserving pulse shape. Linear superposition for the pulses travelling in the same direction makes sense. This represents precisely targeted communication.

How to obtain something analogous to standing waves in TGD?

  1. One can have two parallel space-time sheets in which the propagations occur in opposite directions. Tests particle (small 3-surface) touching both sheets experiences the sum of forces created by the classical fields, and this corresponds to that created by a standing wave. More generally, one can have set theoretic unions of MEs and these effective represent linear superposition of waves (actually only of their effects). This is the manner how many-sheeted space-time give rise to the space-time of standard model and GRT.
  2. Suppose the cross section fo wave guide is constant. If only standing waves, that is pairs of MEs, are present, they can disappear from the wave guide only in pairs. The net value of lost momentum vanishes for each lost ME pair and it would seem that one cannot have asymmetry in the case of a wave guide with constant cross section.
  3. If the members of ME pairs have different wave vector components along wave guide the loss of ME pair means a net momentum loss. Could the reflections of MEs at the ends and walls be such that the magnitude of the momentum component in the normal direction not only changes sign but is also reduced so that also energy of photon is reduced. This could be the counterpart for the non-vanishing Q-value.

    The first ME would correspond so a sum of pulse , 2 times reflect reflected pulse, 4 times reflected pulse, etc... The second ME would correspond to sum of 2n+1 reflected pulses and loss of ME pair would mean a net loss of momentum but it could go the walls of the cavity.

  4. In cylindrical geometry the condition that one has standing waves implies k= n2π/L so that the value of n would change in the reflection which would be like quantum transition. The lost 4-momentum would be Δ p4= (Δ p, 2Δ p) =ε (p,2p) , ε<1 and tachyonic. This momentum could go to the wall of the microwave cavity as a whole. One can also imagine that only part of it is lost in this manner and that the momentum splits to part p1=ε(p,p) leaking out as dark photon and p2=ε (0,p) absorbed by the wall of cavity. This contribution would correspond to radiation pressure. Also more general momentum splittings are possible.
  5. Could the lost photon with 4-momentum ε(k,k) go to a magnetic flux tube of magnetron as dark photon? In the general case light-like momentum ε(k,k) should be parallel to the flux tube and the the rest of momentum difference Δ p4 would go to the wall of cavity. If flux tube of the magnetic field of magnetron is parallel to the wall of the cavity, this is not possible. If the flux tubes are parallel to the ends of the cavity, they should absorb the entire Δ p4. This suggests that flux tubes should be nearly orthogonal to either end of the wave guide.
Armed with this picture one can try to answer the question whether one obtain net acceleration lasting the desired time.
  1. Whether one can obtain a net momentum transfer to the MB of the system, depends both the shape of cavity and on the direction distribution of flux tubes and their density at surfaces orthogonal to the average magnetic field. This density is proportional to the average magnetic field. The magnetic field of magnetron is dipole field in the first approximation and the flux tubes form closed loops.

    A good position for the wave guide is such that magnetic field lines meet the second end of the wave-guide nearly orthogonally. The magnetron could be from left or right from the wave guide, maybe nearer to the end with larger area to maximize the number of flux tubes meeting the end. One would obtain dark photons at the magnetic flux tubes leading to the magnetron and - if not else - at least an explanation for why magnetron heats up so fast!

  2. Can one obtain net momentum transfer to flux tubes? This depends both the shape of cavity and on the direction distribution of flux tubes and their density at surfaces orthogonal to the average magnetic field. This density is proportional to the average magnetic field. One would obtain dark photons at the magnetic flux tubes leading to the magnetron and explanation for why magnetron heats up so much!
  3. Is it really possible to obtain accelerated motion in long time scale? System plus its MB does not accelerate unless MB is able to transfer its momentum somewhere, say to a larger MB. This probably poses limits on the distance which the system can move since one naively expects that system and its MB tend to move in opposite directions so that MB would stretch. One expects, that MB can store only a limited amount of momentum to say Bose-Einstein condensate of dark photons.

