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TGD and Fringe Physics

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Year 2015

Tewari's space-energy generator two decades later

N-machine of De Palma and Tewari's space-energy generator are basically similar free energy devices, which I have considered as examples of possible new physics with technological importance. Tewari's space-energy generator corresponds to a rotating cylinder with metal disk attach to it and rotating with it. The energy of rotation is reported to transform to electric energy with COP or order 2.5. There is some energy source and the challenge is to identify it.

I constructed the first model for Tewari's space-energy generator in TGD framework for about two decades ago. The models of N-machine and Tewari's space-energy generator rely on simple observations about rotating magnetic systems. One might hope of extracting energy from the system by connecting the system with ground via a load so that the charge can flow through it and di-electric breakdown is avoided. The Coulomb energy is however rather small so that this is not a promising idea. The model for rotating magnetic systems involved transfer of energy between magnetic body of the rotating system and system utilizing the energy by negative energy signals but I was not able to propose any detailed model for how the energy is generated at magnetic body.

About two decades later I saw an article about Tewari's space-energy generator. The title of the article was India permits free energy technology despite threats from UK, US, Saudi Arabia. Title certainly tells something about the attitudes of those how make decisions about energy.

New elements

It is interesting to reconsider Tewari's space-energy generator using a conceptual framework considerably more refined as twenty years ago.

  1. At the time of first writing I knew nothing about dark matter assigned with the hierarchy of Planck constants heff=n× h, and its applications to biological systems and free energy systems.
  2. I had not formulated Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) at that time. I had discovered the notion of negative energy signals but I did not have a formulation of consciousness theory as a the generalization of quantum measurement theory in which causal diamonds (CDs) are in key role and state function reductions take place at either boundary of CD. When the first reduction to the opposite boundary takes place, the arrow of time changes. Neither had I realized that conscious entities - selves- can be identified as state function reduction sequences at the same boundary of CD so that the presence of negative energy signals transferring information or energy can be seen as signature for the macroscopic quantum jumps changing the arrow of time. The period of Zeno effect - repeated reductions with no effect on the state of system - is replaced with period of consciousness for the system. Sensory input corresponds to the boundary where state changes and which also itself is shifted (the distance between tips of CD increases). Together with Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) this allows to understand fundamental aspects of consciousness.
  3. Gradually the general ideas developed more detailed as I tried to understand the strange effects related to rotating magnetic systems. I identified the magnetic body of the rotating system as a carrier of dark matter cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates carrying angular momentum as spin and angular momentum. The coherent transfer of both energy and spin and angular momentum from the magnetic body to the rotating system was proposed as a manner for rotating magnetic system to angular momentum. One could understand the generation of angular momentum by assuming that the net angular momentum vanishes but the the origin of the rotational energy remained unclear.
  4. Concerning the origin of energy in Tewari's space-energy generator, the most conservative view is that the negative Coulomb interaction energy between the rotating system and magnetic body serves as the source of energy. The Coulomb energy is however rather small.

    Charge could be also fed to the system and is transferred outside it so that Coulomb energy begins to increase and eventually di-electric breakdown could take place. If the charge fed to the system does not rotate with it, a radial Lorentz force is generated. If it is of the same sign as the charged already generated, it is transferred outside by Coulomb repulsion. This however tends to reduce the Coulomb energy, which is undesirable.

    If the incoming charge rotates with the system, it experiences no Lorentz force. In this case the mechanism driving the charge outside the system could be based on the preservation the E=-v× B condition: this involves new physics since the condition implies vacuum charge density. This option looks more plausible.

  5. How are the charges transferred to the magnetic body and how the negative Coulomb energy could be generated? It is easy to see that vacuum charge density is negative if the direction of rotation is counterclockwise and magnetic field points "upwards" (B>0, ω<0) in right-handed coordinate frame. In this case protons could be transferred to the magnetic body and negative Coulomb energy would increase in magnitude. The preferred direction of rotation means large parity breaking possibly related to the large breaking of parity in living matter. By energy conservation the negative Coulomb energy must be compensated by some form of energy, say that associated with the rotational motion of system and dark matter at it with opposite angular moment, or by external load utilizing the Coulomb energy (wire connecting the rotating system to the load and back would be enough).
  6. An attractive idea is that the matter at the magnetic body is dark and thus makes possible macroscopic quantum coherence. In this respect an especially interesting effect is the generation of what Pollack calls the fourth phase of water. This phase consists of negatively charged regions - exclusion zones (EZs) - with positive charge outside them. The TGD inspired proposal is that the phase is formed as protons from the hydrogen bonded water molecule pairs inside EZs are transferred to the dark magnetic flux tubes outside EZs having large value of heff=n× h and form dark proton sequences identifiable as dark nuclear strings identified as dark nuclei. Some strange findings motivate the hypothesis that these dark proton strings are assumed to form a fundamental representation for genetic code. Earlier the ordinary nuclei are identified as nuclear strings.

