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TGD and Fringe Physics
Note: Newest contributions are at the top!
The formula for the quantized Hall conductance is given by
σ= ν× e2/h,ν=m/n.
Series of fractions in ν=1/3, 2/5 3/7, 4/9, 5/11, 6/13, 7/15..., 2/3, 3/5, 4/7 5/9, 6/11, 7/13..., 5/3, 8/5, 11/7, 14/9... 4/3 7/5, 10/7, 13/9... , 1/5, 2/9, 3/13..., 2/7 3/11..., 1/7.... with odd denominator have bee observed as are also ν=1/2 and ν=5/2 state with even denominator.
The model of Laughlin [Laughlin] cannot explain all aspects of FQHE. The best existing model proposed originally by Jain [Jain] is based on composite fermions resulting as bound states of electron and even number of magnetic flux quanta. Electrons remain integer charged but due to the effective magnetic field electrons appear to have fractional charges. Composite fermion picture predicts all the observed fractions and also their relative intensities and the order in which they appear as the quality of sample improves.
I have considered earlier a possible TGD based model of FQHE not involving hierarchy of Planck constants. The generalization of the notion of imbedding space suggests the interpretation of these states in terms of fractionized charge and electron number.
[Laughlin] R. B. Laughlin (1983), Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1395. [Jain] J. K. Jain (1989), Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 199.
For more details see the chapter The Notion of Free Energy and Many-Sheeted Space-Time Concept.
The book "TGD and Fringe Physics" contains TGD based models for various anomalies, in particular those claimed by "free energy" community. The earlier chapter The Notion of Free Energy and Many-Sheeted Space-Time Concept gave birth to a new chapter with the title Strange Effects Related to Rotating Magnetic Systems. The new version for "The Notion..." contains besides the models for some "free energy" anomalies fresh material representing an overall view about new energy technologies provided by the TGD based ontology and a discussion of some rather recent evidence for it. Below a short summary about this vision.
The vision about new energy technology has close connections to the basic mechanisms of energy metabolism in living matter in TGD Universe and one cannot avoid even reference to TGD inspired quantum theory of consciousness. The point is that so called time mirror mechanism defines a mechanism of remote metabolism as sucking of energy from remote energy storage, a mechanism of memory as communications with geometric past, and mechanism of intentional action initiating neural activity in geometric past. At the level of technology time mirror mechanism would define a mechanism of energy transfer, communication, and remote quantum control.
1. The new ontology
The ontology of TGD Universe involves several new elements. The notion of many-sheeted space-time means that each physical system corresponds to a space-time sheet, its own sub-universe in geometric sense, and glued to a larger space-time sheet and containing subsystems as smaller space-time sheets glued to it. Many-sheeted space-time leads to the notion of field body distinguishing between TGD and Maxwell's electrodynamics. One can assign to each physical system a field body (or magnetic body) and in case of living matter it acts as intentional agent using biological body as a sensory receptor and motor instrument.
Zero energy ontology states that any physical system has a vanishing net energy so that everything is creatable from vacuum. Zero energy states decompose into positive and negative energy parts. The possibility of negative energy signals is one important implication and a considerable modification of thermodynamics is forced by the fact that different signs of energy correspond to different arrows of geometric time.
Negative energy signals propagating to the geometric past inspire a new vision about communications, energy technology, and remote control. The implications are especially important for the understanding of living matter where both time directions manifest themselves. In neuroscience a radically new view about memory based on the notion of 4-D brain emerges.
The hierarchy of Planck constants implies a generalization of the notions of imbedding space and space-time and macroscopic quantum coherence in all length and time scales at high enough levels of dark matter hierarchy assigned to the hierarchy of Planck constant. The consequences of this hypothesis are powerful: entire cosmos should be in a well-defined sense a living system with dark matter representing higher level conscious entities.
The original motivation for the p-adic physics were the highly successful calculations of elementary particle masses based on p-adic thermodynamics and conformal invariance. The only sensible interpretation of p-adic physics seems to be as physics of cognition and intentionality meaning that cognition is present even at elementary particle level. This implies a profound generalization of space-time concept implying that cognition and intentionality are literally cosmic phenomena but having experimentally measurable correlates in real physics.
