Bio-systems as super-conductors: part I

In this chapter various TGD based ideas related to the role of super-conductivity in bio-systems are studied. TGD inspired theory of consciousness provides several motivations for this.

There is evidence for super-conductivity in bio-systems. DNA should be insulator but under some circumstances it becomes conductor and perhaps even high Tc quantum critical super-conductor. Also evidence for Josephson effect has been reported. The so called ORMEs patented by Hudson are claimed to behave like superconductors: unfortunately the academic world has not taken these claims seriously enough to test them. The claimed properties of ORMEs conform with high quantum critical Tc super-conductivity and superfluidity. The strange findings about the strange quantal behavior of ionic currents through cell membranes suggest the presence of ionic supra currents.

2. Model for high Tc superconductivity

A model for high Tc super-conductivity as quantum critical phenomenon is developed. The relies on the notions of quantum criticality, dynamical quantized Planck constant requiring a generalization of the 8-D imbedding space to a book like structure, and many-sheeted space-time. In particular, the notion of magnetic flux tube as a carrier of supra current of central concept.

With a sufficient amount of twisting and weaving these basic ideas one ends up to concrete model for high Tc superconductors as quantum critical superconductors consistent with the qualitative facts that I am personally aware. The following minimal model looks the most realistic option found hitherto.

  1. The general idea is that magnetic flux tubes are carriers of supra currents. In anti-ferromagnetic phases these flux tube structures form small closed loops so that the system behaves as an insulator. Some mechanism leading to a formation of long flux tubes must exist. Doping creates holes located around stripes, which become positively charged and attract electrons to the flux tubes.

  2. The higher critical temperature Tc1 corresponds to a formation local configurations of parallel spins assigned to the holes of stripes giving rise to a local dipole fields with size scale of the order of the length of the stripe. Conducting electrons form Cooper pairs at the magnetic flux tube structures associated with these dipole fields. The elongated structure of the dipoles favors angular momentum L=2 for the pairs. The presence of magnetic field favors Cooper pairs with spin S=1.

  3. Stripes can be seen as 1-D metals with delocalized electrons. The interaction responsible for the energy gap corresponds to the transversal oscillations of the magnetic flux tubes inducing oscillations of the nuclei of the stripe. These transverse phonons have spin and their exchange is a good candidate for the interaction giving rise to a mass gap. This could explain the BCS type aspects of high Tc super-conductivity.

  4. Above Tc supra currents are possible only in the length scale of the flux tubes of the dipoles which is of the order of stripe length. The reconnections between neighboring flux tube structures induced by the transverse fluctuations give rise to longer flux tubes structures making possible finite conductivity. These occur with certain temperature dependent probability p(T,L) depending on temperature and distance L between the stripes. By criticality p(T,L) depends on the dimensionless variable x=TL/hbar only: p=p(x). At critical temperature Tc transverse fluctuations have large amplitude and makes p(xc) so large that very long flux tubes are created and supra currents can run. The phenomenon is completely analogous to percolation.

  5. The critical temperature Tc = xchbar/L is predicted to be proportional to hbar and inversely proportional to L (, which is indeed to be the case). If flux tubes correspond to a large value of hbar, one can understand the high value of Tc. Both Cooper pairs and magnetic flux tube structures represent dark matter in TGD sense.

  6. The model allows to interpret the characteristic spectral lines in terms of the excitation energy of the transversal fluctuations and gap energy of the Cooper pair. The observed 50 meV threshold for the onset of photon absorption suggests that below Tc also S=0 Cooper pairs are possible and have gap energy about 9 meV whereas S=1 Cooper pairs would have gap energy about 27 meV. The flux tube model indeed predicts that S=0 Cooper pairs become stable below Tc since they cannot anymore transform to S=1 pairs. Their presence could explain the BCS type aspects of high Tc super-conductivity. The estimate for hbar/hbar0 = r from critical temperature Tc1 is about r=3 contrary to the original expectations inspired by the model of of living system as a super-conductor suggesting much higher value. An unexpected prediction is that coherence length is actually r times longer than the coherence length predicted by conventional theory so that type I super-conductor could be in question with stripes serving as duals for the defects of type I super-conductor in nearly critical magnetic field replaced now by ferromagnetic phase.