    Besides Coulomb energy also the dark nuclear binding energy liberated in the formation of dark nuclei could be usable energy. This energy could also stabilize the flux tubes against Coulomb repulsion as it does in the case of the ordinary nuclei. If the nuclear binding energy scales like 1/distance, it would be of the order of the energy of bio-photons for dark nuclei of atomic atom size - that is the energy range of visible and UV light. The liberated energy could be utilized. Hence the Coulombic binding energy need not be the only source of energy. For slow enough feed the system is expected to keep its original state, it must transfer this positive charge to the magnetic body so that its positive charge increases and new dark nuclei are formed and also Coulomb interaction energy increases in magnitude.

Could this dark proton phase should be formed in the case of Tewari space-energy generator? It is an experimental fact that the rotating Faraday disk becomes charged. The sign of the charge however depends on the direction of the rotation. This means large parity breaking. Does Pollack effect occur only for the rotation direction for which the generated charge - vacuum charge in the above model - is negative? Or can the dark nuclei form also at the flux tubes inside the Faraday disk? If dark nuclei are formed, the liberated dark nuclear energy could go to rotational energy of the rotating magnetic system. In principle it is possible that the dark nuclei transform to ordinary nuclei. If this happens, huge nuclear energies are liberated. I have proposed that this could explain the claimed bio-fusion (an amusing accident is that Tewari is nuclear engineer!). In the sequel Tewari's space-energy generator is considered from this point of view.

An updated model for Tewari's space-energy generator

One can formulate an explicit model for the situation.

  1. Assume a cylinder of radius R (with area S=π R2) and length L rotating with angular frequency ω and carrying constant magnetic field B, whose flux arrives along single or even more cylindrical magnetic walls. Assume that from the conservation of magnetic flux the return flux has same value of magnetic field so that the total area of return flux tubes is same as the area of the cylinder: Sret= S=π R2.
  2. The condition E=v× eB determining the radial electric field associated with longitudinal electro field rotation with velocity v= ω× ρ could be interpreted in terms of mechanical equilibrium. One could see the condition as as generalization of Faraday law for linear motion following from Lorentz invariance to that for a rotational motion. This generalization does not however follow from Maxwell's equations. A further interpretation natural in TGD framework is that the electric field is obtained automatically when one puts the 3-surface in rotation motion so that the induced gauge potential A(ρ,φ) is replaced with A(ρ,φ-ω t).

    What is remarkable that electric field is not anymore sourceless so that one obtains vacuum charge density the sign of which depends on the direction of rotation. The interpretation is that some fraction of protons or electrons is transferred outside the rotating cylinder to the cylindrical magnetic walls. Assume that protons are transferred outside the rotating cylinder to magnetic flux tubes carrying the return magnetic flux and are transformed to dark matter with a large value heff=n× h of Planck constant. This requires quantum criticality in some sense.

  3. The assumption that dark protons form dark proton sequences identifiable as dark nuclei with a binding energy, which scales like 1/distance so that it scales like 1/heff. For the scaled up nucleon size about a=1 Angstrom one would have heff/h= a/λp≈ 105. The binding energy per nucleon would scale from its typical value of MeV to 10 eV. An attractive assumption is that the range of biophoton energies covering visible and UV lengths covers the binding energy range. The binding energy is liberated as dark photons with energies of visible and UV photons and can provide energy for the rotating system.
  4. A more quantitative estimate is obtained from the expression of electric field E= ω eBρ. The charge density is ρc= ω eB. The number of elementary charges per unit length is

    dN/dl=( ω/c)(Φ/Φ0) =(S/S0) ,

    Φ= ∫ eBdS=eBS .