    The momentum transfer (as dark photons) to a larger MB would require reconnections with it. Reconnection is a standard mechanism in TGD based quantum biology relying strongly on the dynamics ("motor actions") of MB (braiding making possible topological quantum computation, reconnection making possible dynamical flux tube networks, heff changing phase transitions changing the length and the thickness of flux tubes as scales proportional to heff, ..).

For background see the chapter Summary of TGD Inspired Ideas about Free Energy.

Confirmation of Santilli's detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with concave lenses: really?

I encountered in Facebook a really bizarre sounding title reading The incredible pictures scientists say prove invisible alien entities ARE here on Earth (see this) and just for curiosity decided to add one click to the web page in question (means higher income from ads) knowing that this is just what they want me to do! The story involves aliens spying us so that that the street credibility index of the story reduced zero. The tool to detect the spies would be Santilli's telescope using concave lenses. Santilli, who is familiar to me, also talks about two types of invisible terrestrials detected by his telescope. It would be easy to ridicule but let us be patient.

An earlier article with title Apparent detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with convex lenses (see this) reports a detection of antimatter galaxies. There is also an article with title "Confirmation of Santilli’s detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with concave lenses" published in American Journal of Modern Physics claiming an independent observation of antimatter galaxies, antimater asteroids, and antimatter cosmic rays by Santilli's telescope (see this). These articles say nothing about aliens spying us.

Since I suffer from a pathological trait of taking half-seriously even the weirdest stories, I decided to learn what Santilli's telescope using concave lenses might mean. Ordinary telescope uses convex lenses (see this). The light rays coming from the other side converge to form a picture of the source. For concave lense the light rays coming from the other side diverge so that concave lense does not sound like a good idea for detecting light coming from distant objects.

It is however claimed that Santilli's telescope detects light sources in darkness. This is only possible if the index of refraction n=c/v characterizing the medium via the ratio of light velocity in vacuum to the velocity of light in medium changes sign. From Snell's law n1sin(θ1)= n2sin(θ2) follow the basic facts about lenses (see this). It is possible to construct lenses which have negative index of refraction so that concave lense behaves like convex one. Presumably this is not be the case now since according to the existing theory, ordinary light would have the negative index of reflection (unless it is somehow transformed when arriving to the lense).

Concerning the theoretical arguments Santilli makes several claims, which do not make sense to me.

  1. The photons are identified as antimatter photons assumed to have negative energies. These antimatter photons are assumed to have repulsive gravitational interaction with ordinary matter. The claim is that this implies negative index of refraction. This does not make sense since gravitational interaction is quite too weak to cause refraction. Electromagnetic interaction must be in question. Antimatter photons are claimed to propagate with superluminal speeds and arrive instantaneously from remote galaxies. The assumption is in dramatic conflict with what we know about antimatter.
  2. Refractive index is claimed to be a property of light. This does not make sense: refractive index characterizes medium. Its sign however changes when the energy of photon changes sign. From Snell's law the sign of refractive index must change sign as the light enters to the concave lense. This would require that Santilli's antimatter photons transform to ordinary photons.
These arguments are more than enough for dooming the claims of Santilli as pseudoscience but what if there is something in it? The experimental finding is so simple that if it is not an artefact of poor experimentation, some interesting - possibly new - physics could be involved. So let us looks the situation from different point of view forgetting the theory behind it and taking seriously the claimed observations. Could one explain the findings in TGD framework?

Zero energy ontology (ZEO) is one of the cornerstones of TGD and could indeed explain the claims of Santilli and colleagues. In ZEO zero energy states are pairs of positive and negative energy states at opposite light-like boundaries of causal diamonds (CD) forming a scale hierarchy. Zero energy states are counterparts of physical events in standard ontology.