  7. TGD suggests preferred values for r=hbar/hbar0. For the most general option the values of hbar are products and ratios of two integers na and nb. Ruler and compass integers defined by the products of distinct Fermat primes and power of two are number theoretically favored values for these integers because the phases exp(i2π/ni), i=a,b, in this case are number theoretically very simple and should have emerged first in the number theoretical evolution via algebraic extensions of p-adics and of rationals. p-Adic length scale hypothesis favors powers of two as values of r. The hypothesis that Mersenne primes Mk=2k-1, k=89,107,127, and Gaussian Mersennes MG,k=(1+i)k-1, k=113,151,157,163,167,239,241.. (the number theoretical miracle is that all the four p-adic length scales sith k=151,157,163,167 are in the biologically highly interesting range 10 nm-2.5 μm) define scaled up copies of electro-weak and QCD type physics with ordinary value of hbar and that these physics are induced by dark variants of each other leads to a prediction for the preferred values of r=2kd, kd=ki-kj, and the resulting picture finds support from the ensuing models for biological evolution and for EEG.

At qualitative level the model explains various strange features of high Tc superconductors. One can understand the high value of Tc and ambivalent character of high Tc super conductors, the existence of pseudogap and scalings laws for observables above Tc, the role of stripes and doping and the existence of a critical doping, etc...

3. The model for superconductivity in living matter

The model for high Tc superconductivity was inspired by the model of bio-superconductivity in which the flux tubes of magnetic fields are carriers of supra currents and the large value of Planck constant guarantees that gap energy and critical temperature are high enough. The transversal fluctuations of flux tubes provide the counterpart of phonons generating energy gap. Besides dark Cooper pairs also the Bose-Einstein condensates of dark bosonic ions define candidates for super-conducting phases provided that the gap energies in longitudinal and transversal magnetic degrees of freedom are high enough. High enough values of Planck constant can guarantee this.

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Bio-systems as superconductors: part II

This chapter is devoted to further applications of the theory of high Tc superconductors as quantum critical superconductors involving dark matter hierarchy and large values of hbar. The theory is applied to explain the strange findings about ionic currents through cell membrane, exotic neutrino superconductivity and the notion of cognitive neutrino pair are discussed, and the possibility that superconductivity and Bose-Einstein condensates are involved with atmospheric phenomena is considered.

1. Strange behavior of cellular water and quantal ionic currents through cell membrane

The fact that cellular water does not leak out of cell in a centrifugal force suggests that some fraction of water inside cell is in different phase. One explanation is that the nuclei of water inside cell are in doubly dark phase whereas electrons are in singly dark phase (having Compton length of 5 nm and perhaps directly "visible" using day technology!) as indeed predicted by the model of high Tc superconductivity. This conceptual framework could explain various findings challenging the notions of ionic pumps.

The empirical findings challenging the notions of ionic pumps and channels, nicely summarized by G. Pollack in his book, provide a strong support for the notions of many-sheeted space-time and ionic super-conductivity.

  1. The selectivity of the cell membrane implies that channels cannot be simple sieves and there must be complex information processing involved.

  2. The needed number of pumps specialized to particular ions is astronomical and the first question is where to put all these channels and pumps. On the other hand, if the cell constructs the pump or channel specialized to a given molecule only when needed, how does it know what the pump looks like if it has never seen the molecule? The needed metabolic energy to achieve all the pumping and channelling is huge. Strangely enough, pumping does not stop when cell metabolism stops.

  3. One can also wonder why the ionic currents through cell membrane look quantal and are same through cell membrane and silicon rubber membrane.