2. The new view about energy
The basic idea is that quantum biology could teach us a lot about energy technology. The necessity to carry fuel is one of the drawback of standard energy technologies. Remote metabolism based on sucking of energy by sending negative energy signals to energy storage analogous to a population inverted laser defines what might be called quantum credit card. This is the basic metabolic mechanism of TGD inspired quantum biology. The mechanism could make sense also as an energy technology.
In biological systems the fuel serves as an energy storage and is recycled. Animal cells burn the fuel and plant cells reconstruct it using sunlight as an energy source. Similar recycling of the fuel could make it un-necessary to carry large amounts of fuel. The systems doing the recycling could be seen as primitive life forms and plasmoids are an excellent candidate in this respect. Fuel could be practically any quantum system with two or more states with different energies.
Large Planck constant phases would make it possible to communicate short wave length photons over long distances: say photons with energy of visible photon but having wavelength of EEG photon. This might help to achieve a lossless energy transfer. Topological light rays ("massless extremals") would be in a key role in making possible precisely targeted, dispersion-free and lossless energy and information transfer. They are ideal also for quantum control.
3. Evidence for new ontology
There are surprisingly many well established anomalies supporting the new ontology and these anomalies have been a strong guiding line in attempts to construct a general theoretical framework.
I have considered two models for Allais effect. The first model was constructed for several years ago and was based on classical Z0 force. For a couple of weeks ago I considered a model based on gravitational screening. It however turned that this model does not work. The next step was the realization that the effect might be a genuine quantum effect made possible by the gigantic value of the gravitational Planck constant: the pendulum would act as a highly sensitive gravitational interferometer.
One can represent rather general counter arguments against the models based on Z0 conductivity and gravitational screening if one takes seriously the puzzling experimental findings concerning frequency change.
The above findings allow to make some important conclusions about the nature of Allais effect.
2. Model for interaction via gravitational MEs with large Planck constant
Restricting the consideration for simplicity only gravitational MEs, a concrete model for the situation would be as follows.
The assumption of the scaling law
is very natural in light of conformal invariance and masslessness of gravitons and allows to make the model more explicit. With the choice λ0=rS the anomaly term can be expressed in the form
Δ agr≈ (GMS/rSrM) × (22k+1/v0)×(MM/MS)k × R0(S,P)× R0(M,P)× ∑n=1∞ ((-1)n/n2k)× cos[nπK] ,
K= x× (rM/rS)× (yM/yS).
The normalization condition reads in this case as
R02=v0/[2π∑n (1/n)2k+1]=v0/πζ(2k+1) .
Note the shorthand v0(S/M,P)= v0. The anomalous gravitational acceleration is given by
Δagr=(GMS/rS2) × X Y× ∑n=1∞ [(-1)n/n2k]×cos[nπK] ,
X= 22k × (rS/rM)× (MM/MS)k ,
It is clear that a reasonable order of magnitude for the effect can be obtained if k is small enough and that this is essentially due to the gigantic value of gravitational Planck constant.
The simplest model consistent with experimental findings assumes v0(M,P)= v0(S,P) and Φ(n)=0 and gives
Δagr/gcos(Θ)=(GMS/rS2g)× X Y× ∑n=1∞ [(-1)n/n2k]×cos(nπ K) ,
X= 22k × (rS/rM)× (MM/MS)k,
Y=1/π ∑n (1/n)2k+1 =1/πζ(2k+1) ,
K=x× (rM/rS)× (yM/yS) , x=MS/MM .
Θ denotes in the formula above the angle between the direction of Sun and horizontal plane.
4. Numerical estimates
To get a numerical grasp to the situation one can use MS/MM≈ 2.71× 107, rS/rM≈ 389.1, and (MSrM/MMrS)≈ 1.74× 104. The overall order of magnitude of the effect would be
Δ g/g≈ XY× GMS/RS2gcos(Θ) ,
(GMS/RS2g) ≈6× 10-4 .
The overall magnitude of the effect is determined by the factor XY.