    Φ/Φ0 is the magnetic flux using as quantum of magnetic flux with area S0 =π lB2/2, where the magnetic length lB is given by lB= (hbar c/eB)1/2 . One has lB≈ 26 nm (Tesla/B)1/2.

  5. Consider a fraction of cylinder with length a which corresponds to scaled up nucleon size defining the length of one unit in dark nucleon string. Consider a fraction of cylinder with length a which corresponds to scaled up nucleon size defining the length of one unit in dark nucleon string. The total number nucleons at cylindrical return flux quanta per nucleon length is

    Δ N= (dN/dl)a= (ω a/c) (S/S0) .

    The total area per single charge at return flux tubes using S0 as unit is

    (Δ S/S0)= (Sret/S0) (1/Δ N)=Δ (Sret/S0) = (Sret/S0 (1/Δ N)= (c/ω a)= (c/ω λp) (h/heff) .

    This gives

    Δ S/S= (c/ω λp) (h/heff) (S0/S) .

    One must have Δ S/S<1 (the number of protons at dark flux tube is larger than one). This gives a lower bound to the value of ω as

    fmin= (c/2πλp)(h/heff) (S0/S) .

  6. Consider as an example a cylinder of radius R= 1 meter carrying magnetic field of 1 Tesla and assume heff/h=106 giving nm sized dark protons suggested to be important in biology. From S0/S=2.62× 10-16 m2 and (c/2πλp)= 2.3× 1023 Hz one obtains ωmin≈ 25 Hz. Large enough value of Planck constants help to lower the minimal rotation frequency. Rather small numbers of dark protons are involved so that the power liberated by the formation of dark nuclei remains rather small. One Watt would require 6.84× 1018 eV/s. A cylinder with radius of 1 m and length of 10 meters would liberate a total energy of about 109 eV (about 10-9 Joule).
A continual production of energy requires a continual feed of positive charge to the cylinder implying a continual feed to the magnetic flux tubes in steady state.
  1. The rate defining step is the transfer of charge to the flux tubes. This process is probably a quantum process. The feed dNp/dt of positive charge cannot exceed the rate of this process. The power produced would be

    P = IΔ E/e =(dNp/dt)Δ E,

    where Δ Ed= (h/heff)Δ E is the binding energy per dark nucleon and Δ E∼ 1 MeV ordinary binding energy per nucleon. This assuming that binding energy scales as 1/length.

  2. One obtains Δ E=∼ 1 eV for heff/h=106. For Δ E=1 eV this would give P= (I/A)× (106/heff) W from the fact that I=1 Ampre corresponds to a current of dNp/dt= 6.84× 1018 charge carriers per second. A continual transformation of energy to electric energy could be achieved if the liberated energy does not go to accelerated rotation of the cylinder but only to the compensation of dissipative effects. One should also have a model for the transfer of energy from the flux tubes to the rotating system and to the energy of the current. This step is expected to involve dissipative losses.
  3. The power for ohmic losses is given by Ploss= UI= I2R (here external load is included) and in steady state one has P= Ploss giving voltage

    U= IR= (106/heff) V .

    This is rather small number. One can of course ask whether supra current could help in the situation.

  4. Note that this process would generate an increasing voltage between flux tubes and cylinder, which as such could serve as source of electrostatic energy. This would happen even without the occurrence of dark fusion. This would not however yield excess energy.
One can consider also the possibility of ordinary cold nuclear fusion. Could one induce transformation of dark nuclei located at magnetic flux tubes to ordinary nuclei thus liberating binding energy of nucleon about 1 MeV? This would be equivalent with cold nuclear fusion and evidence for it has been found in living matter and systems involving splitting of water \citeallb/geesink. A possible mechanism would rely on bringing negative charge to the rotating system. This would increase the Coulobic attraction between dark nuclei at flux tubes and could bring them to the cylinder, where they would transform to ordinary matter and liberate nuclear binding energy. This kind of possibility would mean technological revolution.

A continual transformation of energy to electric energy could be achieved if the liberated energy does not go to accelerated rotation of the cylinder but only to the compensation of dissipative effects. One should also have a model for the transfer of energy from the flux tubes to the rotating system and to the energy of the current. This step is expected to involve dissipative losses. One can of course ask whether supra current could help the situation. Note that the proposed model might quite generally apply to the modelling of rotating magnetic systems and suggests that a continual current through the system might make possible continual production of energy.