These observations suggest strongly the presence non-dissipative ionic currents and quantum self-organization. The TGD based explanation would be in terms of high Tc electronic and possibly even ionic superconductivity associated with cell membrane made possible by the large hbar phase for nuclei and electrons in the interior of cell. It however seems that thermal stability conditions allow only protonic Cooper pairs in the model of ionic Cooper pairs based on direct generalization of the model of high Tc electronic super conductivity. This does not however mean that quantal ionic currents would be absent. This empirical input also supports a view about homeostasis as a many-sheeted ionic flow equilibrium controlled by larger space-time sheets with the mediation of massless extremals (MEs) serving as space-time correlates for Bose-Einstein condensates of massless bosons (also of scaled down dark electro-weak bosons and gluons).

In the proposed picture one can understand how extremely low densities of ions and their supra currents can control much higher ion densities at the atomic space-time sheets. The liquid crystal nature of the bio-matter is crucial for the model. This vision allows also much better understanding of the effects of ELF em fields on bio-matter. Also the effects of homeopathic remedies and acupuncture known to crucially involve electromagnetic frequency signatures of chemicals can be understood if homeostasis is based on many-sheeted ionic flow equilibrium.

2. Cell membrane space-time sheet almost vacuum extremal?

It has been clear from the beginning that the nearly vacuum extremals of Kähler action could play key role key role in living systems. The reason is their criticality making them ideal systems for sensory perception. These extremals carry classical em and Z0 fields related to each other by a constant factor and this could explain the large parity breaking effects characterizing living matter. The assumption that cell membranes are nearly vacuum extremals and that nuclei can feed their Z0 charges to this kind of space-time sheets (not true for atomic electrons) in living matter leads to a modification of the model for the cell membrane as Josephson junction. Also a model of photoreceptors explaining the frequencies of peak sensitivity as ionic Josephson frequencies and allowing the dual identifications Josephson radiation as biophotons (energies) and EEG radiation (frequencies) emerge since the values of Planck constant can be very large. The value of the Weinberg angle in this phase is fixed to sin2W)=.0295, whereas in standard phase the value is given by sin2W)=.23. The significance of this quantitative success for TGD and TGD inspired quantum biology cannot be over-estimated. It seems that membrane like structures near vacuum extremals analogous to cell membrane could provide a general approach to various anomalous phenomena involving plasma phase and luminous phenomena.

2. Hierarchies of preferred p-adic length scales and values of Planck constant

TGD inspired quantum biology and number theoretical considerations suggessuggests preferred values for r=hbar/hbar0. For the most general option the values of hbar are products and ratios of two integers na and nb. Ruler and compass integers defined by the products of distinct Fermat primes and power of two are number theoretically favored values for these integers because the phases exp(i2π/ni), i=a,b, in this case are number theoretically very simple and should have emerged first in the number theoretical evolution via algebraic extensions of p-adics and of rationals. p-Adic length scale hypothesis favors powers of two as values of r. The hypothesis that Mersenne primes Mk=2k-1, k=89,107,127, and Gaussian Mersennes MG,k=(1+i)k-1, k=113,151,157,163,167,239,241.. (the number theoretical miracle is that all the four p-adic length scales sith k=151,157,163,167 are in the biologically highly interesting range 10 nm-2.5 μm) define scaled up copies of electro-weak and QCD type physics with ordinary value of hbar and that these physics are induced by dark variants of each other leads to a prediction for the preferred values of r=2kd, kd=ki-kj, and the resulting picture finds support from the ensuing models for biological evolution and for EEG.

3. Fractal hierarchy of magnetic flux sheets and the hierarchy of genomes

The notion of magnetic body is central in the TGD inspired theory of living matter. Every system possesses magnetic body and there are strong reasons to believe that the magnetic body associated with human body is of order Earth size and that there could be an entire hierarchy of these bodies with even much larger sizes. Therefore the question arises what one can assume about these magnetic bodies. The quantization of magnetic flux suggests an answer to this question.