For k=1 and 1/2 the effect is too small. For k=1/4 the expression for Δ agr reads as
(Δagr/gcos(Θ))≈1.97× 10-4∑n=1∞ ((-1)n/n1/2)×cos(nπK),
K= (yM/yS)u , u=(MS/MM)(rM/rS)≈ 6.95671837× 104 .
The sensitivity of cosine terms to the precise value of yM/yS gives good hopes of explaining the strong variation of Δf/f and also the findings of Jeverdan. Numerical experimentation indeed shows that the sign of cosine sum alternates and its value increases as yM/yS increases in the range [1,2].
The eccentricities of the orbits of Moon resp. Earth are eM=.0549 resp. eE=.017. Denoting semimajor and semiminor axes by a and b one has Δ=(a-b)/a=1-(1-e2)1/2. ΔM=15× 10-4 resp. ΔE=1.4× 10-4 characterizes the variation of yM resp. yM due to the non-circularity of the orbits of Moon resp. Earth. The ratio RE/rM= .0166 characterizes the range of the variation ΔyM =ΔrM,P/rM< RE/rM due to the variation of the position of the laboratory. All these numbers are large enough to imply large variation of the argument of cosine term even for n=1 and the variation due to the position at the surface of Earth is especially large.
For details see the chapter The Anomalies Related to the Classical Z0 Force and Gravitation.
Allais effect is a fascinating gravitational anomaly associated with solar eclipses. It was discovered originally by M. Allais, a Nobelist in the field of economy, and has been reproduced in several experiments but not as a rule. The experimental arrangement uses so called paraconical pendulum, which differs from the Foucault pendulum in that the oscillation plane of the pendulum can rotate in certain limits so that the motion occurs effectively at the surface of sphere.
The "../articles/ Should the Laws of Gravitation Be Reconsidered: Part I,II,III? of Allais here and here and the summary article The Allais effect and my experiments with the paraconical pendulum 1954-1960 of Allais give a detailed summary of the experiments performed by Allais.
A. Experimental findings of Allais
Consider first a brief summary of the findings of Allais.
B. TGD inspired model for Allais effect
The basic idea of the TGD based model is that Moon absorbs some fraction of the gravitational momentum flow of Sun and in this manner partially screens the gravitational force of Sun in a disk like region having the size of Moon's cross section. Screening is expected to be strongest in the center of the disk. The predicted upper bound for the change of the oscillation frequency is slightly larger than the observed change which is highly encouraging.
1. Constant external force as the cause of the effect
The conclusions of Allais motivate the assumption that quite generally there can be additional constant forces affecting the motion of the paraconical pendulum besides Earth's gravitation. This means the replacement g→ g+Δg of the acceleration g due to Earth's gravitation. Δg can depend on time.
The system obeys still the same simple equations of motion as in the initial situation, the only change being that the direction and magnitude of effective Earth's acceleration have changed so that the definition of vertical is modified. If Δ g is not parallel to the oscillation plane in the original situation, a torque is induced and the oscillation plane begins to rotate. This picture requires that the friction in the rotational degree of freedom is considerably stronger than in oscillatory degree of freedom: unfortunately I do not know what the situation is.
The behavior of the system in absence of friction can be deduced from the conservation laws of energy and angular momentum in the direction of g+Δ g.
2. What causes the effect in normal situations?
The gravitational accelerations caused by Sun and Moon come first in mind as causes of the effect. Equivalence Principle implies that only relative accelerations causing analogs of tidal forces can be in question. In GRT picture these accelerations correspond to a geodesic deviation between the surface of Earth and its center. The general form of the tidal acceleration would thus the difference of gravitational accelerations at these points:
Δg= -2GM[(Δ r/r3) - 3(r•Δ rr/r5)].
Here r denotes the relative position of the pendulum with respect to Sun or Moon. Δr denotes the position vector of the pendulum measured with respect to the center of Earth defining the geodesic deviation. The contribution in the direction of Δ r does not affect the direction of the Earth's acceleration and therefore does not contribute to the torque. Second contribution corresponds to an acceleration in the direction of r connecting the pendulum to Moon or Sun. The direction of this vector changes slowly.