  1. ZEO predicts that the arrow of time can have both directions. In ZEO based quantum measurement theory state function reductions occur at either boundary of CD. Conscious entities correspond to sequences of reductions leaving everything unaffected at the boundary (Zeno effect) but changing the situation at the opposite boundary, in particular increasing its distance from the fixed boundary, which gives rise to the experienced flow of time. The first reduction to opposite boundary replaces the zero energy state with time reversed one. This can happen also for photons.
  2. The particles with non-standard arrow of time are not antimatter (I have considered also this possibility since it might explain the experimental absence of antimatter) but propagate in reverse time direction and have negative energies. There is a considerable evidence for this notion. Phase conjugate laser beams known to obey second law in reverse time direction would be one example. There are also old observations of Akimov and Kozyrev claiming that the instrument of Akimov gives three images of distant astrophysical objects: one would be from past, one from recent, and one from future. I do not know about the construction of Kozyrev's instrument but one can ask whether it involved concave lenses. Also the notion of syntropy introduced by the Italian physicists Fantappie conforms with this picture. In biology syntropy is in central role since in biology time reversed radiation would play a key role.
  3. Since the sign of the energy is negative for phase conjugate photons, their refractive index is negative. n2 for concave lense and n1 for the medium behind lense must have opposite signs to explain the claims of Santilli and colleagues. This happens if the incoming negative energy photons from the geometric future are transformed to positive energy photons photons at the surface of the lense. This process would represent time reflection of the incoming negative energy photons to ordinary positive energy photons propagating inside lense.
The claimed results could be an outcome of a bad experimentation. What however remains is a test of ZEO - or more precisely, the notion of time reversed photons - using telescopes with convex lenses. The implication would be possibility to see to the geometric future using telescopes with concave lenses! An entire geometric future of the Universe would be open to us! This possibility is a good enough reason for seeing the trouble of proving experimentally that Santilli is (and I am) wrong! Negative index of refraction as a function of frequency is a real phenomenon in condensed matter physics (see this), and one can of course ask whether also it involves the transformation of positive energy photons to negative energy photons.

For background see the chapter TGD About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism.

TGD and Teslaphoresis

The title of the popular article is "Reconfigured Tesla coil aligns, electrifies materials from a distance" tells about the effects involved. The research group is led by Paul Churukuri and there is also an abstract about the work in ADS Nano journal. This article contains also an excellent illustration allowing to understand both the Tesla coil and the magnetic and electric fields involved. The abstract of the paper provides a summary about the results.

This paper introduces Teslaphoresis, the directed motion and self-assembly of matter by a Tesla coil, and studies this electrokinetic phenomenon using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Conventional directed self-assembly of matter using electric fields has been restricted to small scale structures, but with Teslaphoresis, we exceed this limitation by using the Tesla coil’s antenna to create a gradient high-voltage force field that projects into free space. CNTs placed within the Teslaphoretic (TEP) field polarize and self-assemble into wires that span from the nanoscale to the macroscale, the longest thus far being 15 cm. We show that the TEP field not only directs the self-assembly of long nanotube wires at remote distances (≥ 30 cm) but can also wirelessly power nanotube-based LED circuits. Furthermore, individualized CNTs self-organize to form long parallel arrays with high fidelity alignment to the TEP field. Thus, Teslaphoresis is effective for directed self-assembly from the bottom-up to the macroscale.

Concisely: what is found that single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) polarise and self-assemble along the electric fields created by capacitor in much longer length scales than expected. Biological applications (involving linear molecules like microtubules) come in mind. CNTs tend to also move towards the capacitance of the secondary coil of the Tesla coil (TC).

It is interesting to understand the TGD counterparts for the Maxwellian em fields involved with Tesla coils and it is found that many-sheetedness of space-time is necessary to understand the standing waves also involved. The fact that massless extremals (MEs) can carry light-like currents is essential for modelling currents classically using many-sheeted space-time. The presence of magnetic monopole flux tubes distinguishing TGD from Maxwellian theory is suggestive and could explain why Teslaphoresis occurs in so long length scales and why it induces self-organization phenomena for CNTs. The situation can be seen as a special case of more general situation encountered in TGD based model of living matter.

For background see the chapter About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism or the article Teslaphoresis and TGD.

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