  1. The quantization condition for magnetic flux reads involves in the most general form both the momentum of super conducting particles and magnetic field. If supra currents flowing at the boundaries of the flux tube are absent one obtains standard quantization of the magnetic flux as a multiple of Planck constant, which requires that the scaling of the Planck constant scales up the flux tube thickness by r2 and scaling of B by 1/r. If one assumes that the radii of flux tubes do not depend on the value of r, magnetic flux is compensated by the contribution of the supra current flowing around the flux tube. The supra currents would be present inside living organism but in the faraway region where flux quanta from organism fuse together, the standard quantization conditions for magnetic flux would be satisfied.

  2. From the point of view of EEG especially interesting are the flux sheets which have thickness L(151)=10 nm (the thickness of cell membrane) carrying magnetic field having strength of endogenous magnetic field. In absence of supra currents these flux sheets have very large total transversal length proportional to r2. Strongly folded flux sheets of this thickness might be associated with living matter and connect their DNAs to single coherent structure. One can of course assume the presence of supra currents but outside the organism the flux sheet should fuse to form very long flux sheets.

  3. Suppose that the magnetic flux flows in head to tail direction so that the magnetic flux arrives to the human body through a layer of cortical neurons. Assume that the flux sheets traverse through the uppermost layer of neurons and also lower layers and that DNA of each neuronal nuclei define a transversal sections organized along flux sheet like text lines of a book page. The total length of DNA in single human cell is about one meter. It seems that single organism cannot provide the needed total length of DNA if DNA dominates the contribution. This if of course not at all necessarily since supra currents are possible and outside the organism the flux sheets can fuse together. This implies however correlations between genomes of different cells and even different organisms.

These observations inspire the notion of super- and hyper genes. As a matter fact, entire hierarchy of genomes is predicted. Super genes consist of genes in different cell nuclei arranged to threads along magnetic flux sheets like text lines on the page of book whereas hyper genes traverse through genomes of different organisms. Super and hyper genes provide an enormous representative capacity and together with the dark matter hierarchy allows to resolve the paradox created by the observation that human genome does not differ appreciably in size from that of wheat.

4. Bose-Einstein condensates at magnetic flux quanta in astrophysical length scales

The model for the topological condensation at magnetic flux quanta of endogenous magnetic field Bend=.2 Gauss is based on the dark matter hierarchy with levels characterized by the values of Planck constant. The hypothesis for the preferred values of Planck constans allows to build quantitative model for the Bose-Einstein condensation at magnetic flux quanta assuming that the value of Bend scales like 1/hbar. A justification for this hypothesis comes form flux quantization conditions and from the similar scaling of Josephson frequencies.

  1. There are several levels of dynamics. In topological condensation the internal dynamics of ions is unaffected and hbar has the ordinary value. For instance, the formation of Cooper pairs involves dynamics at kd=24=151-127 level of dark matter hierarchy if one assumes that electrons and Cooper pairs have size given by the cell membrane thickess L(151). Also the dynamics of ionic Cooper pairs remains unaffected in the topological condensation to magnetic flux quanta obeying kd>24 dynamics.

  2. Cyclotron energies scale as as hbar so that for a sufficiently high value of kd thermal stability of cyclotron states at room temperature is achieved for a fixed value of B. Same applies to spin flip transitions in the recent scenario. The model for EEG based on dark matter hierarchy involves the hypothesis that EEG quanta correspond to Josephson radiation with energies in the visible and UV range and that they produce in the decay to ordinary photons either bunches of EEG photons or visible/UV photons. This identification allows to deduce the value of kd when the frequency of the dark photon is fixed. The Mersenne hypothesis for the preferred p-adic length scales and values of Planck constants leads to very precise predictions.

  3. Cyclotron energies E= (hbar/2πi) \times ZeB/Amp are scaled up by a factor r=2kd from their ordinary values and for 10 Hz cyclotron frequency are in the range of energies of visible light for kd=46.