See the chapter About Strange Effects Related to Rotating Magnetic Systems or the article Tewari's space-energy generator two decades later.

Could Podkletnov effect be understood using heff= heff hypothesis?

Podkletnov discovered his effect around 1982. There are funny co-incidences involved. I got my PhD. Podkletnov was kicked out from Tampere University and I was soon to find that it is impossible to find any funding for my work: situation is still the same! God can forgive but not colleagues. I have considered possible models for Pokletnov effect in TGD framework for years ago assuming that the propagation of gravitons along topological light rays attached to magnetic flux tubes mediate gravitational interaction. A lot of progress has taken since then. Therefore reconsideration is well-motivated.

The effect itself looks rather complex. The experiment involves a levitating disk above a toroidal magnet. Solenoids generating AC fields with frequency in the range 50-106 Hz are used to rotate the disk. Above the disk at height of 15 mm is a sample of silicon with weight of 5.47834 g. The claim is that both the rotating disk and sample lose part of their weight: the estimate varies from .3 per cent to few per cent. The effect was resonance like above frequency 105 Hz: below this the weight fluctuates. The size of the effect increases with rotation frequency.

Some background

It is best to start by introducing some background.

  1. The first thing to notice is that f=6× 105 Hz is cyclotron frequency of electrons in the magnetic field Bend=.2 Gauss introduced to explain the quantal effects of ELF em fields on brain which appear at multiples of cyclotron frequencies of biologically important ions. The recent model for bio-photons as decay products of dark protons predicts that their spectrum correspond to a spectrum of Bend. Could it be that the magnetic fields at the flux tubes involved has spectrum of Bend and resonant transfer of energy in the frequency range containing f=6× 105 Hz takes place?
  2. The hypothesis heff = hgr = GMD m/v0, where MD is the dark mass assignable with large system (Earth now) and v0 is velocity parameter is relatively new piece of TGD inspired quantum biology. One obtains a rough estimate MD/M ≈ 2. × 10-4 for the fraction of dark matter in the case of Earth and assignable to the dark magnetic body of Earth. One implication of hgr=heff hypothesis at gravitation mediating flux tubes is that cyclotron frequencies of particles do not depend on the mass of the particle and cyclotron energy spectrum of dark photons is universal and identifiable as that associated with bio-photons. Second implication is that each charged particle corresponds to particular value of Planck constant so that in many-sheeted space-time they populate different flux tubes: this could be very relevant for biology since cell would not be anymore a random soup of molecules. The model for the Pioneer and Flyby anomalies leads to the estimate MD/M≈ 1.3× 10-4 consistent with the above estimate.
  3. I have considered recently a model for the fountain effect of superfluidity considering the possibility that dark phases of matter in TGD sense might be associated with all critical situations - both ordinary critical and quantum critical phase transitions - in which long range fluctuations correlations explained in terms of generation of dark matter are present.

    The superfluid is able to climb from vessel along its walls apparently defying gravitation. The TGD explanation is in terms of large Planck constant hgr=heff hypothesis. The large value of hgr implies macroscopic quantum gravitational coherence and that the quantum states in gravitational field for dark 4He atoms have macroscopic size. In particular, the flow along walls is effectively free flow.

The anomaly in the measurement of Cooper pair mass in rotating superconductors

One has discovered an anomalous outcome in the mass measurements of Cooper pairs in the case of rotating superconductors. The measured mass of Cooper pair in rotating super conductor is slightly larger than the mass of the pair which must be slightly below the sum of the masses. Tajmar et al try to explain the anomaly is in terms of a gigantic gravimagnetic London effect associated with a rotating superconductor.