This would suggest that in the normal situation the tidal effect of Moon causes gradually changing force mΔg creating a torque, which induces a rotation of the oscillation plane. Together with dissipation this leads to a situation in which the orbital plane contains the vector Δg so that no torque is experienced. The limiting oscillation plane should rotate with same period as Moon around Earth. Of course, if effect is due to some other force than gravitational forces of Sun and Earth, paraconic oscillator would provide a manner to make this force visible and quantify its effects.
3. What happens during solar eclipse?
During the solar eclipse something exceptional must happen in order to account for the size of effect. The finding of Allais that the limiting oscillation plane contains the line connecting Earth, Moon, and Sun implies that the anomalous acceleration Δ |g| should be parallel to this line during the solar eclipse.
The simplest hypothesis is based on TGD based view about gravitational force as a flow of gravitational momentum in the radial direction.
C. What kind of tidal effects are predicted?
If the model applies also in the case of Earth itself, new kind of tidal effects (for normal tidal effects see this) are predicted due to the screening of the gravitational effects of Sun and Moon inside Earth. At the night-side the paraconical pendulum should experience the gravitation of Sun as screened. Same would apply to the "night-side" of Earth with respect to Moon.
Consider first the differences of accelerations in the direction of the line connecting Earth to Sun/Moon: these effects are not essential for tidal effects proper. The estimate for the ratio for the orders of magnitudes of the these accelerations is given by
|Δgp(Sun)|/|Δgp(Moon)|= (MS/MM) (rM/rE)3≈ 2.17.
The order or magnitude follows from r(Moon)=.0026 AU and MM/MS=3.7× 10-8. The effects caused by Sun are two times stronger. These effects are of same order of magnitude and can be compensated by a variation of the pressure gradients of atmosphere and sea water.
The tangential accelerations are essential for tidal effects. The above estimate for the ratio of the contributions of Sun and Moon holds true also now and the tidal effects caused by Sun are stronger by a factor of two.
Consider now the new tidal effects caused by the screening.
The intuitive expectation is that the screening is maximum when the gravitational momentum flux travels longest path in the Earth's interior. The maximal difference of radial accelerations associated with opposite sides of Earth along the line of sight to Moon/Sun provides a convenient manner to distinguish between Newtonian and TGD based models:
|Δ gp,N|=4GM ×(RE/r)3 ,
|Δ gp,TGD|= 4GM ×(1/r2).
The ratio of the effects predicted by TGD and Newtonian models would be
|Δ gp,TGD|/|Δ gp,N|= r/RE ,
rM/RE =60.2 , rS/RE= 2.34× 104.
The amplitude for the oscillatory variation of the pressure gradient caused by Sun would be
Δ|gradpS|=v2E/rE≈ 6.1× 10-4g
and the pressure gradient would be reduced during night-time. The corresponding amplitude in the case of Moon is given by
Δ |gradpS|/Δ|gradpM|= (MS/MM)× (rM/rS)3≈ 2.17.
Δ |gradpM| is in a good approximation smaller by a factor of 1/2 and given by
Thus the contributions are of same order of magnitude.
One can imagine two simple qualitative killer predictions.
D. An interesting co-incidence
The measured value of Δ f/f=5× 10-4 is exactly equal to v0=2-11, which appears in the formula hbargr= GMm/v0 for the favored values of the gravitational Planck constant. The predictions are Δ f/f≤ Δ p/p≈ 6× 10-4. Powers of 1/v0 appear also as favored scalings of Planck constant in the TGD inspired quantum model of bio-systems based on dark matter (see this). This co-incidence would suggest the quantization formula
gE/gS= (MS/ME) × (RE/rE)2= v0
for the ratio of the gravitational accelerations caused by Earth and Sun on an object at the surface of Earth.
E. Summary of the predicted new effects
Let us sum up the basic predictions of the model.
To sum up, the predicted anomalous tidal effects and the explanation of the limiting oscillation plane in terms of stronger dissipation in rotational degree of freedom could kill the model.
For details see the chapter The Anomalies Related to the Classical Z0 Force and Gravitation.