    5. Atmospheric phenomena and superconductivity

    There is a considerable evidence that various electromagnetic time scales associated with the atmospheric phenomena correspond to those associated with brain functioning. If magnetic sensory canvas hypothesis holds true, this is just what is expected. In this section these phenomena are considered in more detail with the aim being to build as concrete as possible vision about the dynamics involving the dark matter Bose-Einstein condensates at super-conducting magnetic flux quanta. A new element is the assumed presence of cell membrane like structures near vacuum extremals. If the potentials differences involved are same order of magnitude as in the case of cell membrane, the luminous phenomena can be understood in terms of effects caused by Josephson radiation at visible and UV frequencies.

    Tornadoes and hurricanes provide the first example of self-organizing systems for which Bose-Einstein condensates of dark matter at magnetic and Z0 magnetic flux quanta might be of relevance. Auroras represent a second phenomenon possibly involving supra currents of Cooper pairs and of exotic ions. Lightnings, sprites and elves might also involve higher levels of dark matter hierarchy. p-Adic length scale hypothesis and the hierarchy of Planck constants provide a strong grasp to these far from well-understood phenomena and allow to build rather detailed models for them as well as to gain concrete understanding about how dark matter hierarchy manifests itself in the electromagnetic phenomena at the level of atmosphere.

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Quantum antenna hypothesis

So called massless extremals are non-vacuum extremals of both Kähler action and the EYM action serving as effective action of the theory. These extremals have cylindrical geometry and are carriers of purely classical vacuum currents and Einstein tensor, which are both light like. These vacuum currents generate coherent states of photons and gravitons with frequencies coming as multiples of the basic frequency determined by the length of the micro-tubule. It is proposed that micro-tubuli and other linear structures could act as quantum antennae so that coherent light is for brain same as radio waves for us. Massless extremals associated with axonal micro-tubuli or axons themselves could serve as wave guides for the photons of coherent light and realize the notion of neural window abstracted from the paradigm of holographic brain. Vacuum currents could be also behind the ability of the bio-systems to form representations of the external world.

There is indeed evidence for the quantum antenna hypothesis: some mono-cellulars are known to possess primitive micro-tubular vision, bio-photons of Popp could could be generated by massless extremals and the observations of Callahan support the view that odor perception of insects relies on maser like emissions by the odor molecules. The coherent light emitted in sono-luminescence could be generated by light like vacuum currents associated with regions with size given roughly by the diameter of micro-tubule when vapor-to-liquid phase transition occurs at the final stage of the bubble collapse. Also the observed direct transformation of kinetic energy of fluid motion to chemical energy could involve generation of massless extremals.

The light like boundaries of MEs have the same miraculous conformal properties as the boundary of future light cone and MEs also allow holography in the sense of quantum gravity and string models and there are good hopes to generalize the construction of the configuration space geometry and quantum TGD to take into account the classical non-determinism of Kähler action. MEs provide a justification for the intuition that the super-canonical and super-conformal symmetries of the light cone boundary δ M4+ x CP2, which are cosmological symmetries, generalize to approximate macroscopic symmetries acting on the light like boundaries of the space-time sheets inside future light cone and broken only by quantum gravity. Super-canonical symmetries almost-commute with Poincare symmetries and the gigantic almost-degenerate super-canonical multiplets defined by genuinely quantum gravitational state functionals in the 'world of worlds' correspond in a well-defined sense to higher abstraction level expected to be crucial for understanding consciousness. MEs are also taylor-made for quantum holography and teleportation. Quantum holography conceptualization inspires much more detailed views about how bio-systems process information and how this information becomes conscious.

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Wormhole magnetic fields

It is argued that two purely TGD based concepts: topological field quantization and wormhole BE condensate are fundamental for the understanding of bio-systems.