  1. Recall that in in the ordinary London effect a magnetic field proportional to the negative of rotation frequency is generated inside super-conductor: usually the magnetic field is expelled. London magnetic field corresponds to a magnetic dipole proportional the negative of the rotation frequency (this follows from the negative sign of the charge carriers). The natural expectation is that this gives rise to a dipole field outside the superconductor. The dipole moment would be generated by electron current at the surface of the superconductor.
  2. The idea is to to introduce gravitational superconductivity for which all kinds of particles participate in the flow which would be analogous to super-fluidity. One can also speak about gravitational Meissner effect and massivation of graviton as analog of massivation of photons in the ordinary Meissner effect. Also the notion of London magnetic field might generalizes and gives rise to a dipole like gravimagnetic field outside the super-conductor. Now however negative charge is replaced by mass, which is positive so that the sign of the effect changes. The predicted effect is however completely negligible using the existing estimates for the mass of the graviton.
  3. The crazy proposal of Tajmar et al is that a gravimagnetic field larger than that predicted by GRT by a factor of order 1024 is associated with the rotating super-conductor and combines and produces the slight deviation of the measured mass of the Cooper pair from real when this since the Cooper pair couples also to gravimagnetic field besides magnetic field. The reason is that the effective magnetic field contains a small contribution of gravimagnetic field so that the measurement gives too large a result for the mass of the Cooper pair.
In standard model plus GRT this kind of effect is impossible. In TGD framework the hierarchy of Planck constants suggests two alternative explanations.
  1. The London magnetic field (also gravimagnetic) is a purely quantal effect and proportional to the square h2 of Planck constant. If h is replaced with say heff = hgr≈ 1012 h the effect is enormous as compared to that predicted by GRT! There is however an objection: one cannot perform this replacement for ordinary London field! Why?
  2. Many-sheeted space-time allows to consider also alternative model in which the change of mass is due to a generation of the analog of dark London magnetic field at dark magnetic flux tubes: electron would couple to the sum of these fields since it would have topological sum contacts to both space-time sheets This magnetic field is proportional to dark matter density and ρD/ρ=MD/M≈ 2× 10-4 would give a correct order of magnitude estimate.
  3. Since gravimagnetic and magnetic fields are expressible in terms of CP2 coordinates and their gradients, one can wonder whether the two explanations are actually equivalent.

What about Podkletnov effect?

Also Pokdletknov effect is associated with a rotating superconductor and one can ask whether the above ideas apply also to it.

  1. The vision that dark variants of elementary particles are associated with all critical phenomena suggest that a critical phenomenon is in question also now and part of the matter - at least part of Cooper pairs - are in dark phase at magnetic flux tubes satisfying heff= hgr. Could large heff=hgr be involved also with Podkletnov's effect? Could the reported loss of the weight of the (not necessarily) rotating disk and and of the sample by .3 per cent be due to the transformation of part of Cooper pairs to large heff=hgr phase de-localized to the magnetic flux tubes along which gravitational force is mediated in a scale considerably larger than that of the sample and disk? Also the air above the rotating superconductor was reported to start to rise. Could this be that also air molecules lost some of their electrons to the dark flux tubes in this manner? Since electron mass is about 2-11 fraction of proton mass, also protons and heavier particles should leak to the dark phase to achieve weight loss of order per cent. This effect would be present already for the non-rotating superconductor and would be much like the fountain effect in superfluidity according to TGD.
  2. As the frequency of AC fields is increased, the weight of the sample fluctuates but above 105 Hz it stabilizes and is resonant like. Levitation is essentially due to the gradient of the magnetic energy associated with AC fields. Could part of AC photons transform to dark photons and could the large energy of dark photons - in visible and UV range - mean much larger excluded magnetic energy in the volume of the gravi-superconducting sample and rotating superconducting disk and in this manner induce stronger levitating effect becoming stronges at cyclotron resonance energies. Resonance absorption would take place when the frequency is in the region of electron cyclotron frequencies for the flux tubes. Also coherence would be achieved thanks to the presence of Bose-Einstein condensates of electronic Cooper pairs.
  3. One should explain also the increase of the reported loss of the weight with the rotation velocity of the superconducting disk. Rotation generating the mass current should generate dipolar gravimagnetic field with strength proportional to the rotation frequency (and accompanied by ordinary magnetic fields). The increasing strength of the gravimagnetic field would mean increase in the number of flux quanta or increase of the field strength at the flux tubes. At least in the first case more particles could end up to the dark phase leading to the reduction of effective weight of the sample and rotating disk. This gravimagnetic dipole field would naturally correspond to the gravimagnetic London field continued outside the superconducting rotating disk acting as a magnetic dipole.

See the chapter The notion of free energy and many-sheeted space-time concept or the article Could Podkletnov effect be understood using heff= heff hypothesis?.

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