1. Basic concepts

Quantum classical correspondence suggests that gauge charges and p-adic coupling constant should have space-time counterparts. The first problem is to define precisely the concepts like classical gauge charge, gauge flux, topological condensation and evaporation. The crucial ingredients in the model are so called CP2 type extremals. The realization that # contacts (topological sum contacts and #B contacts (join along boundaries bonds) are accompanied by causal horizons which carry quantum numbers and allow identification as partons leads to a solution of this problem.

The partons associated with topologically condensed CP2 type extremals carry elementary particle vacuum numbers whereas the parton pairs associated with # contacts connecting two space-time sheets with Minkowskian signature of induced metric define parton pairs. These parton pairs do not correspond to ordinary elementary particles. Gauge fluxes through # contacts can be identified as gauge charges of the partons. Gauge fluxes between space-time sheets can be transferred through # and #B contacts concentrated near the boundaries of the smaller space-time sheet.

2. Model for topologically quantized magnetic fields

Topological field quantization replaces classical magnetic fields with bundles of flux tubes parallel to the field lines; flux tubes are cylindrical 3-surfaces with outer boundary. In particular, "wormhole magnetic fields" having charged wormholes situated at the boundaries of the flux tubes as their sources, are possible and are vacuum configurations in the sense that they do not contain ordinary matter at all. Since wormholes are very light particles, they suffer BE condensation, and the resulting structure is macroscopic quantum system.

If the space-time sheets associated with the wormhole magnetic field have opposite time orientation, the structure can have vanishing net energy and is thus an ideal candidate for a mind like space-time sheet (or pair of these). These structures can be glued to the boundary of material space-time sheet and they form a cognitive local representation for the classical fields at the material space-time sheets by a direct mimicry! Thus wormhole magnetic fields and more general structures of the same kind could realize quantum physicist's version about the computer scientist's dream about universe consisting of Turing machines emulating each other.

3. Models for Comorosan effect, phantom DNA effect, and homeopathy

It is shown that the concept of wormhole magnetic field leads to a rather detailed understanding of Comorosan effect and phantom DNA effect. Homeopathy could be explained in terms of the mind like space-time sheets mimicking the properties of the drug and left to the solution in the repeated dilution of the drug.

3. Subcellular quantum control and wormhole magnetic fields

Wormhole magnetic fields provide a quantum mechanism of control from distance, say of the control of the behavior of cell organelles by cell nucleus as well as a model for the memory of bio-system in terms of integer valued winding numbers identifiable as quantized momenta of wormhole supra currents. Wormhole magnetic fields can also represent defects of electron and neutrino super conductors and serve as a templates for the topological condensation of ordinary matter. The fact that wormhole flux tubes are hollow cylinders, is in nice accordance with this idea (micro-tubuli, axonal membranes, etc. are hollow cylinders).

4. TGD inspired model for psychokinesis

A model of psychokinesis (PK) based on the concept of wormhole magnetic field is proposed. The basic philosophy is that PK is not just some isolated exotic phenomenon but only a special case of the voluntary control of bodily motions, which we all routinely perform. The only difference is that the range of voluntary control extends over the boundaries of the body in case of PK. The conclusion is that PK phenomena must involve classical long range fields, which give for bio-systems spatial extension larger than what is visible (that is hands with which to grasp on external object!). According to TGD inspired theory of consciousness, cell, and even DNA can be conscious, and perform choices. Thus the model should also provide understanding about small scale bio-control such as the (possibly voluntary!) control of the motion of cell organelles performed by cell nucleus. There is also alternative approach to the understanding of psychokinesis based on the possibility of creation of space-time sheets having negative time orientation and negative classical energy density and one could consider the possibility that poltergeist effects could involve this mechanism. Many-sheeted space-time concept makes possible also psychokinesis based on levitation: what is needed that subsystem is able to topologically condense to a sufficiently large space-time sheet carrying very weak gravitational fields.

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Dark Nuclear Physics and Condensed Matter

In this chapter the possible effects of dark matter in nuclear physics and condensed matter physics are considered. The spirit of the discussion is necessarily rather speculative since the vision about the hierarchy of Planck constants is only 5 years old. The most general form of the hierarchy would involve both singular coverings and factors spaces of CD (causal diamond of M4) defined as intersection of future and past directed light-cones) and CP2. There are grave objections against the allowance of factor spaces. In this case Planck constant could be smaller than its standard value and there are very few experimental indications for this. Quite recently came the realization that the hierarchy of Planck constants might emerge from the basic quantum TGD as a consequence of the extreme non-linearity of field equations implying that the correspondence between the derivatives of imbedding space coordinates and canonical momentum is many-to-one. This makes natural to the introduction of covering spaces of CD and CP2. Planck constant would be effectively replaced with a multiple of ordinary Planck constant defined by the number of the sheets of the covering. The space-like 3-surfaces at the ends of the causal diamond and light-like 3-surfaces defined by wormhole throats carrying elementary particle quantum numbers would be quantum critical in the sense of being unstable against decay to many-sheeted structures. Charge fractionization could be understood in this scenario. Biological evolution would have the increase of the Planck constant as as one aspect. The crucial scaling of the size of CD by Planck constant can be justified by a simple argument. Note that primary p-adic length scales would scale as hbar1/2 rather than hbar as assumed in the original model.

1. What darkness means?

Dark matter is identified as matter with non-standard value of Planck constant. The weak form of darkness is that only some field bodies of the particle consisting of flux quanta mediating bound state interactions between particles become dark. One can assign to each interaction a field body (em, Z0, W, gluonic, gravitational) and p-adic prime and the value of Planck constant characterize the size of the particular field body. One might even think that particle mass can be assigned with its em field body and that Compton length of particle corresponds to the size scale of em field body. Complex combinations of dark field bodies become possible and the dream is that one could understand various phases of matter in terms of these combinations.

Nuclear string model suggests that the sizes of color flux tubes and weak flux quanta associated with nuclei can become dark in this sense and have size of order atomic radius so that dark nuclear physics would have a direct relevance for condensed matter physics. If this happens, it becomes impossible to make a reductionistic separation between nuclear physics and condensed matter physics and chemistry anymore.

2. What dark nucleons are?

The basic hypothesis is that nuclei can make a phase transition to dark phase in which the size of both quarks and nuclei is measured in Angstroms. For the less radical option this transition could happen only for the color, weak, and em field bodies. Proton connected by dark color bonds super-nuclei with inter-nucleon distance of order atomic radius might be crucial for understanding the properties of water and perhaps even the properties of ordinary condensed matter. Large hbar phase for weak field body of D and Pd nuclei with size scale of atom would explain selection rules of cold fusion.

3. Anomalous properties of water and dark nuclear physics

A direct support for partial darkness of water comes from the H1.5O chemical formula supported by neutron and electron diffraction in attosecond time scale. The explanation would be that one fourth of protons combine to form super-nuclei with protons connected by color bonds and having distance sufficiently larger than atomic radius.

The crucial property of water is the presence of molecular clusters. Tedrahedral clusters allow an interpretation in terms of magic Z=8 protonic dark nuclei. The icosahedral clusters consisting of 20 tedrahedral clusters in turn have interpretation as magic dark dark nuclei: the presence of the dark dark matter explains large portion of the anomalies associated with water and explains the unique role of water in biology. In living matter also higher levels of dark matter hierarchy are predicted to be present. The observed nuclear transmutation suggest that also light weak bosons are present.

4. Implications of the partial darkness of condensed matter

The model for partially dark condensed matter inspired by nuclear string model and the model of cold fusion inspired by it allows to understand the low compressibility of the condensed matter as being due to the repulsive weak force between exotic quarks, explains large parity breaking effects in living matter, and suggests a profound modification of the notion of chemical bond having most important implications for bio-chemistry and understanding of bio-chemical evolution.

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Dark Forces and Living Matter

The unavoidable presence of classical long ranged weak (and also color) gauge fields in TGD Universe has been a continual source of worries for more than two decades. The basic question has been whether Z0 charges of elementary particles are screened in electro-weak length scale or not. Same question msut be raised in the case of color charges. For a long time the hypothesis was that the charges are feeded to larger space-time sheets in this length scale rather than screened by vacuum charges so that an effective screening results in electro-weak length scale. This hypothesis turned out to be a failure and was replaced with the idea that the non-linearity of field equations (only topological half of Maxwell's equations holds true) implies the generation of vacuum charge densities responsible for the screening.

The weak form of electric-magnetic duality led to the identification of the long sought for mechanism causing the weak screening in electroweak scales. The basic implication of the duality is that Kähler electric charges of wormhole throats representing particles are proportional to Kähler magnetic charges so that the CP2 projections of the wormhole throats are homologically non-trivial. The Kähler magnetic charges do not create long range monopole fields if they are neutralized by wormhole throats carrying opposite monopole charges and weak isospin neutralizing the axial isospin of the particle's wormhole throat. One could speak of confinement of weak isospin. The weak field bodies of elementary fermions would be replaced with string like objects with a length of order W boson Compton length. Electro-magnetic flux would be feeded to electromagnetic field body where it would be feeded to larger space-time sheets. Similar mechanism could apply in the case of color quantum numbers. Weak charges would be therefore screened for ordinary matter in electro-weak length scale but dark electro-weak bosons correspond to much longer symmetry breaking length scale for weak field body. Large values of Planck constant would make it possible to zoop up elementary particles and study their internal structure without any need for gigantic accelerators.

In this chapter possible implications of the dark weak force for the understanding of living matter are discussed. The basic question is how classical Z0 fields could make itself visible. Large parity breaking effects in living matter suggests which direction one should look for the answer to the question. One possible answer is based on the observation that for vacuum extremals classical electromagnetic and Z0 fields are proportional to each other and this means that the electromagnetic charges of dark fermions standard are replaced with effective couplings in which the contribution of classical Z0 force dominates. This modifies dramatically the model for the cell membrane as a Josephson junction and raises the scale of Josephson energies from IR range just above thermal threshold to visible and ultraviolet. The amazing finding is that the Josephson energies for biologically important ions correspond to the energies assigned to the peak frequencies in the biological activity spectrum of photoreceptors in retina suggesting. This suggests that almost vacuum extremals and thus also classical Z0 fields are in a central role in the understanding of the functioning of the cell membrane and of sensory qualia. This would also explain the large parity breaking effects in living matter.

A further conjecture is that EEG and its predicted fractally scaled variants which same energies in visible and UV range but different scales of Josephson frequencies correspond to Josephson photons with various values of Planck constant. The decay of dark ELF photons with energies of visible photons would give rise to bunches of ordinary ELF photons. Biophotons in turn could correspond to ordinary visible photons resulting in the phase transition of these photons to photons with ordinary value of Planck constant. This leads to a very detailed view about the role of dark electromagnetic radiation in biomatter and also to a model for how sensory qualia are realized. The general conclusion might be that most effects due to the dark weak force are associated with almost vacuum extremals.

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About the new physics behind quantum biology

This chapter was originally about the new physics behind qualia. The model of qualia indeed involves a lot of new physics: many-sheeted space-time; massless extremals; exotic Super Virasoro representations associated with discrete qualia; magnetic and cyclotron phase transitions associated with quantum critical quantum spin glass phases of exotic super conductors at cellular space-time sheets; classical color and electro-weak gauge fields in macroscopic length scales, to name the most important ingredients. Gradually the chapter however expanded so that it touches practically all new physics possibly relevant to TGD inspired quantum biology. Various physical mechanisms are discussed in exploratory spirit rather than restricting the consideration to those ideas which seem to be the final word about quantum biology or qualia just at this moment.

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